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close this bookHealth Education Syllabus for Secondary Schools (UNICEF, 46 p.)
close this folderSENIOR FOUR
View the documentSECTION B - PRIMARY HEALTH CARE
View the documentSECTION D - WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION
View the documentSECTION G - MATERIALS AND CHILD HEALTH
View the documentSECTION I - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
View the documentSECTION J - NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES
View the documentSECTION K - MENTAL HEALTH
View the documentSECTION O - ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM
View the documentSECTION Q
View the documentSECTION S - BODY SYSTEMS

SECTION B - PRIMARY HEALTH CARE

5.0

Principles of PHC

The need for the participation of the individual, family and community in all health related activities.






The need for the involvement of the community in identifying the community health needs and the role of every individual in the PHC.






The need for planning and implementation of PHC.






Strategies and mechanisms of Primary Health Care.

SECTION C - OUR ENVIRONMENT

7.0

Effects of overpopulation

The concept of over population. Determinants of over population.




7.1

Shortage of food, water and oxygen.

Competition for these resources such as food, clean water and fresh air.




7.2

Diseases

Outbreaks and the easy spread of communicable diseases in the population.




7.3

Lack of shelter

Concept of good shelter. Factors affecting availability of shelter. Poor shelter and its effects. Slums and their effects on the community.




7.4

Accumulation of wastes.

Carbon dioxide saturation. Nitrogenous wastes e.g. urea. Their effects especially in poor disposal system of slums/shanty towns.




7.5

Psychological stress

Discomfort due to over-crowding, and other problems (e.g. lack of exercise, noise and theft). Conditional family planning and reduced family size. Lack of privacy.




7.6

Shortage of social services

Over-stretching of social services facilities e.g. hospitals, clinics, schools churches/mosques, transport/communication.




7.7

Degradation of Environment:

Loss of land productivity through forest destruction and desertification, soil hard pan formation etc. Depletion of Ozone layer.




8.0

Environment Management:

What it is.




8.1

Law on the environment:

Enforcement of legal protection of environmental quality and the consumer. Effective programme of conservation.






Maintenance of a stable ecosystem.




8.2

Environment exploitation versus conservation:

Exploitation versus conservation. Measures to avoid over exploitation of renewable and non-renewable resources e.g. forests and minerals respectively.






Strategies for environment conservation.




8.3

Why environment should be protected

Demonstration/Explanation of how survival depends on the balance of nature and man. Diversity of species and their importance in nature. Awareness of our environment as: individual asset, national asset and international asset.

SECTION D - WATER AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION

1.4

Urbanization and environmental sanitation.

Concept of.



Types and functions of urban settlements with special emphasis on industries, slums, Central Business District (CBD). High, medium and low density residential areas including the flats, and other housing estates.






House spacing, alignment and their effects on drainage.






Methods of disposal of refuse and waste (domestic and industrial) in urban areas and their effects on the environment.

SECTION E - FOOD AND NUTRITION

10.0

Food Additives

Concept of.



Need for food additives.



Advantages and disadvantages of.






Special foods for the following groups:




1.0

Food for special groups.

Pregnant women, nursing mothers, infants weaning, children and elderly or aged people. The sick and invalids, athletes, manual workers etc.




12.0

Planning of meals.

The process of planning meals. Diet composition. Balanced diets. Meal frequency, Food groups. Social aspects of food to include table manners. Refined foods.

SECTION G - MATERIALS AND CHILD HEALTH

4.2

Common causes of child deaths

The six killer diseases (mention them). Accidents, Poisoning, Diarrhoeal diseases, Malnutrition. Acute Respiratory infections (ARI). Malaria. Meningitis. Prevention of child deaths. Control of diarrhoeal diseases. Use of Oral Rehydration Salts (ORS) in the control of diarrhoeal diseases.




4.3

Prevention of child death.

Prevention, treatment and control of these conditions in children.

SECTION I - COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

2.1

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

Other STDs.



Gonorrhoea, syphilis, condyloma acuminata, chancroid, granuloma inguinale, AIDS, lymphogranuloma venerium, vaginitis and balanitis (trichomonal) and others.






