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close this bookSchool Health Education to Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) : Students' Activities (UNESCO - WHO, 1994, 79 p.)
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Open this folder and view contentsUnit 1: Basic Knowledge on HIV/AIDS/STD
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Open this folder and view contentsUnit 3: Responsible Behaviour: Protected Sex
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A resource package for curriculum planners

Students’ Activities

World Health Organization
and
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

1994

© World Health Organization 1994

This document is not a formal publication of the World Health Organization (WHO), and all rights are reserved by the Organization. The document may, however, be freely reviewed, abstracted, reproduced or translated, in part or in whole, but not for sale or for use in conjunction with commercial purposes.

The views expressed in documents by named authors are solely the responsibility of those authors.

Acknowledgments

The World Health Organization and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization gratefully acknowledge the valuable contributions of:

· Alan Robertson:

Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada (text)

· Claudius Ceccon:

CECIP - Popular Image Creation Center, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (art direction and illustrations)

· UNICEF Zimbabwe:

For permission to reproduce sections of the publication Methods in AIDS Education, Ministry of Education and Culture of Zimbabwe and UNICEF, Harare, 1993

as well as the contribution of the numerous professionals who reviewed the drafts:

· M. Palmaan, N. Ford, N. Nturibi, A. Mehryar

· B. Dick, R. Foul-Doyle, C. Wang (UNICEF)

· At the India workshop:

A.B. Dandekar, Sudha V. Rao, P.K. Durani, D.K. Mukhopadhyay, D.G. Krishna, V. Reghu, J. Kaur, G.C. Singh, R.S. Lal, B.P. Sinha, L. Ibungohal Singh, S. Sapru, Usha Pillai, Anu Gupta, D.S. Muley, D. Lahiri, J. Mitra, Dinesh Sharma, S.B. Yadav, K.K. Sadhu, J.L. Pandey, S.A. Gopal

· At the Namibia workshop:

M. Shaketange, B. Saunders, M. Plaatjes, E.O Meara, J. Kloppers, J. Boois, P. Hailonga, M.B. Mhopjeni, E. Kiangi, M. Maree, P. Verhoef, C. Oliver, C. Mwaala, V. Orinda (UNICEF), J. Viteli, B. Valashiya

· At the Barbados workshop:

Y. Balgobin, H. Bend, J. Crichlow, G. Cumberbatch, M. Deane, G. Drakes, D. Gill, I. Denny, H. Gittens, M. Grant, A. Griffith, Y. Holder, E. Best, R. Marville, G. McBean (UNICEF), S. Millington, T. Payn, F. Browne, V. Roach, S. Clarke.

The following publications have served as primary sources for this package:

School Health Education to Prevent AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases, WHO/UNESCO, WHO AIDS Series No. 10, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1992.

Comprehensive School Health Education - Suggested Guidelines for Action, UNESCO/WHO/UNICEF, World Health Organization, Geneva, 1992.

The graphic work for this Resource Package was done by CECIP, an NGO dedicated to the creation of educational materials. We gratefully acknowledge the advice of Dr. Evelyn Eisenstein, pediatrician, member of the International Association of Adolescent Health and coordinator of CECIP’s Health Working Group, and of Dr. Bernardo Galvde Castro, coordinator of the Institutional AIDS Program of the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation in Salvador, Bahia and a member of CECIP’s Association. Desktop publishing by Cristiana Lacerda.

CECIP
Largo de SFrancisco de Paula, 34/4° andar
CEP 20051-070 Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brasil
Fax: (55 21) 224 4565 e 224 3812

This document is part of a package that includes:

· Handbook for Curriculum Planners
· Students’ Activities

· Teachers’ Guide

HIV/AIDS/STD - Basic questions and answers

Why?

Everyone should know basic facts about HIV/AIDS/STD (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Sexually Transmitted Disease(s)).

How?

Your teacher will give you instructions on how to do this activity.


Figure

Looking into AIDS

Why?

You have learned something about HIV/AIDS/STD in the first part of this lesson. This is a test to find out how much you know.

How?

1. Answer true or false to each of the statements below by placing a circle around T or F.

2. When your teacher has given your class the correct answers, place a (1) in the box to the left of each statement if you got the answer correct and a (0) if you got it wrong.

3. Add up your score and place it in the box at the end of the test.

4. Then look up your score in “What does your score mean” and read your rating.

What do you know about AIDS?

A short fun test about HIV/AIDS/STD


Figure

1

F

T

HIV is caused by AIDS.

2

F

T

AIDS damages the body’s defence system.

3

F

T

There is no cure for AIDS.

4

F

T

People with AIDS often die from serious diseases.

5

F

T

STD means Standard Time in Daylight.

6

F

T

A person can have HIV or an STD and have no symptoms (not know it).

7

F

T

There is no way you can protect yourself from AIDS and STD.

8

F

T

An example of an STD is gonorrhoea.

9

F

T

It is difficult for women to get AIDS.

10

F

T

If you are strong and healthy you can’t get HIV/AIDS/STD.


Total

What does your score mean

10

Genius! Expert! You can teach the class!

8-9

Good! You are on the way to being an AIDS expert!

5-7

Well done, but you may want to look at the information again!

3-4

Review the information. You don’t want to catch AIDS or STD!

1-2

Lucky for you that this is just a test! You’ll do better next time!

HIV, AIDS, STD - What do they mean?

Why?

This activity will help you understand the meaning of certain words, like STD, AIDS and HIV. Knowing these words will help you understand how you can protect yourself from HIV/STD.

How?

1. Read the story A.

2. From box B pick what you think are the right words for STD, AIDS, HIV and gonorrhoea, and match the correct definition with each box in C.

3. Your teacher will tell you more about each of these words.

4. Finish the sentences in “Teacher asks”.

Story A


Figure

Maria wanted to know what all these words meant and how serious they were. Can you help her?

B

C

A virus that weakens the defence system, allowing other diseases to enter the body.

Illnesses that occur when the body’s defence system is weakened.

AIDS:

HIV:

A type of STD that may damage reproductive organs.

Diseases that are spread by sexual contact.

STD:

Gonorrhoea:

Teacher asks

Finish the sentences with your own thoughts and/or feelings.

a) When I think of AIDS I feel: ______________________________
b) HIV/AIDS is serious because: ____________________________
c) STD are serious because: ________________________________
d) People become infected with HIV because: __________________

Place in the Dear teacher question box.

One question that I would like to ask about HIV, AIDS or STD is:
_________________________________________________________

How a person gets HIV*

*(the virus that causes AIDS)

Why?

It is most important to know how HIV is spread. This information can help you protect yourself.

How?

1. With your teacher read the three methods of transmission of HIV.
2. Ask any questions you might have about how HIV is spread.

Sexual intercourse

· Most people get HIV by having unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected person.
· Unprotected sexual intercourse means having vaginal or anal sex without a condom.
· HIV may also be transmitted through oral sex.

Infected blood

1. One can get HIV through a blood transfusion with infected blood.
2. One can get HIV by using instruments used on someone with HIV for ear-piercing, tattoos or circumcision, which have not been properly cleaned.
3. One can get HIV by using needles or syringes used by someone else for injections, which have not been properly cleaned.

Infected mother to her unborn or newborn child

· Babies born to mothers with HIV may become infected in the womb before birth, during birth, and sometimes through breast milk.

