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close this bookOrganizational Performance and Change Management - Workshop proceedings - October 1-3, 1997, International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), Philippines (IIRR, 1997)
close this folderWorkshop 1
Open this folder and view contentsCritical factors and performance indicators
Open this folder and view contentsCase 1: Sibol ng Agham at Teknolohiya (SIBAT) experience - Performance indicators
Open this folder and view contentsCase 2: The quest for a transformed organization - A review of factors in organizational performance in a christian development organization (World Vision, Incorporated)
View the documentComments on the cases
View the documentWorkshop outputs
View the documentSummary of discussions

(introduction...)


Figure

IT HAS BECOME even more important these days to have efficient and effective program and institutional performance for three major reasons:

1. The ability to compete with other NGDOs for dwindling development funds or resources;

2. The ability to adapt to the fast changing environment without losing respective organizations' relevance; and

3. To improve the quality of programs and services in terms of focus, impact and magnitude.

In the light of this, identifying critical factors and indicators to accurately signal and measure progress is imperative for every organization that has to regularly get feedback on its performance.

Process

Two sets of experiences on organizational and network performance management were shared by representatives from the World Vision Incorporated (WVI) and Sibol ng Agham at Teknolohiya (SIBAT), respectively. After these presentations, the participants formed three groups according to the nature of their respective organizations. The first group consisted of representatives from funding agencies, the second from technical support NGDOs, and the third from NGDOs with field operations.

The groups addressed the following questions:

· What critical assessment points or factors are used by your organization in gauging your performance?

· Why are these factors or assessment points considered critical by your organization?

· What are the issues and gaps in identifying these factors and indicators?

· What are the lessons learned in identifying the critical factors and performance indicators?

The groups were careful not to gather too many assessment points for consideration as this might have drawn them away from discussing the more critical points that truly affect performance.

(introduction...)

by Sansen Maglinte and Victoria Lopez
SIBAT


Figure

SIBOL NG AGHAM at Teknolohiya (SIBAT) is a network of non-government development organizations (NGDOs) established by appropriate technology (AT) organizations to promote exchange and cooperation on the many subjects of AT. SIBAT merged and implemented initiatives on organic agriculture throughout the country. SIBAT's distinct area of competence falls in the category of networking for AT promotion. The network has indeed grown since its forming in 1984 and has directly assisted in promoting AT, particularly in the field of agriculture, throughout the network. As a network SIBAT has:


Figure

· organized conferences and fora that involved and expanded organizations around development issues; two national Genetics Conference 1981 and 1995, Pesticides and Women in 1994; Sustainable Agriculture and Media in 1996; etc.

· established networks of NGDOs and people's organizations (POs) around specific objectives, such as the Seed Exchange Network for crop genetic conservation. SIBAT also has taken the lead in a number of networking initiatives, such as the Philippine PRA Network, Pesticide Action Group, etc.

· organized capability building activities around specific technologies, such as Hydraulic Ram Pump Development in 1993, MicroPower Development in 1995, Participatory Research Approach in 1995 and Genetics Conservation Methods each year since 1994.


Figure

SIBAT - the early years

SIBAT formed technological development strategies for the AT program through looking at the adverse impact of the Green Revolution Technology in the early 80s, and instituting alternative and sustainable production systems in agriculture. In the 80s, SIBAT found that 90% of productive agricultural lands in the lowlands are applying chemical farming systems, HYV seeds and pesticides. The yield ratio of the harvest is 1:70-80 cavans/hectare.

Inversely though, the cost of production is continually increasing. Marginal farmers are gaining a net income of P10,000 - 15,000/year, enough to stay at the subsistence level. They are also perennially tied to various lending schemes of local capitalists.

Upland and peripheral farms need upgraded production and post-harvest tools. Water utilization structures also need installing and developing. Appropriate technologies in agriculture and infrastructure needed developing and disseminating.

At the socio-cultural level, communities and farmers' organizations are embarking on alternative co-economic endeavors such as credit cooperatives and related production approaches. SIBAT found a need to address the numerous requests for information, alternative technology components for agricultural production and capability building measures to manage programs and projects.


Figure

The supporting member institutions of SIBAT were likewise faced with common development challenges. They had to identify grassroot needs, like resource scarcity, to meet program and institutional demands. There was the need to level off on visions, directions and frameworks on sustainable agriculture (SA)/AT as the work progressed. The broad members of the network were ready to embark on SA/AT work as alternative technologies to the Green Revolution. This was felt necessary for the peasants and agriculture sector at large.


Figure

In general, the national character of membership and the services demanded by the national peasant sector from SIBAT's SA/AT justified the need for a network like SIBAT. SIBAT and its network was soon perceived as a high impact method to disseminate information on alternative technology.

The network organization

The SIBAT network has formal constitution and by laws. It is motivated through activities rather than conducting research.

The strength of the SIBAT network is the technological development strategy at the network level. After recognizing the weak areas in technology, a group of NGDOs in the network corroborate to implement what is needed. This is akin to a group of farmers corroborating on a specific subject of farm trial or research. This group then forms a plan, indicates their respective contribution to the overall plan, and calls the necessary meetings. Each group maintains responsibility for reporting to the rest of the network, as the work is being done on behalf of the network.


Figure

Types of networks

NDGO networks fall into various categories, such as:

· technology-based;
· issue-based;
· strategy-based; and
· formal/loose relationships.

SIBAT has a dimensional network strategy from the subject of appropriate technology up to standards' criteria and development philosophy.

The secretariat

The role of a secretariat was crucial for a network with enabling functions. The secretariat became the focal point for all services and inter-NGDO engagements. The most responsive and relevant service by the national secretariat is information and advice on AT.