Local names of the above diseases. Causes, signs and symptoms, effects/complications, treatment and prevention for each of the above.




2.2

AIDS

Concept of. Differentiation between HIV and AIDS.



Acronym and meaning of terms.



Non-symptomatic HIV carriers.






AIDS as a sexually transmitted disease and other modes of transmission.






Close association between AIDS and STDs.






Causes.



The role of social and economic factors in the spread of AIDS.



Signs and symptoms.



AIDS induced panic syndrome (AIPS).






The role of the individual, the family and the community in the prevention of AIDS.






Social and economic impact of AIDS on the community and nation.






The role of the family and the community in caring for (including counselling) the AIDS patients and their dependants.

SECTION J - NON-COMMUNICABLE DISEASES

2.0

Inherited abnormalities

What an inherited abnormality is. Inherited versus congenital abnormalities; autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, sex-linked, sex-limited traits, and polygenic inheritance. Features for each type of inheritance and diseases in the category. Inherited metabolic disorders.






Carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid metabolic disorders.




2.1

Causes, signs and symptoms.

Causes, signs and symptoms, for diseases in each group.




2.2

Prevention and treatment

Prevention, treatment and possible outcomes for each of the conditions.

SECTION K - MENTAL HEALTH

3.0

Neurotic Illnesses

Types of neurotic Illness. Anxiety. Phobia. Obsessional (Neuroses) compulsive neurosis. Hysteria and some types of depression. Causes of neuroses. Signs and symptoms of neurotic Illness. Effects neuroses have on the family and community.






Prevention, treatment and management of neurotic Illness.




4.0

Organic psychotic Illnesses (Organic)

Types of acute, sub-acute and chronic organic psychoses. Mental psychoses of disorders associated with head organic brain injury. Presenile and senile syndromes dementia. Epilepsy (various forms of). Causes of the various types of organic psychoses. Signs and symptoms of organic psychoses. Effect is of organic psychoses on the prevention, treatment and management of organic psychoses.




5.0

Personality disorders.

Concepts of normality and abnormality as applied to personality. Some types of personality disorders. Inadequate (dependent) compulsive, schizoid, anti-social (socio-pathic) and paranoid personalities.






Causes of personality disorders. Effects of personality disorders on the family and community. Prevention, treatment and management of personality disorders (see Section on “Growth and Development”.




6.0

Alcoholism and Drug Dependence.

See Section on “Alcohol and Alcoholism”: “Drug dependence and smoking”.






(Refer to Section on Alcohol and Alcoholism, Drug Dependence Section and Smoking Section.




7.0

Mental disorders associated with old age.

Concepts of normal ageing (senescence) and abnormal ageing (senility). Senile character changes. Senile dementia. Arteriosclerotic dementia. Functional neuroses and psychoses occurring in old age. Causes, signs and symptoms of senile mental disorders. Effects of senile mental disorders on the family and community. Prevention, treatment and management of senile mental disorders.






Role of the family and community in caring for the mentally disordered elderly people.




8.0

Sexual Disorders.

See sub-section on “Growth and Development” in Section F “Family Health and Social Problems, Senior 2). Psycho sexual development. Normal sexual behaviour. Disorders of sexual function. Importance. Sexual perversions. Homosexuality; transvestism and transexuality; Exhibitionism, voyeurism; fetishism, bestiality, sadism and masochism.






Causes of sexual disorders.



Effects of sexual disorders on the individual, family and community






Prevention, treatment, and management of sexual disorders.




9.0

Mental Retardation

Definition of mental retardation. Grades of mental retardation: severe, moderate and mild. Characteristics of severely, moderately and mildly subnormal patients. Causes and types of mental retardation: mongolism (Down’s syndrome): phenykelonuria; cretinism, hydrocephalus; microcephaly; congenital syphilis; German measles (Rubella); kernicterus; foetal alcohol syndrome; and post-natal infections. Brain injury and severe malnutrition in infancy and early childhood. Effects of mental retardation on the individual, on family and community. Prevention, treatment and management of mental retardation.