It is not easy to get AIDS. Unlike many common diseases, HIV cannot get to us through air, food or water. The virus cannot live outside our body for long. We can only catch HIV if the body fluids of an infected person enter our body. The body fluids with a high concentration of HIV are: blood, semen and vaginal secretions.

You can’t get AIDS by...

Why?

By knowing how HIV is not spread you can reduce your fear of AIDS. You will also be better able to provide care and comfort, without fear, to someone living with AIDS.

How?

For each picture, write down what the people are doing. You will learn that HIV is not spread through any of these activities.


Figure

HIV does not spread through everyday contact with people who are infected with HIV. So we don’t need to worry about things we do daily!

What do you believe?

A true-false test on HIV/AIDS/STD

1


2



The AIDS virus, HIV, can be spread by shaking hands.

The AIDS virus, HIV, can be passed on to another person during sex.

3


4


5


Pregnant women can pass the AIDS virus on to their unborn child.

A person can get HIV by donating blood.

It is possible to get HIV from a toilet seat.

6


7


8


HIV is spread by kissing.

The AIDS virus, HIV, is carried in the blood.

Drug users can pass on HIV to other drug users if they share needles.

9


10


11


Only men can become infected by the AIDS virus, HIV.

You should avoid touching a person with AIDS.

It is risky to use the same water fountain as a person who has AIDS.

12


13


14


If you are strong and healthy you can’t get HIV.

You can tell by looking at someone whether that person has the AIDS virus.

You are safe from HIV if you cut your skin with a knife used by someone else who cut themselves.

15


16


17


You are safe from HIV if you use the same condom more than once.

The risk of getting HIV/STD increases if you have many sexual partners.

It is OK to share bedclothes and dishes with someone who has HIV/AIDS.

18


19


20


It is OK to share razors with someone who has AIDS.

Young people are not at risk from HIV, the AIDS virus.

During menstruation the risk of getting HIV through unprotected sex is higher.

What would you do?

Why?

You now know how the AIDS virus, HIV, is spread and how it is not spread. It is also important to know whether certain situations/activities pose high, low or no risk.

How?

1. Read each story by yourself or with your teacher.

2. Answer the questions after each story.

3. Place an “X” on the line to show the risk of getting HIV for Natombie (story 1), you (story 2) and Maria (story 3).


Figure

What is your risk?

Why?

Since there is no vaccine or cure for HIV/AIDS, it is important for you to know how you can get HIV. This will help you to know which things are risky and should be avoided, and which things are not.

How?

1. Read the section called “Risk levels”

2. In each of the boxes beside the activities put:

NR = No Risk or LR = Low Risk or HR = High Risk

Risk Levels
NR No risk of getting HIV/AIDS-there is no exchange of blood, male semen or female vaginal secretions
LR Low risk of getting HIV/AIDS - there is a slight possibility of exchange of blood, semen or vaginal secretions
HR High risk of getting HIV/AIDS - there is a strong possibility of exchange of blood, male semen or female vaginal secretions

5

Kissing (dry kissing)

11

Going to school with an HIV-infected person


6

Having sex using the same condom more than once

12

Cutting the skin with a knife used by others

1

Using toilets in a public washroom.

7

Sharing needles for injection drug use

13

Being bitten by a mosquito

2

Touching or comforting someone living with AIDS

8

Swimming with an HIV-infected person

14

Giving blood

3

Having sex without a condom

9

Sharing needles for ear-piercing or tattooing

15

Having sex using a condom properly

4

Having oral sex (without semen in the mouth)

10

Abstaining from sexual intercourse

16

Eating food prepared by an HIV-infected person

What is your risk?

To avoid HIV/STD it is very important for you to find out your own personal risk. To do this, look at the risky activities above and consider if you have done any of them in the past. Think about where you would put an “X” on the line below to show what risk you have of getting HIV/AIDS/STD.


Figure

Do you think your risk of getting HIV will change as you get older? If yes, why and how?

(part 1)

Why?

Since there is no vaccine or cure for HIV/AIDS it is important for you to know how you can get HIV. This will help you to know which things are risky and should be avoided and which are not

How?

1. With your teacher, read and discuss “HIV can be spread by:”. You should be very familiar with the methods of transmission indicated below;

2. Then go over the “Risk levels” with your teacher. Each small group will be given 6 behaviours/actions to rate as: No Risk, Low Risk, High Risk, No Agreement;

3. With the others in your group, come to an agreement on how to rate each of the behaviours/actions (you may have to take a vote to decide this). For example, your group may decide that shaking hands with someone who has HIV is no risk. Put NR beside that behaviour/action.

HIV can be spread by:


Figure

Risk levels

HR

High risk

LR

Low risk

There is a strong possibility of exchange of blood, male semen or female vaginal secretions, e.g. sexual intercourse.

There is a slight possibility of exchange of blood, male semen or female vaginal secretions e.g. sex with a condom.

NR

No risk

?

No agreement

There is no exchange of blood, male semen or female vaginal secretions.

Your group cannot reach agreement.

Notes

STD are spread mainly by unprotected sexual intercourse and unprotected oral-genital contact. HIV can also be transmitted through a blood transfusion with infected blood.

Group 1

1. Body to body rubbing with clothes on.

4. Back rub - massage.


2. Sharing a razor to shave legs or face.

5. Riding on a bus with an HIV-infected person.


3. Having sex with a condom - condom breaks.

6. Cutting the skin with a knife used by others.

Group 2

1. Using toilets in a public washroom.

4. Dry kissing.


2. Sharing needles for injection drug use.

5. Having vaginal sex without a condom.


3. Being bitten by a mosquito.

6. Cleaning up spilled HIV-infected blood without wearing gloves.

Group 3

1. Having anal sex without a condom.

4. Shaking hands with an HIV-infected person.


2. Abstaining from sexual intercourse.

5. Having oral sex (without semen in the mouth).


3. Sharing needles for ear-piercing.

6. Swimming with an HIV-infected person.

Group 4

1. Sharing needles for tattooing.

4. Eating food prepared by an HIV-infected person.


2. Sharing clothes with someone who has HIV.

5. Having sex with a number of partners - no condom.


3. Donating blood.

6. Going to school with an HIV-infected person.

Group 5

1. Using public drinking fountains.

4. Playing sports with an HIV-infected person.


2. Giving mouth-to-mouth resuscitation if there are no sores in the mouth.

5. Sharing a needle cleaned with water.


3. Having unprotected sex with an STD-infected person.

6. Being close to an HIV-infected person who coughs or sneezes.

Group 6

1. Being bitten by an HIV-infected person.

4. Sharing a towel with an HIV-infected person.


2. Wet (deep) kissing.

5. Touching or comforting someone living with AIDS.


3. Having sex using a condom properly.

6. Having sex using the same condom more than once.

Teacher asks

Some young people become very afraid of HIV/AIDS.

a) Why do you think they are so afraid?
b) What could be done to prevent this fear of HIV/AIDS?

(part 2)

Why?

Often young people will take more than one risk, which means there is a greater chance of them getting HIV/STD. For example, they may inject drugs with unsterilized needles and have sex without using a condom.

How?

1. Read what persons A, B, C, D do in the descriptions below.

2. For each person, list any behaviours that would put them at risk for HIV/AIDS.

3. Finally, rate the four people according to the risks they are taking by putting the person with the safest behaviour in box 1 and the person with the least safe behaviour in box 4.