Description of experience

The process

The process of identifying needs and local demands is discussed at the regular network assembly. National and regional members fully represents their respective institutions and organizations and carries decision-making responsibilities. The representation reflects both the NGDO and PO members of the network.


Figure

In outlining its performance target as a network vis-a-vis needs, SIBAT proceeds through an analysis of socio-economic and political conditions in a given period. The contextual background of situations provides strategic options for coming up with long term goals and plans to implement.


Program strategy formulation, schematic flow

Cycle of program/project development

Pre-implementation: Network/PO/Community

a. Presentation of request (takes the following forms: formal letters, or recommendations presented, workshops and conferences)

b. Levelling-off activities

· Community situations (intended beneficiary level)
· Identification of problems and needs
· Identification of community/PO capabilities and resources

c. If the activity then is assessed to be within the capability of the member institution or PO, the details of the project implementation smoothly follow, filling out item as to: when, what, where, who and how in project implementation

Implementation proper

Research phase

Accomplished through the following methodologies:

· Rapid rural appraisal
· Baseline data gathering
· Community/beneficiary area survey
· Concept building and planning at PO level

Research is done at varied scopes:

· Community level (sitio/barrio)
· Cluster level (clusters of barrios and municipalities)


Machinery building

Assessment and periodic monitoring

Phase-out stage and community sustainability phase

- Determined by the level of technology skills adoption
- Level of management capability

Factors affecting performance

There are three modifying factors that cut across operational experiences of SIBAT's SA/AT work as a network. These are:

1. resource scarcity;
2. changes in direction; and
3. consistancy of situational trends.

Resource scarcity

The financial capability of the network could not fully sustain the various demands of the communities in the full scope of its work. This has long been recognized by the network members.

Strategic optimization of approaches were instituted to offset the difficulty. One approach was using skills or capacities that are already marketable, such as technical feasibility assessments of water infrastructures, renewable energy designing, research work and farm development.

These services, when requested and delivered to non-members, can generate service fees. The income generated will subsidize delivery of the same service to communities who could not afford to shoulder the total cost. Among the network members, the minimum standard of counterpart share is composed of transportation, board and lodging without professional fees.

To further offset costs, the network maximizes existing non-monetary resources such as:

· SA/AT pool of trainers both in agricultural and engineering skills;
· SA/AT curricula and instructional materials in station-based production; and
· demonstration blacksmith shops.


Figure

Example 1

The 1991, supertyphoon Ruping ravaged most network communities in the Visayas region of the Philippines. Agricultural rehabilitation involved finding seed and planting materials. The demonstration farms in the regions of Luzon and Mindanao, not affected by the typhoon, provided the seeds from their demonstration production farms.


Figure

Example 2

In installing a hydraulic ram pump or a micro-hydro electric system in one of the upland communities of the Cordilleras or Cotabato, a pool of engineers from different network members were asked to jointly work on the project. The same is true with blacksmith specialists giving training to network members embarking on tool production.

Changes in direction

Changes in direction are a major factor affecting coordinated efforts. NGDOs and even POs will, understandably, change their orientation and direction in the course of time. For instance, members can shift course from socio-agricultural work to adult literacy or popular-education or from a purely engineering work activities to organizing. These shifts affect modals of joint network activities and direction. Where most members work together to promote SA/AT, deviations from this goal alter other activities of the members, whether it is short-term or long-term.

Consistency of situational trends

The various adverse impact of the present policy to liberalize export, land conversion and massive chemicalization of the production systems is graving previous negative effects among the peasants. About seven million hectares of rice lands are converted for industrial uses to accomodate export winnables. There is an enormous use of pesticides.

The network has to sustain its SA/AT efforts and identify adoptive strategies to address the emerging problems of the increasing cost of inputs and advocacy of chemical farming.

Basically, this situation reflects the country's agricultural policies and direction which relates to the green revolution technology which SIBAT established in the 80s.

What are performance indicators?

Performance indicators for the network were not included in SIBAT's overall action plan. However, in reviewing SIBAT's work, five significant performance trends were identified. These are as follows:

1. Members drop out

This could be ascribed to changes in direction and new work orientation significantly different to the initial work of the network. From an original compositions of 48 members since 1984, SIBAT's membership to date was reduced to 23 active members.

2. Sustained attendance and interaction in meetings

This is essential to follow through network plans, reach decisions and resolve conflicts. Activities to unite members are frequent in meetings. For instance, at the height of campaigns against pesticides, and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) in 1994-1995, the broad members discussed and formed common positions and frameworks. Members applied SA/AT work against emerging critical issues. Such efforts helped sharpen the focus and direction of SA/AT work at ground level.


Figure

3. Increase in counterpart share

This signifies direct assistance activities at the ground level, cost-sharing and collaborative efforts among and between network members. This is a significant shift of service terms among members. Before, all service costs, such as technical feasibility of farm renewable energy and other appropriate technology projects, were shouldered by the network secretariat office. Recipients are now a factor in cost sharing as part of integrating sustainability and encouraging self-reliant mechanisms in projects. It is also worth noting that the majority of POs and NGDOs are able to convert at least 35-50% of total amount.

4. Number of services requested

This points to the relevance and urgency of AT services. It relates to the implementation of SA/AT projects and capability-building services necessary. Typical SA/AT requests by network members are illustrated in the list of network requests (1996).


