Cover Image
close this bookWhere There Is No Dentist (Hesperian Foundation, 1983, 210 p.)
close this folderREFERENCE PAGES
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe Dental Kit
View the documentRecords, Reports, and Surveys
View the documentStory Telling
View the documentDental Health Teaching Materials

(introduction...)

After you have read Chapters 1-11, you will want to use the references - to return to later and read when you want to find information quickly.

The Dental Kit


Figure

In the next 10 pages, there are lists of medicines, instruments, and other supplies recommended in this book. Keep them together in a kit. You may want to change some of them, or add others to meet your own needs.

As a dental worker, you will be able to get many of the items on the lists from your government medical stores. Some things you will have to buy yourself. That can be expensive, so we make several suggestions to help you save money.

Before you order, decide how many of each thing you need. Ask yourself: How many persons do I treat each day? For what problems? Then order enough medicines and supplies for three months. Note: as more people learn about the treatment you can give, more will come to ask for your help. Remember this when you order. Remember, also, that some persons may need more than one treatment.

We recommend how many medicines, supplies, and instruments you will need if you see 10 people a day - 200 a month. You cannot be exact, of course, because you cannot predict exactly what problems will arise. However, we can say that, on the average:

In a group of 10 persons with urgent problems:

· 6 persons need you to take out 1 or more teeth (so you must inject)
· 2 persons need cement fillings
· 2 persons need medicine before you can treat them.

Many of these persons must return for another visit:

· 5 persons need you to scale their teeth and teach them how to care for them better
· 1 person will need a cement filling
· 2 persons will need treatment after taking medicine.

MEDICINES

Use

Proper Name

Local name
(write in here)

Amount you need
in 3 months

Amount to
keep in kit

For Pain

1. aspirin, 300 mg tablets

__________

2,000 tablets

100 tablets


2. acetaminophen (paracetamol) 500 mg tablets

__________

500 tablets

10 tablets

For Infections

1. penicillin, 250 mg tablets

__________

2,000 tablets

100 tablets


2. erythromycin, 250 mg tablets

__________

500 tablets

40 tablets


3. nystatin, creme or solution

__________

12 small tubes or bottles

2 small tubes or bottles

Another antibiotic, tetracycline, is not recommended for any of the treatments in this book because it is a broad-spectrum antibiotic. Narrow-spectrum antibiotics (see ‘antibiotics’) are usually safer and just as effective for most dental problems. If you do use tetracycline, read Where There Is No Doctor and remember, do not give tetracycline to a pregnant woman or to a young child. Tetracycline can make a young, developing tooth turn yellow.

SUGGESTIONS:

1. Compare prices before you buy medicines. Often the same medicine has many different names. The generic name (the name we use on this page) usually is cheapest, and the medicine is just as good as the ‘brand-name medicines’. Use the generic name to order and buy, not the brand name.

2. Always look for a date on the package. It is called the expiration date (or expiry date). If today is later than that date, do not buy or use that medicine.

3. Be careful to give the correct dose. Read the next two pages carefully, as well as the ‘Treatment’ section of each problem in Chapter 7. If The correct dose are not clear to you, read Chapter 8 of Where There Is No Doctor.

4. For serious infections or serious pain, see Injections: For severe infections.

THE CORRECT DOSE

Before you give medicine, think about the sick person’s weight and age. The smaller children are, the less medicine they need. For example, pain medicine like aspirin (300 mg tablets) or acetaminophen (500 mg tablets) can be broken up into smaller tablets:


Four times a day:

Notes: Do not hold aspirin on the bad tooth. Aspirin has acid that can hurt the tooth. Always swallow aspirin immediately. For severe pain, when aspirin does not help, an adult can take a 30 mg tablet of codeine.

Antibiotics: To Fight Infection

Antibiotics kill bacteria that cause infections. Some antibiotics work better than others on certain bacteria. If you can, test the pus to find which antibiotic works best.