Figure

Teacher asks

What would the person in box 4 have to do to reduce his/her chance of getting HIV/AIDS/STD?

(part 3)

Why?

To avoid HIV/STD, it is very important for you to determine your own personal risk. To do this you need to know the number of risks you take and the risk level of each of those risk behaviours.

How?

1. On your own, estimate your personal risk of HIV/STD infection at this time in your life. Think about where you would put your “X” on the line below. Your answer is private. Do not write your answer on the line.

2. Where do you think your “X” will be 5 years from now?


On your own, estimate your personal risk of HIV/STD infection at this time in your life.


Where do you think your “X” will be 5 years from now?

Teacher asks

At what other times in your life would it be important to think about your personal risk of getting HIV/STD?

Protect yourself against AIDS

Why?

We can protect ourselves from STD/HIV and AIDS. We can only do this by making safer choices in how we act. Only this will reduce the risk of coming in contact with the HIV virus.

How?

For each of the three ways of spreading HIV, write safer choices that would protect you from getting HIV.

1. Sexual intercourse

Safer choices:
1. ___________________________
2. ___________________________
3. ___________________________
_____________________________

2. Unsterilized shared needles and syringes

Safer choices:
1. ___________________________
2. ___________________________
3. ___________________________
_____________________________

3. Blood contact

Safer choices:
1. ___________________________
2. ___________________________
3. ___________________________
_____________________________

Dear Doctor Sue

Why?

It is important for you to learn how to protect yourself from HIV.

Doctors and other health workers are a good source of information about protection from HIV/STD.

How?

1. Pretend you are a doctor and must answer each of the letters below.

2. Use the information from the “Doctor’s bag” to help you answer the letters.


Figure

Dear Dr. Sue, I am 14 years old and I have a problem and I don’t know who else to turn to. I have been going with a boy for 6 months. Now he tells me we are ready for sex. I told him that I wasn’t but now he says I don’t love him. He said he will find another girl if we don’t have sex. I do love him and I don’t want to lose him. He says everyone’s doing it.

Dear Norah,
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

I’m confused, Norah

Dr. Sue

Dear Dr. Sue, lam writing to you because I’m worried about my brother. Abrine has left home and is sleeping in the streets with other kids. He doesn’t get much sleep or food and he smokes when he can get cigarettes. He and three friends cut their hands with a knife and touched blood to show they were brothers. He thinks he might have an STD and might need treatment.

Dear John,
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

Worried, John

Dr. Sue

Dear Dr. Sue, I hope you can help me. I am a girl 16 years old who has had sex with three different boys and I didn’t use any protection. Today we learned at school about AIDS/STD and pregnancy. I think I might be pregnant and now I am very worried about having AIDS or an STD. What can I do?

Dear Allana,
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________
______________________________________

Desperate, Allana

Dr. Sue

Which is safer?

Why?

It is important for you to know ways that you can protect yourself from HIV/STD. It is also necessary to know that some ways of protecting yourself are better than others.

How?

1. Read and discuss with your teacher possible ways to protect yourself in “Protection against HIV/STD”.

2. Then, in the “Method” column of the table below, write the method that is most safe at the top. Then put the second most safe, etc., down to the least safe method.

3. In the “Problem” column, list any problems with the method that might cause a person to get HIV.

Protection against HIV/STD

Reduce the number of sexual partners

Know the other person’s sexual history

Show affection without having sexual intercourse (petting, kissing, touching)

Have only one sexual partner

Abstain from sexual intercourse

Use a condom every time you have sex

Get tested for HIV

SAFEST

Method

Problem(s)















LEAST SAFE

What happens with HIV infection?

This diagram shows the different stages of HIV/AIDS (the timing of stages may vary from individual to individual).


Figure


How the person looks


How the person feels

How do you know if you have HIV/AIDS?

Why?

It is important to know that a person who is infected with HIV:

· May have no signs or symptoms.
· May not have any serious illness for a long time.
· Can infect others during this time.
· Gradually gets sicker and sicker and eventually dies.

How?

Read each of the three stories below. Then use the chart on the previous page, “What happens with HIV infection”, to help you answer the questions under each story.

Story A


Figure

1. How did Roberto become infected? ____________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. How did Carmencita become infected? _________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3. Why does Carmencita have no symptoms? ______________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
4. How long might it be before she gets AIDS? _____________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
5. What should Carmencita do now? _____________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Story B


Figure

1. How did Jose become infected? ______________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. Why does he have these symptoms? __________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3. Can he spread HIV to others? How? ___________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
4. What is likely to happen next? ________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Story C


Figure

1. Why would you suspect that Georginia has AIDS? ________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
2. What should she do to find out if she is infected with HIV? __________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
3. At about what age was it possible that Georginia got the HIV infection? ________________
___________________________________________________________________________
4. If she was infected at that age, how long has she been infectious (able to spread HIV)?
___________________________________________________________________________
5. What symptoms does Georginia have?__________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
6. What is likely to happen next? ________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

Testing for HIV

Why?

Some young people may need to know about testing for HIV/AIDS.

How?

Your teacher will help you understand the information below and answer any questions you may wish to ask.

Marie is anxious that she may have HIV from having sex with three partners. She thinks one of her partners might have HIV. She finally got up enough nerve to go to the health centre in her community. She tells the doctor about her situation and asks these questions.

Dr. Matago has worked with people living with AIDS for 7 years. He helps with testing and talks to people who have been tested. He answers Marie’s questions in a kind, understanding way.


Figure

Test: What you know...about testing

Why?

It’s important to remember information about HIV/AIDS and STD. This activity will help you review the information on testing for HIV.

How?

Read the statements in column “A” and try to find the words from column “B” to match the statement


Figure

AIDS help - Who? Where?

Friends, teacher or counsellor, family, religious leader, medical centre, STD or health clinic, AIDS hot line

Why?

Each of us at times may need to talk to someone about important things in our lives.

How?

For each of the situations below, write who you would go to for support and where you would find that help in your community.

1. You have a close friend who is afraid that he/she might have the AIDS virus, HIV.

2. After learning about HIV/AIDS in school, you are afraid that you might be infected.

Help from:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

Help from:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

Where or how?
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

Where or how?
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

3. You are not feeling well. You have been feeling tired, have swollen glands and sweat a lot at night.

4. Your mother has AIDS, lives alone with you and desperately needs help.

Help from:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

Help from:
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

Where or how?
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

Where or how?
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________

You be the doctor

Why?

HIV can also be spread through needles used for injecting drugs. It is important to know how to protect yourself from getting HIV in this way.

How?

For each of the situations below provide the person with advice from the “Doctor’s bag”. Use different advice for each case.


Doctor’s bag

1 Aloha is 16 and was invited to a marriage celebration. There was free alcohol. She had never had much alcohol before but it was hot so she had four or five drinks. She met a young man at the party and he seduced her into having sex. Afterwards, she felt guilty and ashamed that she had been used.

2 Jahoa is 17 and lives in the streets since he ran away from home. He has been using injecting drugs (cocaine) for a short time but has never shared needles with others. Today, however, he needs the drugs, but does not have any needles. The health centre is close by and he wonders if they can help him.

a) Advice_____________________________
_____________________________________
b) Why?______________________________
_____________________________________

a) Advice_____________________________
_____________________________________
b) Why?______________________________
_____________________________________

3 John joins a group of schoolmates in a back street. They are drinking alcohol and “shooting up” with injecting drugs. The needle comes to John and they are pressuring him to use it. He has never used injecting drugs and has heard that shared needles have small amounts of blood left in the needle. He has heard that the blood could contain HIV that could be spread.