Figure

List of network request

Site/organization

Type of request

Description

N. Palawan
PCART

water utilization

pre-feasibility and
technical feasibility

Davao
CRSP

water utilization

pre-feasibility and
technical feasibility

Lanao
CRSP

water utilization

technical feasibility

S. Cotabato
BATUNA

flow-current turbine

technical feasibility potential fabrication

S. Cotabato

water supply
hydram with reservoir

pre-feasibility

Bohol

water utilization

site survey

Amihan

deep well


Bondoc Peninsula
Amihan

water supply

technical feasibility

Itogon
MCDC

post-open pit mining agricultural rehabilitation

resource assessment and farm planning to production design

Panay Fruits and
Trading Corporation

organic conversion of muscovado sugar growing dryer

feasibility and farm planning

Cavite
IDEAS (2 sites)

well with jet pumps

ground testing technical feasibility

Butuan
Sildap

water supply

technical feasibility

There have been increased service requests from network members are in the fields of water for drinking and irrigation, fabrication and design of equipment and machines to effectively use existing water resources. To date, the renewable energy program has the capably to design, fabricate and install microhydro mechanical, electrical and civil engineering works. The program has also achieved photo-voltaic (solar power) installation for home lightings and power for water generators.

5. Viable technologies developed and demonstrated


Figure

This refers to matured and tested technologies in SA/AT which are in the dissemination and diffusion phase in many communities. The SIBAT's 1991 National Assessment Workshop on SA/AT presented a list of technologies achieved during the period. To date, the SA/AT work concluded the viability and affectiveness of the following technologies as practically applied in the communities:

· community-based seed banking;
· crop and livestock integration project;
· vermiculture bio-organic fertilizer technology;
· bio-spray technology;
· village level blacksmithing; and
· post-harvest equipment such as corn mill and pedal-powered threshers.

The renewable energy program is going full blast with micro-hydro technologies for household electricals and running post-harvest machineries. Solar-powered water pumps are currently being installed.

What are the tools to ensure responsiveness in changing conditions?

The network identified financial and organizational factors to help sustain efforts with communities. These are as follows:

Continually building unity on frameworks

These are essential in addressing changes in the external environment. Assessing current trends and conducting interim assessments are key to this. It is crucial for the network to arrive at a consensus on common directions to guide its work and create a larger impact. This is illustrated in various regional consultations of the network on SA/AT. The Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao SA/AT consultations were followed by the National Conference on SA/AT in 1991. This was followed by conferences on Pesticides and Women, confirming alternative components and policy against the adverse impact of pesticides on women, the Genetics Conference in 1988 and in 1995 for issues and policies against GATT and related conferences.

Developing resource sustainability strategies

This is a creation of technical pools within and outside the network that address SA/AT technical services with paying and counterparting clients both in and outside the network. Resource scarcity is one major factor of network performance that needs addressing. This is one sustainability measure adopted as part of deficit management scheme of the network.

Strengthening and evolving cooperation groups

This is necessary because of new challenges and directions. In particular, the network is reaching out to scientists and technologists other than those already within the network to render their technical expertise in SA/AT. There were positive experiences in the early 90s along this line where agriculture scientists from the University of the Philippines, Los Ba(UPLB) were active workers and were intergrated into various support units within SIBAT. There was a formal effort with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) for work collaboration, which maximized their use of training facilities and technological information.

Documentation/information build up of ground experiences


Figure

This serves as reference for future SA/AT work, promotion of alternatives and taking stock of the gains that aid development and advocacy of SA/AT policy. Since its formation in 1984, the SIBAT network helped develop the Science and Technology Resource Collection Center (STRCC) as its information dissemination center, It serves its member organizations, other service organizations and individuals by allowing access and exchange of information. It seeks to develop popular forms of science and technology. Its classification of SA/AT subjects has collections on:

· soil management;
· SA food production technologies;
· farm management/farm planning;
· designing farming systems;
· plant cultivation;
· alternative pest management;
· organic crop production and cropping system;
· agroforestry systems;
· animal sciences food processing and preservation;
· alternative trading and marketing;
· food security;
· ecology environment genetic conservation;
· biotechnology;
· women and SA/AT;
· training and extension on SA;
· farm equipment and agricultural mechanization; and
· appropriate infrastructure technology.

It has total a collection of 1,271 books and 766 SA/AT documents. Research information is accessed through the internet and computerized access systems.

Continually forging effective linkages

Contact with local and international SA/AT groups is essential in anticipating changing trends. Participation and shared efforts in a framework of openness and respect help maintain these links.

What are the key lessons and insights?

The following are valuable insights into the organizational advantages of performance indicators.

Unity of analysis and vision

The notion of unity amidst diversity was instrumental in advancing SA/AT work. Network members came to a common understanding about problems and created a convenient way to chart their activities and establish clear cut work relations. Individuals also had autonomy to pursue their own interest. Relating to a common vision and goal eliminates a lot of conflict and achieves far reaching gains than working on a fragmented framework.

Periodic consultation

It is imperative to seek opportunities and consultative avenues to build unity and make it an integral part of management. SIBAT uses the national assembly to get a consensus of opinion, identify current trends and analyze performance. Regional assemblies often substitute national assemblies because of the cost. Smaller groups within a common topographical area can gather enough discussion materials for decision-making before the national assembly, Visits to smaller groups highlighted plan adjustments, targets, factors and issues at the local level that would affect SA/AT working operation.

Feedback is a regular activity. Identifying changes and making clarifications are a substantial part of visiting. Other important activities are timely meetings at regular periods, such as mid-year and annual meetings, that help with monitoring and provide activity updates. The large membership, scattered nationwide, and the costs involved, is a major constraint in sustaining the regular policy and management meeting.