Do not give penicillin to a person who is allergic to it. Ask about the person’s allergies before you give penicillin pills or injections. When you inject penicillin, always keep epinephrine (Adrenalin) ready to inject if the person shows signs of allergic shock. Stay with the person for 30 minutes. If you see these signs ...

· cool, moist, pale, gray skin (cold sweat)

· difficulty breathing

· weak, rapid pulse (heartbeat)

· loss of consciousness

... immediately inject epinephrine: 1/2 ml for adults or 1/4 ml for children. For more information on allergic shock, see Where There Is No Doctor.

Always give the full dose of penicillin or any antibiotic, even if the person feels better. Erythromycin also comes in liquid form. It has 125 mg in 5 ml, so 10 ml of liquid (about two large teaspoons) is the same as one tablet.

It is important to take a strong first dose of penicillin or erythromycin, and then smaller doses four times a day for 3 to 5 days after that.

INJECTIONS: FOR SEVERE INFECTIONS


Figure

It is always safer to take medicine by mouth. Sometimes, however, an infection is so bad that you need to give medicine by injection. Learn how to give injections from an experienced health worker. The injections described on this page are not like the anesthetic injections in Chapter 9 of this book - you must inject these medicines into a large muscle in the buttocks or arm. For more instructions on this kind of injection, see Chapter 9 of Where There Is No Doctor.

For severe infection: There are two kinds of penicillin to inject.


Figure


Figure


Figure

You will usually use ‘aqueous procaine penicillin’. Give only 1 injection per day.


For very severe infections, give ‘crystalline penicillin’ every 6 hours for the first day. It acts quickly and for a short time only.

INJECTABLE MEDICINES

SUPPLIES

DOSES

Proper Name

Amount you need
in 3 months

Amount to
keep in kit

Adult
(over 40 kg)

Child 6-12
years old
(22-39 kg)

Child 1-6
years old
(10-22 kg)

1. procaine penicillin, bottle with 300,000 units per ml

200
bottles

4
bottles

4 ml
once/day

2 ml
once/day

1 ml
once/day

2. crystalline penicillin, bottle with 1,000,000 units per ml

50
bottles

1
bottle

3 ml
4x/day

1 1/2 ml
4x/day

1/2 ml
4x/day

SUPPLIES

Use

Proper Name

Local name
(write in here)

Amount you need
in 3 months

Amount to
keep in kit

To make dressings

1. clean cotton gauze

__________

8 packages of 100

20 pieces


2. clean cotton rolls

__________

10 packages of 50

8 rolls

To fill cavities

3. oil of cloves (eugenol)

__________

50 ml

1 small bottle


4. zinc oxide powder

__________

500 grams

1 small bottle

To harden sensitive teeth

5. fluoride water, concentrated

__________

50 ml

1 small bottle

To give injections of local anesthetic

6. lidocaine 2% 1.8 ml cartridge

__________

8 boxes of 100 cartridges

10 cartridges


7. disposable needles, 27

__________

8 boxes of 100 needles

10 needles


8. lidocaine topical

__________

5 small tubes

1 tube

FLUORIDE WATER

You can use a solution of fluoride and water (above, number 5) in two ways:

To treat a sensitive tooth, make this concentrated mixture (see box above). Mix:

· 500 tablets sodium fluoride (1.1 mg each) in 59 ml of water or

· 1 gram of sodium fluoride powder with 50 ml of water.

To help prevent cavities, especially in children, make a solution of fluoride and water using sodium fluoride powder. Mix 2 grams of the powder with 1 liter of water. Then, once a week, take a mouthful and rinse for 60 seconds with teeth closed together, ‘washing’ every surface of every tooth. Then spit it out - do not swallow the fluoride water. Also, do not eat or drink for 30 minutes.



Put cotton rolls between the lip and gum on each side of the bad tooth. Dry the bad tooth with cotton and look for the small groove that is causing the pain. Wet some cotton with the fluoride water and rub it on the tooth. Keep the tooth wet with fluoride water for 1 minute. One week later, give the same treatment again.