4 Jillana has been using injecting needles for three years now and can’t stop (she is addicted). She has some drugs but no needle. A friend lends her a needle but she hesitates because she has heard about dirty needles and AIDS.

a) Advice_____________________________
_____________________________________
b) Why?______________________________
_____________________________________

a) Advice_____________________________
_____________________________________
b) Why?______________________________
_____________________________________

Are you a responsible person?

Why?

This short test will help you decide if you are a responsible person. Only responsible people can stop HIV and STD.

How?

1. Put a cross in box Yes if you agree, box? if you are uncertain and box No if you disagree.

2. The teacher will discuss the answers with you afterwards so that you can work out your “responsibility score”.

Yes
Agree

?
Uncertain

No
Disagree

Statements

1. I keep myself healthy (e.g. do not use drugs)

2. I know how HIV/STD are spread and how to protect myself

3. I would not have sex at this time in my life

4. I would never share needles for drug use

5. When I decide to have sex, I will use a condom

6. When I have sex, I will only have one partner

7. I would tell my partners if I had HIV or STD

8. I would not use unsterilized instruments to pierce my ears, tattoo or shave, etc.

9. I would think hard before having a baby if I or my partner had HIV

10. If I thought I had HIV, I would go to a health centre to ask about tests

11. If a schoolmate or neighbour had HIV or AIDS, I would be a friend to him/her

12. I would get help if I thought I had HIV/STD

+ +

= Total score

Responsibility score

33 - 36 points

Very responsible

30 - 33 points

Responsible

27 - 29 points

Somewhat responsible

24 - 26 points

Not very responsible

24 - 0 points

You are taking risks! Maybe you should think again.

Reasons to say NO

Delaying sexual intercourse until: more responsible · older · in a sure relationship with one person · married

Why?

There are many good reasons for delaying sex until you are older. These are listed in the pictures below.

How?

Pick 4 reasons young people usually have for abstaining from or delaying sexual intercourse, and place a () in these boxes.


Figure

(a)

Why?

Decisions about sex are often made in a hurry and sometimes under the influence of alcohol. Decisions about sex should be well thought out. A decision made when calm and not pressured is more likely to result in behaviours that avoid pregnancy and/or HIV/STD.

How?

1. Read the story of Stoli and Yarmella. From the list of reasons in part 1 (next page) for saying “yes” to sex, check those that might be used by Stoli and Yarmella and then evaluate each reason as poor (0) or good (1). Discuss your choice with the rest of the class.

2. From the list of reasons for saying “no” in part 2 (next page), choose three that might be important for Stoli and three for Yarmella. Mark (Y) for Yarmela’s reasons to say “no” and (S) for Stoli’s.

3. Answer the questions at the end of the activity.

A story of Stoli and Yarmella


Figure

Yes or no?

(b)

(0 = poor reason; 1 = good reason)

1. Reasons for saying YES

1. To prove their love to each other

2. Fear that the relationship will break up

3. Curiosity about sex

4. Belief that everyone is having sex

5. Because it “feels right”

6. To be more popular

7. Because they are not afraid of becoming pregnant or getting an STD

8. Because both are comfortable with the decision

9. Money or presents

10. Fear of being “beaten up”

11. Because the partner convinces them that there will be no problems

(Mark Y for Yarmela’s reasons and S for Stoli’s).

2. Reasons for saying NO

1. Fear of pregnancy

2. Fear of an STD (like HIV)

3. Family expectations (not to have sex)

4. Fear of cancer (of the cervix)

5. Friendship (to allow to grow)

6. There are other forms of affection

7. Religious values (don’t approve of sex)

8. Not ready (perhaps too young)

9. Not with the right person

10. Wait until marriage

Teacher asks

1. How many of your reasons in part 1 were good (1)? How many were poor (0)? How did the rest of the class feel about the reasons for saying “yes”?

2. Did the reasons for Stoli and Yarmella differ in part 2? If yes, why?

3. In part 2 what do you think the one most important reason to delay sex would be for Stoli and for Yarmella?

4. What would be two reasons for returning to abstinence if you were already having sex?

“Lines” and more “lines”

Why?

For every reason to say “no”, someone has found a way to persuade you to say “yes”. In this activity you learn various ways of replying to these “lines”.

How?

1. Read each of the lines to persuade you to say “yes”.

2. Using the “Possible responses to Lines and more lines”, select the best reply and write the letter in the answer “bubble”.


Figure

Possible responses to “Lines and more lines”

A. Once is all it takes.
B. This isn’t a joke. I don’t want to get pregnant or get an STD.
C. Maybe we’re not ready for sex.
D. I really don’t want sex just now.
E. Look, I’m not having sex until I’m older.
F. Maybe we could just hug and kiss.
G. I know that everyone is not having sex.
H. I have no idea, but I’m not taking the risk.
I. I don’t feel good when pressured, so I’m leaving.
J. No, but I’ll know about it.
K. I feel OK about myself without sex.
L. I do too, but I’d like to wait.
M. I don’t need a drink, I just don’t want sex.
N. I trust me, and me doesn’t want sex.

Guidelines: Help to delay sex

Why?

Sometimes it is difficult to say “no” to sex or to delay sex. The guidelines below may help you with these decisions.

How?

Write in the boxes (E) for those things you would find easy to do, and (D) for those things you would find difficult to do.


Figure

1. Go to parties and other events with friends.

2. Decide how far you want to “go” (your sexual limits) before being in a pressure situation.

3. Decide your alcohol/drug limits before being in a pressure situation.

4. Avoid falling for romantic words and arguments.

5. Be clear about your limits - don’t give mixed messages, e.g. by acting sexy when you do not want sex.

6. Pay attention to your feelings; when a situation becomes uncomfortable, leave.

7. Get involved in activities (e.g. sports, clubs, hobbies).

8. Avoid “hanging out” with people who might pressure you to have sex.

9. Be honest from the beginning, by saying you do not want to have sex.

10. Avoid going out with people you cannot trust.

11. Avoid secluded places where you could not get help.

12. Do not accept rides from those you do not know or cannot trust.

13. Do not accept presents and money from people whom you don’t know very well.

14. Avoid going to someone’s room when there is no one else there.

15. Explore ways of showing affection other than sexual intercourse.

What to do?

Why?

Delaying sexual intercourse is not always easy. But there are things that a person can do which will help delay sex.

How?

1. Read the situations below. From the list under “Help for delaying sex,” select three actions that would help each person to delay sex. Write your selections in the spaces provided below each situation.

Help for delaying sex

1. Go to parties and other events with friends.

2. Decide how far you want to “go” (your sexual limits) before being in a pressure situation.

3. Decide your alcohol/drug limits before being in a pressure situation.

4. Avoid falling for romantic words and arguments.

5. Be clear about your limits - don’t give mixed messages, e.g. by acting sexy when you do not want sex.

6. Pay attention to your feelings; when a situation becomes uncomfortable, leave.

7. Get involved in activities (e.g. sports, clubs, hobbies).

8. Avoid “hanging out” with people who might pressure you to have sex.

9. Be honest from the beginning, by saying you do not want to have sex.

10. Avoid going out with people you cannot trust.

11. Avoid secluded places where you could not get help.

12. Do not accept rides from those you do not know or cannot trust.

13. Do not accept presents and money from people whom you don’t know very well.

14. Avoid going to someone’s room when there is no one else there.

15. Explore other ways of showing affection than sexual intercourse.

Situation 1


Figure

Help for Jeline

1. _________________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________________

Situation 2


Figure

Help for Romain

1. _________________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________________

Situation 3


Figure

Help for Nadino

1. _________________________________________________________________________
2. _________________________________________________________________________
3. _________________________________________________________________________

Affection without sex?