With all its limitations, these processes in the overall management of the network, have helped SIBAT sustain its AT/SA work as a formal organization.

Lessons in networking

At implementation level, the following insights were deemed significant in the dynamics of network operations.


Figure

· Mandate of constituencies. While continually reflecting on their nature and relevance, networks live by a mandate of a constituency that operates their course of action away from the network. The relevance of a network is most closely linked to the aspirations of its constituency; a network is difficult to survive apart from its base. The primary constituencies should painstakingly define and review the direction and objectives of the network based on their analysis of changing needs and conditions.

· Complementing internal resources. While scarcity of financial resources is evident, non-monetary resources within the broad membership should be harnessed. External assistance providing complementary support should be maximized.

· PO strength is necessary to sustain all on the ground efforts.

· Forming cooperative teams among members is an effective strategy which has facilitated the promotion and implementation of renewable energy initiatives, production and post-harvest equipment, fine-tuning AT/SA training modules and capacity-enhancement activities at shared costs and investment.

· Common work orientation in SA/AT facilitates policy and advocacy formulation.

· Networking enhances common points rather than differences among groups and networks, without prejudice and harm to individuals of all distinctions and standpoints.

· SA/AT technological development work as supportive to PO development; networking's role to develop and consolidate POs as primary catalysts for the AT movement and for social change.


Figure 1


Figure 2

(introduction...)

by Evita Perez
Executive Director, World Vision


Figure

IN THE COMPLEX and competitive world of the "market place", it is always a challenge to continually improve the performance of organizations. In the 90s, it is not enough to just be efficient. The task to achieve "quality of life" in the work places, while achieving productivity, effectiveness and efficiency continues to be the direction.

Improving and sustaining top performance, therefore, assumes a priority task for any leader who wishes for the organization to stay not just on top, but to stay in business. However, most managers agree that the problem with plans to improve performance is that "once written, polished and published in attractive four-color binders, these usually find their way to the bookshelves, not to be looked at again until the next evaluation session". The plans of action have a "great shelf life, but no real life".

The World Vision (WV) is concerned and works towards productivity, professionalism, effectiveness and efficiency in the ministry. The organization highlights the deepest desire to be true to the identity as an organization following the ways of Lord Jesus. This is the cornerstone of any assessment as to whether the organization is performing according to its standards or not. It charts progress towards transforming the organization to mirror Jesus Christ, the model of the ministry.


Figure

This case study attempts to:

· Describe the experience in identifying organization-wide organizational performance factors;

· State the process by which the organization derived these performance indicators; and

· Describe the challenges faced in the pilgrimage towards a transformed organization, as indicated by the performance indicators.

The world vision

To date, WV in the Philippines is one of the largest child-focused organizations in the country. It gets support primarily from its parent organization, WV International. It is part of 103 other WV entities worldwide, that aims is to bring the redeeming love of Jesus Christ to the poorest and neediest.

WV supports approximately 32,000 children and funds development programs in 61 projects in 28 provinces nationwide. These projects provide educational assistance, livelihood opportunities, health care and maintenance, training for leadership and value education to children and people in communities.

WV had a unique "ministry mix" which consists of community development, emergency relief assistance and rehabilitation, evangelism and leadership training and value formation and change. As a Christian development organization whose model is Jesus Christ, the Bible is the blueprint for the ministry.

Finding a vision for an organization

"Where there is no vision, the people will perish."

Proverbs 20:18

The organization affirms the truth of this Biblical passage in the corporate life. An assessment of an organization's performance essentially asks just one question, and that is if the organization is reflecting its vision. Any review of performance aims to pinpoint the assignment between vision and reality. To understand and contextualize the factors for organizational performance analysis, it is necessary to understand the vision of the organization.

In 1987, WV underwent major reorganization, which drastically changed working practices within the ministry as well as the organizational structure. The changes consisted of a:

· change in the basic assumptions of the ministry and the strategies; and

· consequent change in the organizational structure into one which follows and supports the changes.

The process of change was emotionally charged, accompanied by streamlining of a number of positions, relocation of some staff and separation for others. However, the change process resulted in a relatively clean state, where new initiatives were dreamed of and realized.

In the action-reflection-action process that followed the changes, new directions and thrusts of WV's ministry were fully established.

Before

Changed to

Traditional ministry approach


"Giving" approach

Empowering approach


Treat symptoms of poverty

Deal with causes of poverty
Deeper, long-term approach to poverty alleviation

Staff and community roles


Professional staff do planning

Community members do planning


Professional staff make decisions

Community members make decisions


Projects relied totally on WV resources

Projects now assisted by support from other government organizations (GO), etc.


Staff role as expert, implementor

Staff role - organizer, facilitator


Children and families: passive recipients

Children and families: actors


Staff are "development tourists"

Staff live in community

Belief


Poor must be served

Poor have abilities, gifts and resources which they can bring to the process


Poor have the potential to manage and improve projects


Community's perception



"This is World Vision's projects"

"This is our project, assisted by WV."

Strategy



All sponsored children get as set of package of benefits

Resources distributed based on NEEDS


WV worked alone

WV will engage other organizations and agencies to support the development process


Systems-driven

Systems will be developed based on needs and on people's experience, not prescribed by WV.


Figure

From these insights, and after a prayerful process of reflection and discussion, the WV chose the vision for mission in Isaiah 65: (v. 17-25).