School is a good place to do a weekly fluoride rinse. Students can brush each day at school, and then on the same day each week, they can each take a mouthful from the liter bottle of fluoride water. On “Let Children help each other”, children are shown using a twice-yearly application of a special paste, a ‘topical fluoride gel’. This is good, but the weekly rinse is even better, for the teeth.

Weight (how heavy something is)

Volume (how full something is)




Figure


Figure



1 kilogram = 1000 grams

1000 ml = 1 liter

1 gram = 1000 mg

236.5 ml = 1 cup

1 grain = 65 mg

5 ml = 1 teaspoon

1 ml = 1 cubic centimeter (cc)

Use

Proper Name

Local name
(write in here)

Amount you need
in 3 months

Amount to
keep in kit

To make rinses

1 salt

_________

2 kilograms

100 grams


1. hydrogen peroxide

_________

3 liters 12 small

500 ml

To keep instruments clean

Zephiran, concentrated solution

_________

bottles bottle solution.

1 small

Note: You can clean instruments with a homemade.

To keep instruments sharp

Arkansas sharpening stone

_________

1 stone

1

For examining

wooden tongue depressors

_________

8 boxes of 50 per box

stone 10

SUGGESTIONS:

If you order your supplies in bulk long before you need them, you probably will pay lower prices. If you have a place to store supplies that is clean, dry, and free from cockroaches and rats, consider ordering enough for one year instead of only 3 months.

INSTRUMENTS

When you are treating several people on the same day, you will need to clean some instruments at the same time that you are using others. Therefore, it is necessary to have several of each kind of instrument, to be sure that the instrument you need will be ready (clean or sterile) when you need it.

There are three instruments you will need for each person who comes to you, no matter which treatment is needed. They are: a mirror, probe, and cotton pliers. Keep them together. Below we recommend that you have 15 of each of these, so you can keep one in each treatment kit. You do not need to buy all of these instruments. You can make several of them - see Making your own dental instruments. If you like, buy only one example of each of the instruments below, and use them as models to copy when you make your own extra instruments.*

* If you want the help of a charitable organization in buying instruments.

Use

Proper Name

Local name
(write in here)

Number to
buy or make

To examine or to give any treatment

1. dental mouth mirror

_________

15


2. explorer

_________

15


3. cotton pliers

_________

15

To inject

Aspirating dental syringe (to use with 1.8 ml cartridges)

_________

3

To scale teeth

1 Ivory C-1 scaler

_________

1


2. Gracey 11-12 curette

_________

1

To place cement fillings

1. spoon excavator

_________

1


2. filling instrument

_________

1


3. cement spatula

_________

1

To remove teeth

1. spoon excavator

_________

3


2. straight elevator (no. 34)

_________

3


3. upper universal forcep (no. 150)

_________

3


4. lower universal forcep (no. 75)

_________

3

Note: See “The four basic instruments” for recommendations of other elevators and forceps that are good to have if you can afford them.

MAKING YOUR OWN DENTAL INSTRUMENTS*

* I am grateful to Aaron Yaschine for the ideas in this section.

Here are a few ideas for making instruments at low cost. Try to use materials that are available where you live.


Figure

Can you think of any other materials you can use?

Each instrument has two parts: a handle and a working piece at the end. Join them together:


Figure

If you make the end flat, it can prevent the working piece from turning. Pound the working piece with a hammer and make a flat slot in the handle so the working piece cannot turn.


Figure

Making the Three Instruments You Use Most

Mirror: Use old pieces of mirror or a shiny piece of tin. You even can use a polished silver coin. A tongue depressor is the handle.


Figure

Probe: Use the end of a paper clip, pin or needle for the working piece. Rub it against a smooth stone to sharpen it. Bend it so it can reach around to the back of a tooth. Attach the working piece to a smooth stick handle.


