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close this bookHDD-(PHN)FLASH, newsletter on Population, Health and Nutrition of the Worldbank Human Development Department (WB)
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close this folderHDDFLASH ISSUE no. 5, July 15, 1996
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View the documentIn this ISSUE...
View the documentIndia's Family Welfare Program: Directions in Development Report
View the documentCase Study on Adolescent Program in Jamaica
View the documentVacancy announcements search for high caliber research scientist
View the documentHead of institutional partnerships project office in Moscow opens in July


Electronic newsletter and archiving service on human development ISSUEs
World Bank
Human Development Department (HDD) e-mail:

In this ISSUE...

· India's Family Welfare Program: Direction in Development Report by Anthony Measham and Richard A. Heaver

· Program for Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica - Family Health International

· Vacancy Announcements

India's Family Welfare Program: Directions in Development Report

The World Bank's Direction in Development Report - 'India's Family Welfare Program: Moving to a Reproductive and Child Health Approach' focuses on how the Family Welfare Program (FWP) can carry out the commitment (given at the Cairo population conference) to implement a client-centered approach that responds more effectively to the reproductive health and family planning needs of women and men in India. The report, written in collaboration with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, aims to identify specific constraints that stand in the way of reorienting the FWP toward a reproductive health approach and to delineate feasible actions which can be taken to overcome them.

The 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development formalized a growing international consensus that improving reproductive health, including family planning, is essential to human welfare and development. This brings to light the crucial distinctions between the overall goals of a population policy and those of a reproductive health program.

The Indian Family Welfare Program, now in its fifth decade, has made important contributions to improving the health of mothers and children and providing family planning services. During the past decade its focus has gradually shifted away from family planning and toward a general effort to improve maternal and child health. However, problems of access to services and the quality of services continue to plague the program. These ISSUEs have to be addressed if the program is to become more client-centered.

Some key ISSUEs which need to be resolved are :

1. Moving away from numerical, method specific contraceptive targets and incentives to a client-centered approach. It has been recognized that contraceptive targets imbue the FWP with a demographic planning emphasis that is antithetical to the reproductive health approach. It is suggested that the government develop a broad system of performance goals and measures which focus on a range of reproductive services.

2. Expanding the use of male and reversible contraceptive methods and broadening the choice of contraceptives. Male contraceptive methods account for only 6 percent of current contraceptive use. There is an urgent need to promote the use of condoms as a contraceptive method and as a means for preventing the spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Although female sterilization still accounts for 75% of modern contraception methods there is still a high unmet need for reversible methods. Therefore increasing contraceptive choice for individuals deserves a high priority.

3. Improving the breadth, access and quality of services; and involving communities (women's groups, those representing the poor, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes) in the operations of the FWP is critical. Although community involvement has been growing over time, the potential for playing a larger role is enormous, and the benefits of such involvement are likely to be considerable.

4. Strengthening the role of the private sector The private sector accounts for three-quarters of all health expenditures in India and emphasizes curative rather than preventive care. Social marketing, private medical practitioners and private voluntary organizations (PVOs) are three components of the private sector. The report recommends assessing the current system for marketing of contraceptives and additional health and nutrition products, supporting and promoting the involvement of private practitioners in reproductive and child health care by providing training and overhauling the operational systems of PVOs thus allowing them to be strengthened and more focused on reproductive concerns.

5. Adequate funding for the current program and expansion of the reproductive health approach. The FWP is substantially underfunded particularly in the areas of facilities, staffing and transport. The public sector will need to increase its budget in these areas and have a central role to play in financing the reproductive and child health package of services. Additional discussions on financing can be found in the report on health finance (World Bank 1995e) and the India Country Economic Memorandum.

To order a copy of the report electronically, check out the Publications Homepage at:

For a mail order copy contact:

The World Bank Bookstore
1818 H St., N.W., Department T-8051
Washington, D.C. 20433
Tel: (202)473-1155 or Fax: (202)522-2627

Case Study on Adolescent Program in Jamaica

The Women's Studies Project (WSP) at Family Health International

(FHI) has published a case study on the Program for Adolescent Mothers in Jamaica. Administered by the Women's Center of Jamaica Foundation, the island-wide program provides assistance to pregnant teenage girls by 1) helping teens continue their education during pregnancy and return to the regular school system as soon as possible and 2) educating teens about family planning so that they May delay a second pregnancy.

The case study is part of a series of profiles of women-centered health programs published by the WSP. The Jamaica case study includes a history of the Program, information about Program administration and funding, interviews with current and former participants, and interviews with community members. Former participants discuss the long-term effects of the Program, noting it offered a friendly, non-judgmental environment at a stressful time in their lives. The Program also helped them improve relationships with their parents, accept the responsibilities of motherhood, become family planning users, gain self-esteem, and demand more in their relationships with men.