"Behold, I will create new heavens and new earth. The former things will not be remembered, nor will they come to mind. But be glad and rejoice forever in what I will create, for I will create Jerusalem and take delight in my people; the sound of crying and weeping will be heard in it no more. Never again will there be in it an infant who lives but a few days, of an old man who does not live out his years; he who dies at a hundred will be thought a mere youth; he who fails to reach a hundred will be considered accursed. They will build houses and dwell in them, they will plant vineyards and eat their fruit. No longer will they build houses and other eat. For as the days of a tree, so will the days of my people, my chosen ones will long enjoy the works of their hands. They will not toil in vain, or bear children doomed to misfortune; for they will be a people blessed by the Lord, they and their descendants with them. Before they call, I will answer; while they are still speaking, I will hear. The wolf and the lamb will feed together, and the lion will eat straw like the ox, but dust will be the serpents' food. They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain..."

Isaiah 65:17-25 NIV

However, the task does not stop in the writing of the vision. If not internalized, this would probably have gone the way of those wall-hangings in every corporate boardroom, just there, but never a part of the real life of the organization. Operationalization and concretization were done through:

· Intensive reflection processes on Isaiah 65 for ALL staff through staff conferences, workshops, group meetings, etc. This is to help staff feel what Isaiah 65 means in their lives and in their work. In this way, staff can see the future and let go of the past paradigms. This action-reflection-action process also gave staff time for "emotional cleansing" and release from the "trauma" of the reorganization.

· Deriving ministry indicators from the Isaiah 65 vision. This set the foundation for spreading the vision of Isaiah 65 further, down to the partners.

· Sharing the vision to project partners and helping them draw their own vision statement consistent with the Isaiah vision.


Figure

If this vision statement did not make it to the deepest recesses of the organization's heart and into the hearts of staff, no authentic assessment of organizational performance would have been possible. Through the processes outlined above, WV, its staff, and its project partners were unified in the work of transformational development.

The second most important result of having the vision is being able to identify the key performance factors for the organization's work. These are the "Seven Ss" - the factors in organizational performance.

1. Shared vision and values

At the heart of the corporate life is the shared vision and the values. The vision is anchored in Isaiah 65:17-25. The core values, which are shared with other WV offices in the world, permeate the organizational policies and lifestyle. The relationship with the WV partnership is governed through the Covenant of Partnership, which affirms the independence and interdependence. The organization affirms that the shared vision and values bond people together individually, as teams working together, and as a corporate body.

2. Structure

In terms of structure, it is now less hierarchical and more flat, expressing a team concept of management. This highlights the coordinative and facilitative roles in the work with the communities served. WV works primarily as cross-functional teams recognizing that ministry requirements often transcend organizational lines. People coming together to work on a task bring different perspectives, gifts and expertise, enriching one another.

3. Strategy

WV acknowledges that Jesus Christ is the model for ministry, as witness in Life, Words, Deed and Sign. In the work with communities, the focus is on empowering the poor, the children and others to take charge of their development. The program strategy affirms that the organization can multiply the impact of its efforts through networking with other partners, such as government organizations, other NGOs, local churches, etc.

4. Staff

WV strives to become a worshipping, praying and caring community. It nurtures and maintains relationships that manifest mutual trust, support and concern. It looks for staff who are not only technically competent but who also have a heart for the poor and are committed to serve them. As teams, WV believes in transparency and vulnerability, aware that people are all imperfect yet redeemed by God through His grace. It is committed to shared responsibility and accountability.

5. Style

WV practices a participatory and shared process of decision-making that allows staff at all levels to be informed, to be involved, take ownership and be accountable for actions and decisions that affect them organizationally as well as individually. This means that the leadership has no hidden agenda that oftentimes fuels the grapevine. Openness and feedback are encouraged. Staff strive to live a life that is consistent with the values and allows them to bear witness to the different publics they serve, particularly the poor.

6. Systems

WV affirms that systems are to serve the ministry and are adopted not just for system's sake. It is recognized that systems are better developed from people's experience and evolved by them. Systems remain so long as they serve the functions of the ministry.

7. Skills

WV believes that the environment should release the potential and skills of the staff. It is affirmed that all staff should learn the balance between process and results, to make ministry more effective. It is also believed that all the skills and competencies should always keep up with the goals.


Figure

Assessing organizational performance

The 7Ss is the grid through which all organizational endeavors are reviewed. To check, it is always ensured that in anything, the results will promote support, affirm and be consistent with the 7Ss.

In effect, the performance of each unit in the organization may be reviewed if:

1. The results promote the 7Ss values; and
2. The means to achieve the results are consistent with 7Ss.

For example, ministry results are evaluated as to whether they affirm the SHARED VISION (Isaiah 65) and values and whether the means to achieve transformation is consistent with the STRATEGY modeled by Jesus.

WV's project partners share the Isaiah 65 vision and have contextualized this in their own communities and realities. They replicate the same process of evaluating their own organizational performance using the 7Ss.

The organization has drafted development indicators, which are anchored upon the operationalization of Isaiah 65, for the core values. These development indicators supplement the 7Ss in assessing whether quality ministry is achieved that is transformational, sustainable, participative and which empowers the people served.

Organizational policies in human resources, staff development, and organizational development are supportive of STAFF values, which promote a worshipping, praying and caring community.

The STYLE further guides management and decision-making processes. All leaders and coordinators strive to practice a leadership style that is participative, consensus-seeking and transparent.

Policies, infrastructure and decisions on what SYSTEMS are adopted to ensure that systems serve ministry and people, and not the other way around.

All in all, the 7Ss permeate organizational life and processes. They rest on the Isaiah 65 vision. They provide the indicators whether or not the efforts lead the organization closer to realizing the vision. They are benchmarks in assessing whether or not there is an alignment or "fit" between present performance and what is hoped for in the organizational vision.