Figure

Tweezers: Draw the shape on a piece of tin and then cut it out with strong scissors. Use a file or a smooth stone to make the edges smooth. Bend in half to make the tweezers.


Figure

Making Other Instruments and Supplies

Spoon: Bend a paper clip or needle. Flatten the end. Then pound a small stone against the end, to make it hollow. Make 2 bends and attach to a stick handle.


Figure

Filling Tool: Remove the heads from 2 long screws.

With a file and hammer, make the end of one screw flat and the end of the other screw round.


Figure

Bend each end in the direction of the edge (not the face) of the flat side.


Figure

Attach both working pieces to a small stick handle.

Dental Floss: When using string to clean between your teeth, you may have trouble getting this string down in between your teeth. Sometimes, also, the string gets caught there, forming a kind of ‘bird’s nest’. Three things can cause problems with dental floss:

1. An incorrectly made filling - flat and rough instead of round and smooth. Replace it.

2. Teeth too tight together. Use the floss on a tooth. Then pull the string out from between the teeth as you press the free end down against the gum with the fingers of your other hand. If there is a sharp filling on a tooth, the string will stay under it as it comes free.

3. String that is too thick. Make thinner but stronger floss by waxing as in this picture. The wax also will make the floss easier to slide between your teeth.


Figure (1) Soak thin string in hot wax. (2) To remove the extra wax, pull the string between your fingers.

Buying Dental Instruments

When you do not have much money, you must spend wisely. Dental instruments are very expensive, especially when you buy them at commercial prices. You may want help to find the lowest prices available to you.

The Dental Health Services Unit of AHRTAG (AHRTAG means Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group Ltd.) may be able to help. Write to them and tell them what you are doing and what you need. AHRTAG can use the information to develop the right kind of projects in other countries. In return, AHRTAG possibly can give you good advice to help you buy or make your own low-cost dental equipment. Their address is:

AHRTAG
85 Marylebone High Street
London W1M 3DE
England.

There are many organizations that collect health supplies, including dental instruments. Some prefer to help church-sponsored health projects, but others will provide instruments at reduced cost to whoever needs them. One of the best of these organizations is ECHO. They can provide any of the instruments mentioned in this book. They also sell at lower than commercial prices. For example, for the four instruments for removing teeth (excavator, elevator, upper forcep, and lower forcep), ECHO’S 1983 price is £17.98, or about 28 U.S. dollars. Write to them with a list of the instruments you need:

ECHO
4 West Street
Ewell Surrey KT17 1UL
England.

Other organizations who may be able to help are:

MAP International
P.O. Box 50
Wheaton, IL 60187
U.S.A.

Operation California
336 Foothill Road
Beverly Hills, CA 90210
U.S.A.

International Human Assistance Programs
360 Park Avenue, South
New York, NY 10010
U.S.A.

Direct Relief Foundation
P.O. Box 30820
Santa Barbara, CA 93105
U.S.A.

Records, Reports, and Surveys


Here are the short names of 4 teeth. Can you find the tooth named LL5?

For record keeping, you can divide the mouth into 4 parts:

Upper Right (UR)
Upper Left (UL)
Lower Left (LL)
Lower Right (LR)

In each part there are 8 teeth (fewer in children).

You can call each tooth by its short name, for example, UR3.

Keep a record of each person you see. Write some brief information about the person and the problem. This way, if the person returns, you remember what you did to help.


Figure

When a person needs to come more than once to take care of a problem, it is better to keep a special record for that person. With all the treatments on one page, you can follow that person’s progress more easily. Below is an example for a person named Yupere. Yupere has a bad tooth that has hurt from time to time for 2 months. One day when he woke up, his face was swollen. Yupere decided to wait a day to see if the swelling would go away. The next day it was worse, so he went to the medical post for treatment.


Figure

Reports

You need to write a report whenever you send a person for medical help. Give as much information as possible so that your treatment can continue and new treatment starts as quickly as possible. If you cannot go along, always send a report with a sick person.