Why?

There are a number of ways of showing affection without having sex. These ways avoid the risk of HIV/STD and un-planned pregnancy.

How?

Students from other schools have come up with a list of ways of showing affection without having sexual intercourse (see the first heart). In pairs or in a small group discuss other ways of showing affection without having sexual intercourse, and write them in the empty lines of the second heart.

Human beings - babies, small children, young people and adults - all need the comfort of touch; it feels good to be touched by someone we like.

· Giving a flower
· Kissing
· Touching
· Caressing
· Holding hands
· Writing a note or letter
· Saying “I like you”
· Hugging

When we are close to someone and attracted to them, we like to show our affection by touching them.

1. _____________________
2. _____________________
3. _____________________
4. _____________________
5. _____________________
6. _____________________
7. _____________________
8. _____________________
9. _____________________
10. ____________________

What’s next?

Why?

Physical affection can be very sexually arousing. The more sexually arousing the activity is, the more likely it will eventually lead to sexual intercourse. If you want to delay sex, it is important for you and your partner to know your limits... Where should you stop before it leads to sex?

How?

1. Place each of the sexual behaviours from the list of “Physical affection activities” in the appropriate level, from the one that is least physical (1) to the one that is most physical next to sexual intercourse (7).

2. Then answer the questions in “Teacher asks”.

Physical affection activities:

Hugging · Touching breasts and/or genitals on top of clothes · Dry kissing · Holding hands · Touching breasts and/or genitals under clothes · Deep (wet) kissing · Body rubbing with no clothes


Figure

Teacher asks

1. Why is it hard to stop as you get closer physically?
2. Would it be easy to go back to a safer activity? Why or why not?
3. Where do you think the limit is?
4. Who should decide where the limit is? When should this limit be decided?

Am I assertive?

Why?

You are assertive when you stand up for your personal rights without putting down the rights of others. If you can do this you will be able to: 1) Say “no” without feeling guilty; 2) Disagree without becoming angry; 3) Ask for help when you need it. As a result you will feel better about yourself and have more honest friends and relationships.

How?

Your teacher will help you to understand these three types of behaviour.

Passive
· Take no action to assert your own rights
· Put others first at your expense
· Give in to what others want
· Remain silent when something bothers you
· Apologize a lot

Assertive
· Stand up for your own rights without putting down the rights of others
· Respect yourself as well as the other person
· Listen and talk
· Express positive and negative feelings
· Be confident, but not “pushy”

Aggressive
· Stand up for your own rights with no thought about the other person
· Put yourself first at the expense of others
· Overpower others
· Get your own goals, but at the expense of others

Who’s assertive?

Why?

Since you now know the differences between being passive, aggressive and assertive, it is important to see if you can identify these differences in real-life stories.

How?

1. Read the two stories below.

2. Identify the type of behaviour (passive, aggressive or assertive) of each person in the story.

3. Explain how you identified the type of behaviour by describing: the content of what they said; the way they spoke; their body position


Figure

Rob’s behaviour is______________

Sulana’s behaviour is_________________

Why?

Why?

What said?____________________

What said?_________________________

How said?____________________

How said?__________________________

Body position?_________________

Body position?______________________


Figure

Tana’s behaviour is____________________________________________________________
Why?
What said? __________________________________________________________________
How said? ___________________________________________________________________
Body position? ________________________________________________________________

Assertive messages

Why?

To be assertive you must first learn the skills. The first time you do this, it will be difficult. As you practise, it will be easier and feel more natural. Here are the four steps in making an assertive message.

How?

Your teacher will explain the various steps in making an assertive message.

Money problems

Joccai and Mannu are good friends. Joccai has a part-time job after school and he has lent money to Mannu on previous occasions. Lately Joccai has noticed that Mannu is becoming slower to pay the money back. Joccai decides to discuss this matter with Mannu after school and to ask that Mannu pay the money back sooner.

Steps to deliver an assertive message

Steps

Description

Words you might say

Messages

1. Explain your feelings and the problem

State how you feel about the behaviour/problem.
Describe the behaviour/problem that violates your rights or disturbs you.

· I feel frustrated when...
· I feel unhappy when...
· I feel... when....
· It hurts me when...
· I don’t like it when.....

2. Make your request

State clearly what you would like to have happen.

· I would like it better if...
· I would like you to...
· Could you please...
· Please don’t.....
· I wish you would.....

3. Ask how the other person feels about your request

Invite the other person to express his/her feelings or thoughts about your request.

· How do you feel about that?
· Is that OK with you?
· What do you think?
· What are your thoughts on that?
· Is that alright with you?

Answer

The other person indicates his/her feelings or thoughts about the request.

The other person responds.

4. Accept with thanks

If the other person agrees with your request, saying “thanks” is a good way to end the discussion.

· Thanks
· Great, I appreciate that
· I’m happy that’s OK with you
· Great

Your assertive message (class)

Why?

Developing an assertive message as a class will help you understand the steps and prepare you to make your own message in the next activity.

How?

As a class, you will, in this activity, develop an assertive message for the situation described below. Your teacher will give instructions.

Dealing with gifts

You are 14 and this is your second date with Adula. He has given you a small gift and he wants to take you dancing. You do not want to have sex with Adula but you think he will want to because of the gift. You decide to tell him that you don’t want the gift and you don’t want to go to the dance.

Steps to deliver your assertive message

Steps

Your messages

1. Explain your feelings and the problem

2. Make your request

3. Ask how the other person feels about your request

Answer

4. Accept with thanks

Your assertive message (individual)

Why?

It is now time to try your own assertive message. Remember it may seem awkward at first but it will get better.

How?

1. You and your partner will pick one of the situations from the next page.

2. Using the message script below, write out the assertive message for your situation. One person reads it to the other.

3. Make any changes that you think are needed. Have the other person read the message once more.

4. Your teacher may then ask you to read your message to the class.

Steps to deliver an assertive message

Steps

Situation 1

Situation 2

Situation 3

Situation 4

1. Explain your feelings and the problem





2. Make your request





3. Ask how the other person feels about your request





Answer





4. Accept with thanks





Sample situations

Situation 1

You are talking to a number of your friends. Most of them have had sex and are teasing you about the fact that you have not. One of the group hurts you by what they have said. You decide to make an assertive reply.


Situation 2

A person of the other sex has asked you to go to a party with him/her. You don’t know anyone who is going, which makes you feel a little uncomfortable. As well, you have heard that this person uses drugs and does not have a very good reputation at school. You decide to be assertive and say no to him/her.


Situation 3

You have decided to get a tattoo or your ears pierced. Your friend has told you that you can get it done at a place out of town. You arrive but it doesn’t look very clean. You have heard about HIV/AIDS and unclean needles. You decide to ask the person if the needles are clean and to see the equipment they use for cleaning. When the person can’t show you, you decide to say no assertively.