10.0

Mental disorders in childhood and adolescence

See sub-section on “Growth and Development”, Section F. Family Health and Social Problems. Types of mental disorders found in children and adolescents: reactive behaviour disorders and conduct disorders; neurotic disorders; habit disorders or developmental disorders e.g. nocturnal enuresis (bed-wetting), encopresis (soiling) habit spasms; stammering; nail-biting and thum-sucking. Organic brain disorders. Psychotic disorders. Epilepsy. Hyperkinetic syndrome. Foetal alcohol effects. “Brain-fag syndrome”.




10.1

Causes

Causes of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence. Signs and symptoms of these disorders.




10.2

Effects.

Effects of these disorders on the family and on the community.




10.3

Prevention and treatment.

Prevention, treatment and management of mental disorders in childhood and adolescence.




11.0

Mental disorders associated with AIDS.

Denial: Concept of denial as applied to patients with AIDS.






Anti-social behaviour in patients with AIDS. Neurotic and psychotic disorders in patients with AIDS. Effects of those disorders on the individual, family and community. Prevention, treatment and management of mental disorders in patients with AIDS (see section I on “communicable diseases - sexually transmitted diseases)”.




12.0

Homicide, Suicide attempted suicide

Definition of homicide, suicide and attempted suicide (para-suicide). Factors associated with suicide and those associated with para-suicide. Suicide rates in different cultures or populations. Types of suicide and those of para-suicide. Suicide and the law. Suicide and homicide (to include definition of homicide). Suicidal pact. Management of the suicidal patients. Prevention of suicide and para-suicide.




13.0

Legal and social aspects of mental disorders.

The current Mental Treatment Act in Uganda and its deficiencies. Need for change. The role of the family and the community in the censation, prevention, treatment and management of mental disorders.

SECTION O - ALCOHOL AND ALCOHOLISM

3.0

Alcohol and the law

The law governing alcohol consumption.




3.1

Liquor Law

Liquor laws and other laws pertaining to alcohol. Importance to the community. Difficulty in enforcing it.




3.2

Other laws pertaining to alcohol.

License, taxation, hours of opening and closing pubs. Drinking age. Drinking and driving. Accidents and drinking.




3.3

Shortcomings of the law.

Merits and demerits of the laws. Suggested addition or substration so as to update the laws.

SECTION Q

7.0

Drug trafficking.

Definition of drug trafficking. Dangers of drug trafficking. Violence associated with drug trafficking. Prevention of drug trafficking.




8.0

Drug dependence and the law.

Drug dependence legislation in Uganda. Usefulness of laws in drug dependence. How the laws can be made adequate to deal with the problems of drug dependence. How the enforcement of these laws can be improved. The role of the individual, the family and the community in helping the police to enforce the laws on drug dependence.




9.0

International cooperation in the prevention and control of Drug dependence.

Need for cooperation between and among nations. The role of Interpol in the prevention of drug trafficking. The role of the UN Social Council, WHO and ICAA (The international Council on Alcohol and Addictions) in the prevention and control of Drug dependence.

SECTION S - BODY SYSTEMS

8.0

Endocrine system

What it is.




8.1

Endocrine glands

Types, position and respective secretions. Functions of: Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, Andrenal, glands; pancreas, thymus, duodenum, ovary and testes.




8.2

Hormones

Definition and distinction from enzymes. Functions of various hormones.






Functions: production of ova, development of fertilised eggs, its nutrition, respiration and excretion. Production of female sex hormones. (Ref. to section on Family Health and Social Problems).




3.3

Health Aspects

Care of the endocrine system. Goitre, hyperthyroidism, dwarfism, gigantism, cretinism, and others.






Care of reproductive systems. STD, importance, infertility and frigidity. (Refer to section on communicable diseases). Prevention and treatment of the above.




7.0

Nervous System:

What it is.




7.1

Structure and function of the nervous system.

The nerve cell (neurone) structure and types. The Central Nervous System (CNS) and other parts. Voluntary, and reflex actions. Conditioned reflexes.






The eye, ear, skin nose and tongue.

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