The story of Naime: After drinking for several hours, Naime’s husband returned home asking for money. She had none and told him so. He did not believe Naime, so he beat her with his hands and then a knife. Naime’s friends carried her, unconscious and bleeding, to the aid post. The front part of her lower jaw was hanging out of position.


Figure

Surveys

It is a good idea to know how many persons in your community have cavities and gum disease. Look in the mouths of children and adults and make a record of what you see. Here is an example that is used in Mozambique:

Put a line through the circle for each person with:

· cavities · red, swollen gums


Figure

The dental workers in Mozambique do a quick survey in 2 schools, 2 mother-and-child health clinics, and 2 cooperatives or factories in their community.

In each place, they examine 50 persons. This is enough to give an idea of the general health of teeth and gums in the community.

They make a paper for each age group. Each paper has 3 sections. They make a mark for each person they see, until all 50 circles have marks in them. They make extra marks if they see a tooth and/or gum problem.

In this example, you can see that children have more problems with cavities, while adults suffer more from gum disease. This is often true.

This survey helps the dental worker in three ways:

(1) it shows how serious tooth decay and gum disease are in the community.

(2) it shows which age group is suffering the most. To these people the dental worker must plan to give the most attention.

(3) it gives the dental worker something to show the people when they are discussing why to change some old habits and adapt some new ideas.

Story Telling

Pregnancy and Dental care - an example

People everywhere have a tradition of teaching with stories. Many of the things we believe, we learned through stories we heard from parents, friends, and teachers. This is good, except when a story teaches something that isn’t true! When a woman gets pregnant, for example, she hears many stories, and she wants to learn whatever she can from these stories. Unfortunately, some traditional beliefs about pregnancy are partly wrong. An example is the belief that one must always have dental problems during pregnancy.

Here is a story you can tell to help people see that they are partly right about pregnancy and dental problems, but that there is more to understand.

A Story: Bertine’s teeth

Bertine was the dental worker in her village. She was a young woman, but the villagers respected her because she was such a careful worker, and because she knew how to fill cavities and pull teeth without hurting people. She also spent a lot of time teaching people how to avoid dental problems. “Clean your teeth every day!” she often said, at her clinic, at the schools, at village meetings. “Eat a mixture of foods, especially a lot of fruits and vegetables! Avoid candy and sweet, sticky foods!”

When Bertine was 23 years old, she got married and became pregnant. She also began to have some tooth problems of her own. She saw that her gums were bleeding when she cleaned her teeth, and she had small cavities in two of her teeth. As the dental worker, she was embarrassed to have tooth problems, but an older woman told her, “It’s natural to lose teeth when you have babies, Bertine. As we say, ‘For each child, a tooth’.”


Figure

One day Lucie, a dental worker from a nearby village, came to see her friend Bertine. Lucie had a young baby, and Bertine asked her a lot of questions about babies and about pregnancy. Then Bertine said, “Of course, I’m having lots of problems with my teeth.” “Why do you say ‘of course’?” asked Lucie. “Well,” Bertine replied, “For each child, a tooth.”

“But that’s not true!” Lucie cried. “You think you are having tooth and gum problems because you are pregnant, but I bet you are having these problems for all the usual reasons.”

“The usual reasons?” asked Bertine.

“Yes,” said Lucie. “How often do you eat now that you are pregnant?” “Well, a lot more than I used to - I have two persons to feed!” “And do you still eat sweet foods sometimes?” Lucie asked. “I guess I do,” said Bertine, “and more sweets than before, because I eat more often.”

“How about teeth cleaning?” asked Lucie. “Do you clean as often as you did before you were pregnant?” “No,” Bertine admitted, “I heard I was going to have tooth problems anyway, and I have been so tired lately .... Oh! Do you suppose that these are the only reasons I am having these problems? How do you know so much about this, Lucie?”