Situation 4

A friend of your family asks if you want a ride home after school. You don’t feel very good about this person and you feel uncomfortable about the situation. You decide to be assertive and refuse the ride.


Responding to persuasion (demonstration)

Why?

Other people will not always agree with you when you are assertive. In fact they may interrupt you, get you off the topic or try to persuade you to do something you don’t want to do. Therefore, it is important for you to learn how to respond to these situations.

How?

Your teacher will help you to understand how to respond to people who try to get you off the topic or try to persuade you to do something you don’t want to do.

Ways people get you off your message or do not accept it


Figure

What you say when they...


Figure

Why?

Learning how to respond to a person who tries to distract you or persuade you to do something that you do not want to do, is an important skill.

How?

Your teacher will explain the steps to take when a person distracts or persuades you.

Situation

Your older brother is supposed to give you a ride home after work. You meet him but he is staggering and slurring his words. You feel he has had too much to drink and it would not be wise to drive with him. He tries to persuade you to go with him. So you refuse, delay or bargain.


Figure

Responding to persuasion (class activity)

Why?

Developing an assertive message as a class will help you understand the steps in responding to distracting or persuading statements.

How?

As a class you will, in this activity, develop an assertive message to use with someone who is trying to get you to do something you don’t want to do. Use the situation on the next page. This will help you make your own message in the next activity.

Steps

Words you might say

1. Explain your feelings and the problem

· I feel frustrated when...
· I feel unhappy when...
· I feel... when...
· It hurts me when...
· I don’t like it when...

2. Distracting statements

Other person tries to get you off topic.

3. Get back on topic

· Please let me finish what I was saying....
· I’d like you to listen to what I have to say...

4. Make your request

· I would like it better if...
· I would like you to...
· Could you please...
· Please don’t...
· I wish you would...

5. Ask how the other person feels about your request

· How do you feel about that?
· Is that OK with you?
· What do you think?
· What are your thoughts on that?
· Is that all right with you?

6. Persuasive statement

Other person tries to get you to change your mind.

7. Refuse

· No, no, I really mean no
· No, no and I’m leaving
· No, I’m not going to do that

Delay

· I’m not ready now - maybe later
· Maybe we can talk later
· I’d like to talk to a friend

Bargain

· Let’s do... instead
· How about we try...
· What would make us both happy?

Situation

You are alone with your boyfriend at his house. It is night and he lives quite a distance from your home on a deserted road. He is usually very gentle but tonight he has been drinking beer. He becomes quite aggressive with his demands for sex. He interrupts you and tries to talk you into having sex. You refuse, delay or bargain.


Figure

Question

Should you refuse and leave in this situation? You are far from home and it is dark. What else could you do?

Responding to persuasion (individual)

Why?

In this activity, you’ll try to write an assertive message to someone who interrupts you and tries to get you to do something you don’t want to do.

How?

1. With a partner, use the blank spaces to write an assertive message.

2. Select a statement that tries to get you to do something that you don’t want to do.

3. Finally, write a “refuse”, “delay” or “bargain” statement.

Situation 1

Your friend wants you to skip school and go to the river to drink beer. He tells you a whole group is going. He says, “You are afraid, aren’t you”. You got caught skipping school last month and don’t want to get caught again. You decide to tell him you don’t want to go.


Figure

Situation 2

Your parents are at work and you invite a friend of the opposite sex over to study. After doing the homework he/she grabs you and tries to kiss you. You push him/her away but they say, “Come on, you didn’t invite me over just to do homework.” You take a firm stand so it won’t happen again.


Figure

Situation 3

Your boyfriend/girlfriend thinks it is time to have sex. You love him/her but you feel that sex before you are ready is wrong. Your friend says, “You’re just scared. If you really loved me, you’d show it.” Although you are afraid it will end the relationship, you decide to tell him/her that you are just not ready.


Figure

You decide

Why?

Boys/men often have different ideas about sex from girls/women. Most of these are old ideas and need to be changed. In this activity you get a chance to change the old ideas to new ones.

How?

1. Circle A (agree) if you think the statement is correct or right for you.

2. Circle D (disagree) if you think the statement is incorrect or wrong for you or is not the right way to think.

1

A

The success of an evening out with a young woman/young man can be judged by how sexual it was.


D


2

A

When someone says “No” to sex, it means that he/she does not like the other person.


D


3

A

If a lot of money is spent on a date, sex should be given in return.


D


4

A

When a girl/young woman says “no” to sex, it really means “maybe”, and “maybe” really means “yes”.


D


5

A

A real man is one who has had sex with a woman.


D


6

A

Someone who dresses in a sexy way wants to have sex.


D


7

A

If a girl/boy accepts an invitation to go to somebody’s house alone, she/he would be expected to have sex.


D


8

A

It is the woman’s responsibility to decide how sexual a relationship becomes.


D


New statement

3. Finally, write a new statement that you think would be better for both boys/men and girls/women.

The success of an evening out should be judged on...

When a person says no to sex, it means...

If a lot of money is spent on a date it does not mean...

No to sex really means...

You are a real man if...

If someone dresses or acts in a sexy way...

If a person wants to go to someone else’s house when there is no one else home...

It is...

...responsibility to set sexual limits

Dealing with threats and violence

Why?

Women need to be aware of situations that may lead to violent sex, and people who may put them in those situations. It is important for you to learn ways of avoiding or dealing with pressures and threats to have sex.

How?

1. Read the story of Maria
2. Discuss the questions under “Teacher asks”


Figure

Teacher asks

1. Do you think that Maria could have been aware of what was going to happen? What were the clues that could have told her?

2. Maria was silent and embarrassed when Carlos started talking about sex. What could she have done instead of being silent and embarrassed?

3. What should she do now? Keep it a secret? Tell someone she trusts (parents, teachers, religious leader)? Should she talk to Carlos about the matter? What might happen if she doesn’t tell anyone about the situation?

4. List things you can do to help prevent violence and threats:

a) When you’re with someone who suggests having sex and you don’t want to.
b)When someone becomes physical and tries to force you to have sex.

5. What do you think about Carlos? Are there other men like Carlos? What should he have done in this situation? Why did he do what he did?

Being assertive every day

Why?

This activity will help you to become assertive in your everyday life. To do this you must decide on one specific situation in which you want to be more assertive. For example, you may want to say “no” to those who pressure you to do things you really don’t want to do. To help you in this activity you should set out a plan and then write a short summary of how your plan worked.

How?

1. Complete the action plan below. Select an assertive goal from the list “Possible assertive goals” below, or make up your own.

2. Try your assertive goal for one week and at the end write a short summary of how successful you were at being assertive.

Action

Description

My personal plan

Set a specific assertive goal.

Select from the list below or make up your own (e.g. to say “no” when I am pressured to do something).

The assertive goal I have for myself is to:

When will I practise?

Set a date when you will start and another when you will complete the goal (e.g. Nov. 8 to Nov. 15).

I will start my assertive goal on: and I will finish on:

How will I benefit?

How do you think you will feel about yourself when you have completed your goal (e.g. I will feel better about myself)?

I will probably feel:

How will I reward myself?

When you have finished your week, you should plan to give yourself something nice (e.g. go to a movie).

I will celebrate my goal by:

Contract with myself.

By signing a contract with yourself you are more likely to do what you plan.