Insights in assessing performance

Organizational performance is affected by the dynamics of people and circumstances inside and outside the organization. It is recognized that certain factors influence whether or not positive organizational performance is made.

Leaders, staff and other stakeholders, all need to catch the vision.

Both leaders and staff of the organization need to catch the vision. There can be no meaningful movement towards the hope for performance level, if both do not move as one. This unity is achieved through Biblical reflections, intensive staff consultations, interactions and one-on-one sessions. WV invests heavily on staff training and development that helps internalize the Isaiah 65 vision.

Leaders' transparency and vulnerability to feedback needed.

Those mandated to achieve organizational objectives need to learn vulnerability and transparency as they lead. There is no room for hidden agenda. Leaders need to give substance, not just lip service to staff participation. Consensus does not come easily but leaders need to persist and not give in to the pull or expediency.

Balance of process and outcome

While leaders have to be careful to give process its due, they also need to know when to end process and take action. This is accomplished through leaders' mutual support of one another by corporate prayer and Biblical reflection, and sensitivity to feedback. Too much process blocks timely response to organizational opportunities. Yet, hasty action leads to a lack of commitment towards decisions.


Figure

Challenges and issues that affect performance

WV faces many challenges whenever performance is assessed. Foremost is determining and refining the process which indicates alignment between vision and present performance. Deriving relevant and "sensitive" instruments that assess the effectiveness and productivity is another. As the organization struggles with these issues, others arise to constantly challenge the performance. In particular:

The challenge of quality ministry

In the past, people in communities saw WV as a "dole-out" organization. When WV changed its approach to a more empowering mode that emphasized people's own capabilities to decide and manage for themselves, WV encountered resistence. Now, the processes of project planning, implementation and evaluation involve both leaders and beneficiaries. Day-to-day project management is given to the local leadership. WV strives to find creative ways and means to enhance and sustain empowerment in the people served.

Scripture Search as a method to integrated Scripture in people's daily lives remains a present challenge. People need to understand the relevance of the Bible in their daily routines. WV supports Scripture Search by investing in training for the core groups and partners, and its own staff on how to do Scripture Search.

Value change is critical to transformational development

True development that transforms the inner man must involve value change. Without value change, newly empowered people become the new oppressed. This is manifested in the unequal distribution of resources because leaders put their own needs first; people's capacities are not maximized because they do not have the opportunities to use their innate gifts, people do not participate as much as they should, etc.

Activities like Scripture Search nurture the action-reflection-action process and help staff and communities learn new values to replace the old. Staff and community people both learn and develop integrity, consistency, transparency and accountability in their dealings.

Empowerment of project partners

WV aims not to "do things alone" but to empower its partner, provide technical and training assistance to enable them to manage the project and their own development.

Project partners are responsible for day-to-day project management. WV provides coaching, training, exposure to successful experiences, advice and services to equip staff in development processes, decision-making, financial management and stewardship, government relations, etc. It is hoped that people will have changed self-images, more confidence in themselves, and be more willing to take on partner responsibilities.

Program, financial and leadership sustainability in projects

WV aims for and prepares people for sustainability. To ensure financial sustainability, WV encourages, assists and facilitates opportunities for its project partners to obtain funding from sources other than WV. Partners are trained to network, organize local fundraising campaigns and generally, link up with government agencies to maximize their resources. Partners are also trained to handle financial responsibility and accountability over the funds they raise.


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To ensure program sustainability, WV trains partners to be responsive to the needs of the community, emphasizes value formation, visualizes expansion and phase out processes; and ensures impact on the lives of people and children.

To ensure leadership sustainability in projects, WV assists its partners, to train second-liners; provide training and exposure to these second-liners; and follow turnovers of board leaders to make way for others. However, some partners find this difficult to do. Given power and authority, they are unwilling to let go of their power; unwilling to train second liners and successors within the community; and have tendencies to abuse and/or consolidate authority among themselves, e.g., hiring relatives in key positions in projects. This is a continuing challenge to WV.

Financial accountability and stewardship

Partners are given custody and responsibility for project funds, either sourced from WV or other agencies. Trainings on proper fund management, installation of checks and balance and program audit are conducted. Yet, there are times when, despite training and the presence of adequate technical support to the partner, WV confronts cases of fund misuse and misappropriation. In dealing with these cases, WV has to carefully apply constructive confrontation, discipline, reconciliation and stewardship.

Human resource development for quality staff

WV continues to face the challenge of getting quality staff who are committed to serving the poor as modeled by the Lord Jesus. It seeks staff who are accepting, flexible, willing to take risks and learn from mistakes, who have a wholesome regard for self and others, and who models a Christian lifestyle and values.

WV invests on staff training and development and promotes a corporate lifestyle conducive to staff growth. It is now redesigning and reviewing the existing hiring, training and compensation policies and programs to ensure that the present staff are equipped to meet the increasing demands of the ministry.

Cost effectiveness that sustains quality ministry and equitable project partnership

We are stewards of money that is raised and given at the cost of great sacrifice to our donors. Doing ministry work involves cost and it is WV's desire to make the ministry cost-effective and efficient. Productivity is the key, to do more with less. It is a constant challenge to channel more funds to ministry, rather than on administrative costs. It needs to make each peso count - through improved quality of life for children and communities.

Sustainability of World Vision

WV in the Philippines recognizes the critical issue of its own sustainability as a non-government organization (NGO). Resource generation programs were launched to raise local funds and involve Filipinos in the task of community development. The local board is also tasked to promote the work, thereby assisting in the fundraising efforts.

