|Non-formal Vocational Training Programmes for Disadvantaged Youth and their Insertion into the World of Work: Towards a Framework for Analysis and Evaluation (IIEP, 1999, 46 p.)|
By focusing on 'non-formal training programmes', and on 'disadvantaged youth in developing countries', this report attempts to inscribe these topics in the larger socio-political and economic context. For this reason, a diverse body of literature - empirical studies and conceptual papers - was selected for review. These publications covered the fields of: (a) disadvantaged youth in developing countries; (b) world employment, demographic growth and youth unemployment; (c) the informal sector in rural and urban areas of developing countries; and (d) the vocational and technical (formal and non-formal) training programmes within the context of larger, comprehensive supporting strategies, most of which are represented by the bibliographical references cited in this document. Therefore, this study also reflects an attempt to capture the issue of interest from different viewpoints, or perspectives.
It is worth noting that the aim of this report was not to cover and exhaust all the available material but, rather, to assure representativeness of topics consistently raised and discussed in the literature. Furthermore, whereas the publications on the employment problem, population growth and the structure of the informal sector in developing countries are quite abundant and easily located, only a scattered body of literature in which priority is given to the specific contribution of non-formal training programmes to disadvantaged youth could be encountered (e.g. Corval 1984 and Fluitman, in Wallenborn, 1989). Nevertheless, altogether these studies constitute a rich material from which to extract lessons to construct a framework for the analysis and assessment of non-formal vocational training programmes.
Furthermore, the recent literature reviewed for the purpose of this study points to an increasing number of phenomena - e.g. the informalization of the economy and the formalization of the informal sector - which lead to an inevitable relativization of concepts and categories being used. This study has, therefore, attempted to account for these complex changes and adaptations which have taken place in this field.
To sum up, the issue of 'non-formal training for disadvantaged youth (in developing countries) and their insertion in the world of work' is herein treated: (i) from an embedded or integrated approach, in which specific themes are contained in comprehensive approaches, and contextualized into a larger global perspective, and (ii) from a dynamic and inter-dependent perspective in which categories are not stable, cannot be discussed in isolation, or much less in opposition to one another.