“Because I had the same problems, Bertine. I learned the truth the hard way. I had an infected tooth, and the infection passed to my kidneys. At the health clinic, they told me it is not necessary to have tooth problems during pregnancy - and it is even dangerous. I am lucky I did not lose my baby! That can happen, you know, when a tooth problem is not treated. We must fill your cavities right now.”

“You mean I can be treated now, before I have my baby?”


Figure

“Yes, and you should!” said Lucie. “And you can take better care of your teeth. It is true that because of the pregnancy, your gums are weaker, and they can get infected. But this means you should take even more care than usual to: (1) clean regularly and (2) eat the right foods. You need to have strength when you are pregnant. An infection in your mouth does not help that. Because your gums are weak, it is also good to (3) rinse your mouth every day with warm salt water*, and if you cannot get fresh fruits and vegetables, then (4) take a tablet of Vitamin C every day.”

* See Sore bleeding gums.

Lucie then offered to clean Bertine’s teeth and to fill her cavities. When she touched Bertine’s gums, they bled, and Lucie said, “They will bleed at first, but after you clean them regularly for a while, they will be stronger. Bleeding gums are dangerous to a pregnant woman. The bleeding can increase anemia, which is a serious problem.”

“If a pregnant woman’s tooth has an abscess, is it safe to pull it before she has the baby?” asked Bertine. “Yes,” said Lucie, “you just must be gentle. A woman gets tired sitting in a dental chair for a long time, and sometimes you must give some extra anesthetic so she does not feel any pain.”

GIVING DENTAL TREATMENT TO A PREGNANT WOMAN

As we see from the story of Bertine and Lucie, it is possible - and good -to treat a pregnant woman’s dental problems before she has her baby.

In two situations, it is sometimes better to wait for the baby:

(1) Sometimes the woman’s gums become swollen and the swelling does not go down even after cleaning with a soft brush and rinsing with salt water.

These swellings must be cut away. She should have this small operation after the baby is born.


Figure

(2) During the last month of pregnancy, a woman may be too uncomfortable to have her tooth taken out. Control the infection with a 5-day course of penicillin, and take out the tooth after the baby is born. It is also better to wait if the woman has high blood pressure, because she may bleed too much when you take out the tooth.


Figure

Train midwives to examine women’s mouths. When they send them to you for dental care, they can give you any information you need.

Caring for a pregnant woman - a guide for dental workers

1. Ask her how many months she has been pregnant, and find out if she has high blood pressure. Any person with blood pressure over 150/100 may bleed excessively after an extraction. To get this information, encourage all women to use the Mother and Child clinics.

2. Do not take X-rays of teeth unless absolutely necessary. X-rays are dangerous to the unborn baby inside. Before an X-ray, always cover the mother’s midsection with an apron lined with lead.

3. Always give a careful and complete mouth examination. Tell her what treatment she needs and how to prevent tooth problems.

4. Be gentle. Show the woman that you care, that you want her to be comfortable, and that you can treat her without hurting her.

Dental Health Teaching Materials

In many different countries, teachers and dental workers have made their own materials to help them teach better. Below is a list of some of the materials we know about. We would like to improve this list. Please write us and let us know what you are doing. We will pass along your good ideas to others.

To receive the materials in this list, write to the addresses on the right.

A. Manuals and Notes

Available from:



1. Common Oral Diseases. A manual for health teachers about common diseases and emergency treatments. Now available in English and French. Soon available in Arabic and Spanish.

All regional offices of the World Health Organization (main address: CH - 1211 Geneva, Switzerland)



2. Dental Therapist Program. This book outlines the content of an existing 2-year basic dental care program for Native people living in isolated areas of Canada. English only.

Dr. Keith W. Davey
National School of Dental Therapy
710 - 15th Ave. E.
Prince Albert, Saskatchewan S6V 7A4
Canada



3. Saenta-O Povo Mobicano. A manual for health workers, adapted from Where There Is No Dentist, now being field tested in Mozambique. In Portuguese.