New drivers to consider: information technology, advocacy, environmental issues, etc.

Finally, new drivers to change is experienced. These include the challenge of information technology to make ministry more effective; brave forays into the arena of advocacy, not just on a national level but even international; and the rising concern for environmental issues. WV needs to prayerfully consider these new opportunities for involvement.


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A final word

As WV deepens the understanding of transformational development and as it is called to new opportunities for ministry, it affirms its need for more and more of God's grace and sustaining power.

As more people are reached and touched, WV is aware of being part of the Lord's process of bringing people to His knowledge. As we look at our work, we hope that WV will be the instrument to move people forward and toward the Lordship of Jesus Christ. After all, this is the reason for our existence.

Comments on the cases


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PERFORMANCE INDICATORS ARE by-products of organizational change management. They are learnt from past experiences, as the WVI example shows. WVI developed its 7Ss after two years of a painful change process. They provided the workshop with a summary of what they have gone through. Their methods are now being used to benchmark performance and change management.

Workshop outputs


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Funding agency group

Assessment points

Reasons

Issues/Gaps

Lessons

Cost and effectiveness

- Scarcity of resources
- Program quality (focus and impact)

Lack of standards to measure effectiveness

- There are experiences on reducing cost without sacrificing quality
- Lack of sharing of database

Reach of the program

For magnitude of impact



Self-governing organization


Relationship among partners

- Self centered/lack of building of strategic alliance


- Vision, Mission, Goal (VMG) realization

Defines reason for being

- Difficult to measure
- Over-projected goals
- Accountability and shared values



- Environment should be catalyzing





- Continuity of livelihood program beneficiary

Creation of more opportunities


There is minimal application of knowledge and skills learned from training


- Relevance to the prevailing situation

Sustenance of basic needs



Program sustainability


Prioritization of program alternatives

No shared understanding of monitoring and evaluation system (donor and beneficiaries)


- Tenurial security for wise management of resources

To create self-governing organization

Non-implementation of sanctions regarding funding is inadequate

Ability to say no to organization


- Capability building of partner organizations

To replicate the program



Improvement of the quality of life (Minimum basic needs standards)

Because beneficiaries are poor communities

Program expectation not congruent with beneficiary capability

Lack of systematic analysis to determine congruence

NGO support group

Assessment points

Indicators

Reasons

Issues/Gaps

Lessons

Sustainability

- Business profitability


Funding agency driven or internally driven performance assessment?

Movement/ stakeholders development


- Financial self sufficiency




Organization

- Leadership (developing second liners, openness, risk taking foresight)
- Active Board of Directors
- Movement building (not for profit)
- Clear movement/phase out of senior staff




Clarity in vision, mission, goals; development agenda; values; philosophy; paradigm

- Clearly defined, vision, mission, goals
- Ownership of vision, mission, goals


Documentation is generally lacking on organizational history. Often this is left with individuals

Documentation of the process of evolution/development to avoid reinventing the wheel. Uphold importance of documentation.

Staff capacity/ human resource development and commitment

- Willingness to take responsibility and risks
- Development of second liners
- Knowledge, skills and attitude level versus job demands
- Staff competence versus needs or partners


Transparency regarding financial standing



- Program

- Efficiency service
- Maximization or resources




Service delivery

Target versus outputs


Compensating individual staff for contributing to organizational performance

Include proposals a budget to cover for increase in compensation.

Responding to needs/service creation



Performance assessment seen as threatening

Performance assessment feedbacking

Management systems

Mechanism for learning in place


Balancing professionalism and volunteerism



- Human resources

- Desire to learn exist





- Financial

- Desire to be more efficient





- Integration / learning

- Ability to look back at one self as an organization




Governance (of Board of Trustees)

Active participation of Board of Trustees/ Board of Directors' development





- Relevance vis-a-vis external and historical context

- Evolving needs of partners


- Changes in external environment affecting performance

- Responding to people's needs/ demands even when there is no budget for it in terms of time and other resources


- Willingness of partners to collaborate/
participate

- External constraints/ situation - Nodal points in one's organizational history


- Efficiency versus effectiveness


Availability of inputs

Funds, frameworks, tools, curriculum, (timeliness, adequency)




Effects/outcomes of services rendered

- Extent of utilization of learning by partners


- Effects/ outcomes level assessments need human, material, and financial inputs thus performance assessment generally focussed on outputs and immediate effects

- Give adequate inputs to guage effects/outcomes


- Cooperative graduating to higher level of organization development


- General: lack of/no clarity on institutional/ organization level assessment points and indicators

- Unify on the use of measure for performance

Operating NGOs group

Assessments points

Indicators

Reasons

Issues/Gaps

Lessons

Strategy soundness

Participative SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) process

Reflects out institutional values

Balance between output and process

Understand/ appreciate personal struggles/ process of staff-value alignment

Efficiency of resource allocation/ generation

Adequency of resource based on project/ program requirements

Credibility as an organization reflects trust for future funding and long-term relations with funders

Balance between care for the staff and caring for the poor/ community


Management capacity/ development of human resources

Equip staff with knowledge, skills, attitude/ commitment. Provide appropriate caring/ compensation

Sustainability and relevance as an NGO

- Difficulty in using/ developing qualitative criteria/ indicators
- Addressing macro policies which are contradictory to micro objectives of the organization

Staff/community participation is key to the success of the strategy goals set

Values - consistency organizational values and individual values

- Staff lifestyle/ performance
- People/ community lifestyle

Maintains membership in network and ensures expansion



Achievement of targets

Modified minimum basic needs




Recognition of other GOs/ NGOs of your work

Invitation of other GOs and NGOs and resource




The assessment points most commonly identified by all groups were:

· cost-effectiveness

· use of resources

· efficiency

· allocation and generation of resources

· management capacity

· program effectiveness

· achievement of qualitative (e.g., improvement of quality of life) and quantitative (e.g., reach) program targets

The following were identified by both the funding agency and technical support groups:

· identifying a mission with external and historical contexts
· self governance
· capability building of partners

The funding agency group additionally identified the continuity of livelihood projects and sustainability of programs as an important performance indicator. This group went on to say that tenurial security and wise resource management determine the chances for sustainability of community management programs.

