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close this bookEducational Handbook for Health Personnel (WHO, 1998, 392 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentObjectives of the Handbook
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentFor whom is this Educational Handbook intended?
View the documentHow to use the Handbook
View the documentIdentification of your needs as an educator
View the documentList of educational objectives
View the documentTheoretical background that will help you reach the educational objectives of the workshop
View the documentRecapitulative table of exercises proposed in the Handbook
close this folderChapter 1: Priority health problems and educational objectives
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe educational planning spiral
View the documentThe road to relevance
View the documentSystem?
View the documentThe actors involved in activities related to health care
View the documentImportance of defining professional tasks
View the documentSelection of training goals1
View the documentExample of services provided by rural health units1
View the documentTypes of educational objectives
View the documentGeneral objectives: professional functions
View the documentProfessional activities and intermediate objectives
View the documentBuilding in relevance
View the documentProfessional tasks and specific educational objectives
View the documentIdentifying the components of a task
View the documentDefinition of specific educational objectives in relation to a task
close this folderChapter 2: Evaluation planning
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhat is evaluation?
View the documentContinuous evaluation formative and certifying evaluation
View the documentAims of student evaluation1
View the documentCommon methodology for student evaluation1
View the documentComparison of advantages and disadvantages of different types of test
View the documentEvaluation in education qualities of a measuring instrument
View the documentEvaluation is a matter for teamwork
close this folderChapter 3: The teaching-learning concept and programme construction
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPlanning and conducting an educational programme
View the documentThe four c's of curriculum planning
View the documentThe purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning1
View the documentTeaching
View the documentTeaching: a complex but challenging task
View the documentTeaching techniques
View the documentWhy problem-based learning (PBL)?
View the documentThe action and concept tree
View the documentSelf-learning packages
View the documentThe concept of integrated teaching
View the documentThe concept of integrated learning
View the documentPlanning the changes required to bring about programme reform
View the documentFeasibility study for the construction of an educational programme1
View the documentSpecification tables
close this folderChapter 4: Test and measurement techniques
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhy evaluate?
View the documentGuidelines for evaluating a health personnel training programme - summary description
View the documentPoints to consider in assessing the extent to which programme changes foster closer relationships between schools for health personnel and the wider society
View the documentGuidelines for evaluating general and intermediate educational objectives
View the documentEvaluation of learning materials
View the documentEvaluation of human resources1
View the documentMonitoring the process of implementation of the programme1
View the documentEvaluation by students of programmes, teaching techniques and teachers1
close this folderEvaluation of students' level of performance
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAssessment of professional skills
View the documentAssessing attitudes by observational rating scale
View the documentLong and short written questions
View the documentThe programmed examination1
View the documentStages of assessment
View the documentTest construction specification table (for intellectual skills)
View the documentRelative and absolute criteria tests
View the documentSteps in item analysis (relative criteria tests)
View the documentChapter 5: How to organize an educational workshop
View the documentChapter 6: Index and glossary
View the documentChapter 7: Bibliography
View the documentBack Cover

Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of different types of test


Oral examinations



1. Provide direct personal contact with candidates.
2. Provide opportunity to take mitigating circumstances into account.
3. Provide flexibility in moving from candidate's strong points to weak areas.
4. Require the candidate to formulate his own replies without cues.
5. Provide opportunity to question the candidate about how he arrived at an answer.
6. Provide opportunity for simultaneous assessment by two examiners.

1. Lack standardization.
2. Lack objectivity and reproducibility of results.
3. Permit favouritism and possible abuse of the personal contact.
4. Suffer from undue influence of irrelevant factors.
5. Suffer from shortage of trained examiners to administer the examination.
6. Are excessively costly in terms of professional time in relation to the limited value of the information yielded.

Unfortunately all these advantages are rarely used in practice.

Practical examinations, projects



1. Provide opportunity to test in a realistic setting skills involving all the senses while the examiner observes and checks performance.
2. Provide opportunity to confront the candidate with problems he has not met before both in the laboratory and at the bedside, to test his investigative ability as opposed to his ability to apply ready-made “recipes”.
3. Provide opportunity to observe and test attitudes and responsiveness to a complex situation (videotape recording).
4. Provide opportunity to test the ability to communicate under pressure, to discriminate between important and trivial issues, to arrange the data in a final form.

1. Lack standardized conditions in laboratory experiments using animals, in surveys in the community or in bedside examinations with patients of varying degrees of cooperativeness1.
2. Lack objectivity and suffer from intrusion or irrelevant factors.
3. Are of limited feasibility for large groups.
4. Entail difficulties in arranging for examiners to observe candidates demonstrating the skills to be tested.

Essay examinations



1. Provide candidate with opportunity to demonstrate his knowledge and his ability to organize ideas and express them effectively.

1. Limit severely the area of the student's total work that can be sampled.
2. Lack objectivity.
3. Provide little useful feedback.
4. Take a long time to score.

Multiple-choice questions



1. Ensure objectivity, reliability and validity; preparation of questions with colleagues provides constructive criticism.
2. Increase significantly the range and variety of facts that can be sampled in a given time.
3. Provide precise and unambiguous measurement of the higher intellectual processes.
4. Provide detailed feedback for both student and teachers.
5. Are easy and rapid to score.

1. Take a long time to construct in order to avoid arbitrary and ambiguous questions.
2. Also require careful preparation to avoid preponderance of questions testing only recall.
3. Provide cues that do not exist in practice.
4. Are “costly” where number of students is small.

1 Standardized practical tests can be constructed; see McGuire, C.H. & Wezeman, F.H. Simulation in instruction and evaluation in medicine. In: Miller, G.E. & FT., eds., Educational strategies for the health professions. Geneva, WHO, 1974 (Public Health Papers No. 61).

It is a highly questionable practice to label someone as having achieved a goal when you don't even know what you would take as evidence of achievement.

R.F. Mager

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