Direc Provincial de Sae Sofala
Instituto de Ciias de Saa Beira
C.P. 583
Beira, Provincia da Sofala
Mozambique



4. The Good Teeth Book-How to Take Care of Your Mouth. A manual of ideas, especially for school teachers. In English.

The Good Teeth Book
Box 395
Wewak, East Sepik Province
Papua New Guinea



5. School Health Manual. Health lessons for primary-school teachers, with a prominent section on dental health. In English.

Gutnius Lutheran Church
P.O. Box 111
Wabag, Enga Province
Papua New Guinea



6. Dental Health: A Teacher’s Guide K-12 Lesson plans for teaching dental health in Canadian schools, from kindergarten to Grade 12. In French and English.

Health & Welfare Canada
Room 1970, Jean Mance Building
Tunney’s Pasture
Ottawa, Ontario K1A OL3
Canada



B. Slides




1. Two slide sets to accompany Common Oral Diseases. Script in English.

Teaching Aids at Low Cost
P.O. Box 49
St. Albans, Herts. AL1 4AX
England



2. ‘How to Take Care of Your Teeth’, slides of the puppet show shown on pages 27-37 and 27-38 of Helping Health Workers Learn.

The Hesperian Foundation
P.O. Box 1692
Palo Alto, California 94302
U.S.A.



C. Flannel-boards

Available from:



‘Happiness is Healthy Teeth’. Presentation on dental health of children - a series of pictures to show the importance of brushing and healthy food.

Council on Dental Health
Indian Dental Association, Audio Visual Unit
CMC Hospital, Vellore, 630 004 India



‘Taking Care of Your Teeth, and Those of Your Children’. Large drawings showing local foods and possible ways of cleaning the teeth. Portuguese script available.

Direc National Medicina Preventiva Sec Educa Sanita
Ministerio de SaR>Maputo, Mozambique



D. Flipcharts




1. ‘Taking Care of a Small Child’s Teeth’ and ‘Improving Your Dental Health’ are two separate poster-size sets, using enlarged photographs. Script, in English and Melanesian Pidgin, can be attached to the back of each poster.

Immanuel Hospital
P.O. Box 181
Wapenamanda, Enga Province
Papua New Guinea



2. Nutrition/Dental Flipchart. Poster-size flipcharts using photographs. Script, in both English and Melanesian Pidgin, is printed on the back of each poster.

Ministry of Health
Dental Section
P.O. Box 1881, Boroko
Papua New Guinea



3. Flipchart on dental health, in the form of a manual (approx 35 cm x 20 cm), for use in small groups. Discusses food and hygiene for adults and children. Explanation in Portuguese on the back of each picture.

Direc National Medicina Preventiva
Sec Educa Sanita
Ministerio de SaR>Maputo
Mozambique



4. Dental flipcharts for mothers and children in rural areas. Text in both English and Bengali on back of each chart. A booklet with further explanations is also included.

Swedish Free Mission Dental Clinic
House 45A Road 16
Dhanmondi, Dhaka 9
Bangladesh

Write also to these organizations - they have a special interest in teaching aids:

1. Appropriate Health Resources and Technologies Action Group (AHRTAG)
Dental Health Services Unit
85 Marylebone High Street
London W1M 3DE
England

2. Teaching Aids at Low Cost
P.O. Box 49
St. Albans,
Herts. AL1 4AX
England

3. Medical Education Unit
Faculty of Medicine
Peradeniya, Sri Lanka

4. Health Education Bureau
Kynsey Road, Colombo
Sri Lanka

5. World Health Organization
Oral Health
1211 Geneva 27
Switzerland

You can write to these World Health Organization Intercountry Centers:

6. Intercountry Center for Oral Health
Ban Nong Hoi, Chiang Mai
Thailand

7. Training and Research Center for Oral Health
Ministry of Health
Jissr A1 - Abyad Raiss
Damascus, Syria