The case study was written by Barbara Barnett, Elizabeth Eggleston and Karen Hardee of the WSP staff and Jean Jackson of the Fertility Management Unit (FMU) of the University of the West Indies. A limited number of copies are available. The publication is free and can be obtained by contacting Ms. Debbie Crumpler, Publications Coordinator, Family Health International. Fax: 919-544-7261. The text of the case study also is available on FHI's web site:

Vacancy announcements search for high caliber research scientist

Recruitment Notice
Global Tuberculosis Programme
World Health Organization
Geneva, Switzerland

The Mission of the Global Tuberculosis Programme (GTB) of the World Health Organization is to relieve the considerable burden of death and suffering caused by tuberculosis. GTB's role is to lead and support the international community, to eliminate TB as a global public heath problem, especially in low-income countries. The Tuberculosis Research and Surveillance unit (TRS) of GTB, has committed itself to promoting the research necessary to achieve this mission.

The objectives of TRS are:

i. to gather information to describe the status of the TB epidemic and the impact of attempts to control it;

ii. to promote the research necessary to disseminate the WHO recommended strategy to TB control; and,

iii. to promote research aimed at improving this strategy.

We are, therefore, looking for professionals with diverse skills to apply their initiative and enthusiasm to this task. In particular we are seeking an experienced scientist who has a background in biomedical research or in infectious diseases, particularly in anti-infective agents and/or diagnostic tools. The preferred candidate will either have worked for at least five years in the pharmaceutical or biomedical industry or have had, in the course of his/her work, close dealings with these industries. Successful candidates will be expected to develop strong working relationships with leading biomedical research institutions and research funding institutions worldwide, keep abreast of developments, facilitate consideration of products and approaches with particular attention to their relevance to developing country settings, challenge established wisdom and convention to encourage innovative approaches to research, its strategy and development of effective public/private partnerships. Leadership, initiative, and proven management skills are essential. Specific experience in the field of tuberculosis or mycobacterial infections will be an advantage. We envisage the successful candidate will have a Ph.D. or equivalent, or a medical degree, with extensive experience in a biomedical research area and a good publication record with proven project management experience. Excellent written and oral presentation skills in English are essential.

Applications from women are encouraged. Remuneration: Salary plus Post Adjustment (subject to fluctuations)

US$85 000 - 115 000.

The successful candidate will be based in Geneva and will have substantial opportunity for international travel. A detailed curriculum vitae with an accompanying letter quoting references and explaining why the candidate believes they would be the best person for the position should be sent to the address below by August 1, 1996.


Head, Professional Candidates

World Health Organization
20, Avenue Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27
WHO Facsimile No. +41-22-791-07-46

Head of institutional partnerships project office in Moscow opens in July

International Research & Exchanges Board (IREX) announces an opening in mid-July of the Moscow Representative position for the USAID/IREX Institutional Partnerships Project.

The Institutional Partnerships Project (IPP), under a three-year cooperative agreement between IREX and USAID, helps educational institutions, professional associations, and trade organizations in the Russian Federation and Ukraine build capacity to provide professional-level training, as well as improve their member services. By strengthening the institutional bases of civil society and their lasting links to American counterparts, USAID and IREX hope to make a substantial contribution to the development of democratic norms and free market economies in the two countries.

The head of the IPP Moscow office supervises a team of three Russian nationals. They jointly monitor and support 16 of the project's 22 partnerships. The value of the grants to the US-Russian partnerships is approximately $25 million. The position is one of major substance and importance to IREX and to USAID.

The Moscow Representative reports to the Project Director in Washington, but works and coordinates closely with the main Moscow office of IREX. Projects are scattered across the 11 time zones, from Magadan and Yakutsk to Pskov and St. Petersburg, so that a good deal of oversight travel is necessary. Key components of the position include: close collaboration with the Russian and US partners to help them communicate well and cohere in common purpose; and management of the professional relationship with the USAID Mission in Moscow.

Excellent Russian speaking and writing skills are indispensable to success in this position. Experience in exchanges and training management, particularly with respect to non-government organizations, is highly desirable. Promising candidates will have at least two years of living and working experience in Russia. Administrative ability and patience are essential. Broad general knowledge and adaptability are desirable, given the range of areas in which the partnerships work, from agribusiness to urban housing, and from medical training to aquaculture. IREX is an Equal Opportunity Employer.

Candidates are encouraged to make their interest known to IREX as soon as possible by mail to IREX/IPP, 1616 H St., NW, Washington, DC 20006, or by facsimile at (202) 628-9818.