Cover Image
close this bookWells Construction: Hand Dug and Hand Drilled (Peace Corps, 1980, 282 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderSection one: Planning
close this folderChapter 1: Introduction to wells planning
View the documentA. Overview
View the documentB. The need for adequate water supply
View the documentC. Involving the local community
View the documentD. Selecting the most appropriate water source
View the documentE. Site choice
View the documentF. Preventing water contamination
View the documentG. Types of wells
View the documentH. Well sections
View the documentI. Materials
View the documentJ. Tools and equipment
View the documentK. Sinking method
View the documentL. Preparation for construction
View the documentM. Planning
close this folderSection two: Hand dug wells
View the documentChapter 2: Introduction to hand-dug wells
View the documentChapter 3: Well design
View the documentChapter 4: Supplies
View the documentChapter 5: Lowering and raising workers and equipment
View the documentChapter 6: Digging
View the documentChapter 7: The middle section: overview of lining techniques
View the documentChapter 8: Construction of the middle section
View the documentChapter 9: Construction of the bottom section
close this folderSection three: Drilled wells
View the documentChapter 10: Introduction to drilled wells
View the documentChapter 11: Drilling and casing techniques
View the documentChapter 12: Construction: hand rotary and hand percussion methods
View the documentChapter 13: Construction: sludger method
View the documentChapter 14: Construction: driven and jetted
View the documentChapter 15: The bottom section
close this folderAppendices
View the documentAppendix I: Conversion factors and tables
View the documentAppendix II: Vegetation as an index of ground water
View the documentAppendix III: Uses of dynamite in hand dug wells
View the documentAppendix IV: Cement
View the documentAppendix V: Leveling and plumbing the mold
View the documentAppendix VI: Pipe
View the documentAppendix VII: Pumps
View the documentAppendix VIII: Water treatment in wells
View the documentAppendix IX: Rope strength
View the documentGlossary
View the documentAnnotated bibliography

Appendix I: Conversion factors and tables

Length

Incn (in.) = 2.54 cm.
Foot (ft) = 12 in. = 30.48 cm
Yard (yd) = 3 ft = 0.9144 m
Mile = 5280 ft = 1.609 km
Centimeter (cm) = 0.3937 in. = 0.01 m
Meter (m) = 100 cm = 3.281 ft = 1.0936 yd
Kilometer (km) = 1000 m = 0.6214 mile

Area

Square inch (sq. in) = 6.452 cm²
Square foot (sq. ft) = 144 sq. in. = 929.0 cm²
Acre (43 560 sq. ft.) = 0.4047 ha
Square mile (sq. mile) = 640 acres = 2.590 km²
Square centimeter (cm²) = 0.155 sq. in
Square meter (m²) = 10 000 cm² = 10.764 sq. ft
Hectare (ha) = 10 000 m² = 2.471 acres
Square kilometer (km²) = 100 ha = 0.3861 sq. mile

Volume and Capacity

Cubic inch (cu. in.) = 16.387 cm³ or ml

Cubic foot (cu. ft) = 1729 cu. in. = 28.316 1 = 6.229 Imp.
gal = 7.481 US gal

Cubic yard (cu. yd) = 27 cu. ft = 0.7646 m³

Fluid ounce (British)(fl. oz.) = 28.41 ml
(US)(US fl. oz.) = 29.57 ml

Pint (British) (pt) = 20 fl. 02. = 0.5682 1
(US)(US pt) = 16 US fl. oz. = 0.4732 1

Quart (British) (qt) = 2 pt = 1.1365 1
(US)(US qt) = 2 US pt = 0.9463 1

Imperial gallon (British)(Imp. gal.) = 277.42 cu. in. = 1.20
US gal. = 4.546 1

US gallon (US gal.) = 231.0 cu. in. = 0.8327 Imp. gal = 3.785 1

Acre-foot = 1233.5 m³

Cubic centermeter (cm³) = 0.999972 ml = 0.06102 cu. in.

Mililiter (ml) = 1.000028 cm³ = 0.03520 fl. oz.

Liter (1) = 1000 ml = 0.2200 Imp. gal. = 0.2642 US gal.
= 0.035316 cu. ft

Cubic meter (m³) = 1000.028 1 = 1.3080 cu. yd = 220.0 Imp. gal
= 264.2 US gal = 0.0008107 acre-foot

Weight

Grain = 0.06480 g
Ounce (oz.) = 437.5 grains = 28.35 g
Pound (lb.) = 16 oz. = 0.45359 kg
Stone = 14 lb. = 6.350 kg
Hundredweight (cwt) (British) = 112 lb. = 50.802 kg
Hundredweight (cwt) (US) = 100 lb. = 45.359 kg
(Long) ton (British) = 2240 lb. = 1.01605 t
Short ton (US) = 2000 lb. = 0.90718 t
Gram (g) = 15.432 grains
Kilogram (kg) = 1000 g = 2.2046 lb.
Metric ton (t) = 1000 kg = 0.9842 long ton = 1.1023 short tons
ft³ water = 62.4 lbs.
1 liter water = 1 kg

Pressure

Pound per square inch (p.s.i.) = 0.06805 atm. = 0.07031 kg/cm²
= 0.7031 m of water = 2.307 ft of water

Standard atmosphere (atm.) = 14.696 p.s.i. = 1.0332 kg/cm²

Metric atmosphere kg/cm² = 14.223 p.s.i. = 0.9678 atm.

Flow rate

Cubic foot per second (cu. ft/sec) = 0.5382 mgd (Imp.) =
0.6463 msd (US)

Cubic foot per minute (cu.ft/min) = 0.4719 1/see

Imperial gallon per minute (Igpm) = 0.7577 1/see = 0.2728 m³/h

US gallon per minute (gpm) = 0.06309 1/see = 0.2271 m³/h

Million gallons per day (mgd) (Imperial) = 52.615 1/see
(US) = 43.811 1/see

Liter per second (1/sec) = 3.6001 m³/h = 13.20 Igpm = 15.85 gpm
= 0.019006 mgd (Imp.) = 0.022825 mgd (US)

Cubic meter per hour (m³/h) = 0.2778 1/see = 3.666 Igpm
= 4.403 gpm

Filtration rate

Million Imperial gallons per acre per day (mgad,Imp.) =
1.1234 m³/m²/day

Million US gallons per acre per day (mgad) = 0.9354 m³/m²/day

Cubic meter per square meter per day m³/m²/day

= 0.8902 mgad,


= 1.0691 mgad


Miscellaneous

Horsepower (h.p.) = 33 000 foot-pounds per minute = 0.746 kW
= 1.0139 CV

Kilowatt (kW) = 1.36 CV = 1.34 h.p.

Cheval-vapeur (CV) = 0.9863 h.p. = 0.736 kW

One liter of water weighs one kilogram (at 4°C)

One cubit foot of water weighs 63.43 pounds

One US gallon of water weighs a. 345 pounds