The operating group gave further performance indicators as:

· consistency of internalization of values between organization and staff
· the organization's human resource development program
· recognition of work by other development organizations
· a sound strategy and organizing process

Finally, the technical support group added that willingness of beneficiaries to collaborate and participate also indicate program and organizational performance.

The participants categorized the performance indicators into three groups. These were those affecting:

1. the network
2. individual organization
3. program/project levels

It was also pointed out that organizational or network performance cannot be taken in isolation of its programs/projects and the beneficiaries they serve. The bottomline of NGDO work should ultimately be measured against what it has done for its beneficiaries.

Summary of discussions


Figure

FIVE THEMES EMERGED from the discussions. These were:

1. Fit
2. Accountability
3. Impact
4. Sustainability
5. Stakeholders

Fit

Fit broadly means finding the right systems to realize the vision. For instance, WVI had consistency in its shared values with its 7Ss. WVI rediscovered the relevance of the 7Ss as benchmarks of organizational performance within the context of how these should be structured, and used in pursuing their vision and serving the requirements of their ministry.

MASAI affirmed this by saying that an organization is basically healthy if there is a match between its:

· programs' outputs and their respective beneficiaries' needs;
· competencies and task requirements of its programs;
· mechanisms by which needs are articulated by their beneficiaries and received by them.

A match in each of the correlations measures an organization's effectivity, efficiency and extent of participation, respectively. Any mismatch, on the other hand could mean:

· the organization is not meeting its objectives as translated into program;
· it is not using its resources properly; or
· it does not ensure participation of its beneficiaries.

Participants thought the above criteria was a sound way to measure efficiency and effectiveness. Everybody empathized with the reality of organizations overextending themselves to cater to the demands from beneficiaries, which cannot be accommodated by existing resources and mechanisms.

A common vision shared by NDGOs and the community is an important component of the strategy that should be adapted by any organization.

This last is particularly true in the case of SIBAT that depended largely on whether or not its members continued to identify with the issues it advocates.

Accountability

The participants were unanimous in saying that accountability is a very important measure of their performance. Accountability means taking responsibility or being answerable for the fulfillment of commitments made to the organizations' various stakeholders or multiple beneficiaries. Many participants said that donors usually measured accountability through an organization's cost-effectiveness and efficiency in resource allocation.

On the other hand, accountability to the beneficiaries meant the achievement of both the qualitative and quantitative targets of programs intended to improve the quality of their lives. However, actual achievements were considered by many participants as indicators of performance and, therefore, considered separately under impact.

Impact

Impact is interpreted as an indicator of reach, scope or scale of development initiatives or efforts.

Sustainability

Measuring sustainability is a two way process. It involves continuing the development process as programs and projects at the beneficiaries' level, and the continued existence of organizations that facilitate the process themselves. For the first, sustainability directly relates to the level of capability or development achieved by the beneficiary through self-governance. For the second, sustainability is linked to managing acquired competencies and the success or mechanism installed by the organization.

One participant spoke of the financial sustainability experiences in his organization. He made it clear that NGDO sustainability should only be talked about in relation to the continued demand for its services by its beneficiaries. He then presented a radical model for attaining financial sustainability through cost-recovery measures. The model states that if beneficiaries are the reasons for an NGDO's being, then they should also be the ones who should sustain it. If beneficiaries find an NGDO's services necessary, they should ensure continuous delivery by paying for such services.

Project priorities and goals also serve as performance indicators. For example, for organizations working on community-based resource management, tenurial security for the community was considered a major indicator of success. For others, sustaining livelihood activities was a major indicator of effectiveness.

Stakeholders

Most of the issues raised revolved around the theme of stakeholdership. Stakeholders were defined as groups having an interest and investment in the organization. For example, NGDOs have multiple stakeholders. They include the Board, staff, donors, partner-organizations, communities, other beneficiaries and target groups.

The issues raised were:

· Who sets the standards?

· Whose set of interests should ultimately indicate performance level given the often competing objectives of NGDOs? The compliance to funding agency demands or requirements? The promotion of the well-being of the beneficiaries? The viability of the NGDO? The competence gained from experience by the staff? The results of the rigorous analysis of professional evaluators or external experts?

In relation to this, how does an NGDO achieve a balance between its process and task/outcome orientation, between its service and financial sustainability objectives, without prejudicing its own as well as the interests of any of its stakeholders? And who should be accountable for either the success or failure of initiatives? Is it reasonable for funding agencies to hold unsatisfactory performances against NGDOs and use this as a justification against further funding? Or, is there a need for shared accountability of failure among all stakeholders?

What is a reasonable standard? Is it possible to come up with industry benchmarks that are acceptable to the majority of development players regardless of what sector of society they come from, whether from civil society, business or the state?

And how does an NGDO promote institutional understanding of performance benchmarks among its own staff? Is it plausible "that for most NGDOs, there seems to be a common appreciation for the usefulness of performance assessment among its members but no unified understanding of the actual indicators used in the process among them?"