I will: (put in assertive goal) for one week and will reward myself at the end of the week. Signature:
Date:

Possible assertive goals

· To ask someone to do something with me
· To ask people to listen to me when they ignore me
· To tell my friends, brother or sister when they bother me - but in an assertive way
· To be more assertive with my boyfriend or girlfriend
· To say how I feel about things more often
· To express my feelings without putting someone down or criticizing them
· To say no when I don’t want to do something
· To say how I feel when people put me down or hurt me

The condom

Why?

For sexually active people, the condom is the best protection against STD and HIV. Information about condoms is important for positive attitudes and effective use.

How?

Your teacher will discuss these points with you.


Figure

Arguments people use against using condoms

Why?

Your partner may not like using condoms. If you want to be safe from STD, HIV and pregnancy it is important to learn how to talk to a person who dislikes using condoms.

How?

For every argument against using condoms choose the best response from the list of three. Place the letter in the circle after “Arguments against”.

Arguments against

Answer

Responses

1. You think I have a disease.

a) I don’t want either of us to take a chance of getting HIV.
b) You know many people infected with HIV have no symptoms at all.
c) We probably don’t have a disease, but isn’t it better to be sure?

2. But condoms don’t work.

a) They’re OK if we use them the right way.
b) Will you try condoms a few times and see?
c) They are the best protection available.

3. They spoil the mood.

a) It won’t be so bad after we get used to them.
b) Hey, condoms may even be fun.
c) We can use them together.

4. They don’t feel good.

a) It will be OK once we’re used to them.
b) Will you try condoms a few times and see?
c) But it would make me feel more relaxed if I felt safe.

5. They make me feel cheap and dirty.

a) But we know condoms can protect us.
b) I know you don’t like the idea but condoms are so important now.
c) Anyone can get HIV, even people like us.

6. I’m already using pills for birth control.

a) We’ll have to use condoms as well, the pill doesn’t protect us from infections.
b) That doesn’t help against HIV and STD.
c) Too bad - no condom, no sex.

7. I’d be embarrassed to buy one.

a) It won’t be so awkward after the first time.
b) I’ll buy them, so we’ll have them next time.
c) Embarrassment never killed anyone.

8. I don’t have one with me.

a) I’ll get one for next time, but today, no sex.
b) Sorry - no condom, no sex.
c) I don’t want either of us to take a chance of getting AIDS.

9. It’s against my religion.

a) Sorry - no condom, no sex.
b) There are all kinds of things we can do without having sex.
c) Well, maybe we’re not ready for sex.

10. They cost too much.

a) Sorry, I really care about my health and yours.
b) I can help you pay for them.
c) Let’s not have sex until we can work this out.

How to use a condom (explanation/demonstration)

Why?

Condoms offer good protection and are unlikely to break, if you know how to use them properly.

How?

Your teacher will give you instructions on how to do this activity.

1. Check the expiry date.
Store condoms in a cool, dry place.

2. Open package carefully so condom does not tear.

3. Make sure condom is pointing in right direction. Do not unroll condom before putting it on.

4. Squeeze tip of condom.

5. Still holding tip, unroll condom until it covers all of erect penis.

6. After intercourse and ejaculation, hold rim of condom and pull penis out before it gets soft.

7. Dispose of condom in a safe place.
Use a new condom next time.

Condom practice

Why?

In this voluntary activity, you can practise putting a condom on a model of a penis (or on a banana or cucumber). This may be an activity that you don’t want to do. It is perfectly alright for you to refuse. Whatever your decision, remember that this activity may be helpful some time in the future when you may want to use a condom.

How?

After the activity below, complete the “Teacher asks” section with your small group.

1 With your teacher, read Student activity 3.3, “How to use a condom”.

2 Observe a demonstration of how to put the condom on a model penis.

3 In a small group, observe a student demonstrating how to use a condom. Another student should read the instructions for each step on “How to use a condom” (Student activity 3.3).

4 Each student will be given one packaged condom. Observe the type of packaging and the information on the outside of the condom wrapper. Note the expiry date. Open the condom wrapper carefully. Observe how easy it is to open the package; the colour, shape; and lubrication (if any).

5 If you are comfortable with the activity, practise putting the condom on the model. Other group members will help you by either reading each step for you or by judging how you did after you have finished putting the condom on (you should tell them which you would like before you start).

6 Continue these instructions until everyone in your group has had a chance to practise putting the condom on the model.

Teacher asks

1. Discuss problems that might occur if you were to use a condom with a partner in a real life situation (e.g. not being able to see in the dark);

2. Which was the most difficult part for you? How could you make it easier?

No to unprotected sex (demonstration)

Why?

Being assertive when your partner does not want to use a condom is very important. The bottom line is “no sex without a condom”.

How?

This situation will show you how to deal with a person who does not want to use a condom. This is done using the assertive skills you learned earlier.

“We’re both clean... We don’t need to use a condom!”


Figure

No to unprotected sex (class participation)

Why?

Being assertive when your partner does not want to use a condom is very important. The bottom line is “no sex without a condom”.

How?

This situation will show you how to deal with a person who does not want to use a condom. This is done using the assertive skills you learned earlier.

“I’d be embarrassed to use a condom.”


Figure

No to unprotected sex (individual participation)

Why?

Being assertive when your partner does not want to use a condom is very important. The bottom line is “no sex without a condom”.

How?

This situation will show you how to deal with a person who does not want to use a condom. This is done using the assertive skills you learned earlier.

“I don’t have a condom. Let’s do it just this once.”


Figure

Who discriminates?

Why?

When we don’t give certain people the same rights and privileges as we do to others, we discriminate against them. How do we discriminate against people with HIV/AIDS? That is what this activity is about

How?

1. Read the definition and examples of discrimination.
2. Read each discriminatory action against people with HIV/AIDS.
3. Complete the unfinished statement.
4. Answer the questions from “Teacher asks”.

Discrimination When we treat someone unjustly or unfavourably because of his/her race or religion, or because we believe he/she is ill, we discriminate against him/her.

· School discrimination
A person who has HIV is not allowed to attend school. This is wrong because:

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

· The village banning
The Council will not allow people with AIDS to live in the village. This is wrong because:

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

· Work in the fruit stand
Mancini, the owner of the fruit stand, won’t allow Harsi, who has HIV, to work for him. This is wrong because:

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

· A government decision
The government has decided not to allow people with HIV to enter the country. This will not stop AIDS because:

______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________

Teacher asks

1. Why do people discriminate?

2. Why is it important not to discriminate?

3. What could you do if you heard discriminating remarks about a person with HIV or AIDS from someone in your community?

The story of two communities

Why?

If you have never been discriminated against, it is hard to understand what it feels like. In these two communities you are asked to imagine what Ryando felt and how it might have affected him. This is a true story of a person with HIV.

How?

1. Read the comments made by Ryando about community A and community B (after moving from community A).

2. Which 3 comments would be most hurtful to Ryando from community A and which 3 comments would be most helpful from community B?

3. How did you feel about the people in community A and the people in community B?

Question

Why do you think there was such a difference between the two communities?


Figure

Feelings about community A

Most hurtful

Reason why

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________


Figure

Feelings about community B

Most helpful

Reason why

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________

Why compassion?

Why?

People who have compassion for others are very much needed. Compassion is understanding the pain of another person and wanting to do something to help.

How?

1. Read the “Reasons to show compassion to people living with AIDS”.

2. Brainstorm five other reasons for being compassionate.

3. Decide on two reasons that are important for you and put a () beside them in the column “My two”.

4. Answer the question in “Teacher asks”.

Reasons to show compassion to people living with AIDS

My two

Reasons


1. Everyone should be treated with understanding


2. They are infected with a disease that has no cure


3. It is good to think of someone other than yourself


4. Other:


5. Other:


6. Other:


7. Other:


8. Other:


9. Other:


10. Other:

Teacher asks

Why is it easy for some people to show compassion and more difficult for others?

What could you do?

Why?

Sometimes it is difficult to be compassionate because you don’t know what you can do to help. In this activity you will learn ways to help two people whose stories are told below.

How?

1. Read the two stories below, keeping in mind how you might be able to help each person.
2. Then read the “Instructions” on the next page.

A mother with AIDS


Figure

Dwari, a schoolmate


Figure

Instructions

1. Read all the ways you can help from the “The helping heart”. Add any others that you can think of.

2. Select four things that you think you could do to help Minori and four for Dwari and put them in their hearts below.

3. Answer the question in “Teacher asks”.


Figure

Teacher asks

What would be most difficult for you if a friend or relative of yours had AIDS? What would be most difficult for the person with AIDS?

How to’s of caregiving

Why?

To be a caregiver for someone who has AIDS, means giving extra amounts of warmth and gentleness. Most people with AIDS are young adults who were alert, full of energy, and excited about life. For many, life has become full of fear, anger and fatigue. Many have lost friends, family, support from their community and hope, and they need others to care for them. A caregiver may need to be: nurse, cook, food shopper, messenger, book reader, cleaner or listener. Overall, caregiving is being a friend and companion.

How?

Your teacher will give you instructions on how to do this activity.

A How to give emotional support

B How to give physical support and care

1. Share feelings - be honest and open.

2. Ask the person who is ill to talk about how he or she feels. Ask what they would like to do for themselves.

3. Say what you expect of the person who is ill and allow them to do the same.

4. Encourage him or her to do as much as possible for themselves. Do not do for the ill person what they can do for themselves.

5. Give support and praise when deserved.

6. Ask the person how they prefer to have things done, e.g. food preparation, cleaning.

7. When feelings of anger and crying occur, encourage them.

8. When care-giving, you need to look after yourself. You should take breaks and ask for help when needed.

9. The most common feelings are fear, anger, hopelessness, sadness, loneliness. Sit with the person. Let them know you are there to listen and talk to them.

1. Loss of appetite: Ask what they would like to eat and drink, when and how much. Eat with the ill person when possible.

2. Nausea and vomiting: Smaller meals with little fat may reduce vomiting. Encourage drinking liquids between meals if they can’t eat. Notice when nausea occurs and avoid foods at this time. Use gloves to clean up vomit.

3. Lack of fluids: If a person has diarrhoea, vomiting and “sweats”, they lose a lot of water. This could be very serious. If this happens, extra fluids (water, tea) should be given.

4. Weakness: Encourage activity (not strenuous). Have rest periods. Use a chair in the bath.

5. Skin problems: Change sleeping positions to avoid sores. Encourage short walks or sitting in a chair. Wash sores but use gloves if sores are open. Apply soothing lotions to dry skin.

6. Confusion and forgetting: AIDS and depression may affect the brain, causing confusion. Keep clocks and calendars and remind the person of the day, time and where they are. Make sure all safety precautions are taken - for example, with loose rugs, stairs, medicines, sharp instruments etc.

Note

If you have difficulty or the condition looks serious, talk to a health worker or the health centre as soon as possible.

How to keep yourself safe


Figure

What do you know?

Why?

To see how much you know about caregiving you can try the two tests below.

How?

1. Read the statements in test 1, column A, and try to match the statement with the correct answer in column B.

2. On test 2, answer true or false to each statement. Place a () in the appropriate box.

3. Add the totals for tests 1 and 2 and find your “Rating” at the end of the activity.

1. Test about caregiving - matching

Column A

Column B

· A good caregiver is one who is a...

a) Angry or cry

· A person with AIDS who has “sweats”, vomiting or diarrhoea needs...

b) Look after yourself

· To stop nausea and vomiting it is best to give....

c) Extra fluids

· For a person who is in bed a lot you should...

d) Friend and companion

· As a good caregiver you should also...

e) Really listen

· You should encourage people who are sad and depressed to express their feelings if they become...

f) Small meals with little fat

· People who are ill need to do...

g) What they can for themselves

· The most important skill in being a good caregiver is to...

h) Change their sleeping position

2. True - False statements

T

F


1. Latex or rubber gloves should be used when touching body fluids.

2. Injecting needles should be put in a plastic bag.

3. Thermometers can be used more than once without washing.

4. The most important thing in looking after yourself is to wash your hands with soap and warm water.

5. There have been no HIV infections from living in the same house as a person who has HIV or AIDS.

6. Soiled things should be put in a paper bag and then put in the garbage.

7. It is very important to cover sores, cuts and rashes.

8. You should wash the bathroom with bleach solution that is 1 part bleach to 20 parts water.

Test 1 score + Test 2 score = Total score

Rating

13 - 16 points

Super memory!

9 - 12 points

A good caregiver!

5 - 8 points

Try to do better next time!

1 - 4 points

You still have a lot to learn!

Support for responsible behaviour

Why?

Young people sometimes take risks with their health and safety. With AIDS around this can be dangerous. Young people who make the right decisions to delay sex, to use a condom or to be tolerant and compassionate to people with AIDS, need the support of their friends.

How?

1. Read one of the stories below.

2. Decide what you could do to give the main person in your story support for a healthy decision.

3. Write two or three statements of support for each story. You may be asked to role-play your responses.

4. Answer the questions for each story in “Teacher asks”.

Story A - A decision not to have sex


Figure

Story B - No sex without a condom


Figure

Story C - To go to the candy store or not


Figure

Story D - Who do you support


Figure

Teacher asks

1. Why do many young people feel it is not “cool” to support healthy decisions?
2. What difficulties might you have if you support healthy behaviours?
3. How might you overcome these problems?

Compassion, tolerance and support

Why?

Knowing how to be compassionate, tolerant and supportive will mean little to you unless you actually practise these behaviours in everyday situations.

How?

1. Select someone, or a group of people that you think needs support or compassion. Look at the list below, of ways you could be compassionate and add suggestions of your own.

2. Fill in sections 1,2 and 3 of the “Action plan” on the next page.

3. The teacher will set a date for carrying out your action plan and reporting back (probably two weeks from now).

4. When you have carried out your action plan, fill in section 4 of the “Action plan”.

Am I really compassionate?

1 Visit a hospital to talk to someone or to bring them flowers, etc.
2 Do something for a relative who is older or possibly sick.
3 Do something special for your mother, father, sister or brother.
4 Be really nice to a student who seems lonely or sad or is having a hard time at school.
5 Invite someone who has few friends over to your house to chat or to have lunch with you.
6 Bring some extra food to a place that feeds the poor and homeless.
7 Help a sick or elderly neighbour fetch water or firewood or do some other chore.
8 Support a friend who is having difficulties in their life.
9 Write a letter to someone who is sick or lonely.
10 Look after a baby, free of charge, for someone who is having a hard time.

Action plan

1 My selection
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

2 Reasons for my selection
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

3 What I could do:
a) ___________________________________________________________________
b) ___________________________________________________________________
c) ___________________________________________________________________

4 Summary of what happened and my feelings
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________