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close this bookExtension of Complex Issues - Success Factors in Integrated Pest Management (LBL - SKAT - SDC, 1997, 102 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbbreviations
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folder1 Introduction
View the document1.1 The challenge: Extension of a sustainable agricultural practice
View the document1.2 The meaning of ''extension''
View the document1.3 The meaning of ''IPM''
View the document1.4 Methodology
View the document1.5 Structure of this study
close this folder2 Project descriptions: Ways of extending IPM
View the document2.1 Five out of many: Why these?
close this folder2.2 The Projects
View the document2.2.1 Farmer Field Schools: Indonesian National Integrated Pest Management Programme
View the document2.2.2 The IPM Project of EAP Zamorano in Nicaragua
View the document2.2.3 IPM development programme of Ciba-Geigy in cotton in Pakistan
View the document2.2.4 IRRI: Rice IPM Network
View the document2.2.5 TREE: Development of neem-based plant protection practices - A Participatory Technology Development Experience from Suphanburi (Thailand)
View the document2.3 Projects in an overview
close this folder3 Theses: Success factors in extension for IPM
View the document3.1 Introduction
View the document3.2 Theses in an overview
close this folder3.3 Theses in detail
View the document3.3.1 Extension and farmers
View the document3.3.2 Extension and research
View the document3.3.3 Extension methods and contents
View the document3.3.4 Broad impact of extension
View the document3.3.5 Motivation of farmers
View the document3.3.6 Extension staff
View the document3.3.7 Political environment
View the document3.3.8 Institutional set-up
close this folder4 Concluding remarks: Respect as the basis for successful IPM extension
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.1 True IPM is revealed by the role of farmers
View the document4.2 IPM - an example for complex extension contents
View the document4.3 Extension on complex issues: Skilful extensionists and confident farmers
View the document4.4 Extension in IPM: Facilitation between clients and researchers
View the document4.5 IPM - an entry point to sustainable agriculture
View the document4.6 IPM and participatory extension: Aspects of a respectful way of life
View the documentReferences
View the documentAnnex I: National IPM Training Programme Indonesia
View the documentAnnex II: The IPM Project Zamorano in Nicaragua
View the documentAnnex III: IPM Development Programme
View the documentAnnex IV: IRRI: Rice IPM Network
View the documentAnnex V: TREE: Development of Neem-Based Plant Protection Practices in Thailand
View the documentExtension of complex issues

1.4 Methodology

This study has been mandated by SDC to the Swiss Centre for Agricultural Extension (LBL) and specifically to a study team of two agronomists and one ethnologist. SDC asked the study team to analyse five projects involved with the introduction of IPM and to derive from this analysis the factors that had contributed to success. The focus of the study is extension, and the emphasis is to learn from successes rather than to analyse weaknesses or failures in given projects.

The following projects and programmes were chosen as examples:

1. Farmer Field Schools, National IPM Programme Indonesia
2. Manejo Integrado (EAP Zamorano) in Nicaragua
3. IPM projects in cotton by Ciba-Geigy, Pakistan
4. IRRI IPM Network, Philippines
5. Non chemical plant protection project by TREE (a NGO), Thailand.

Except the Farmer Field Schools in Indonesia, which were visited in the frame of a review mission in 1996 (cp. Eveleens 1996), the analysis of the other projects was based on documents and personal discussions with project representatives. The steps of the study were as follows:

1. Elaboration of a study concept.

2. Selection of the projects to be analysed (by SDC).

3. Preparation of a project description.

4. Several feed-back rounds with project representatives until a consensus regarding the project description was reached.

5. "Cross analysis" (critical comparison) of underlying project philosophies and formulation of preliminary theses concerning "IPM and extension".

6. Discussion of theses with project representatives, various IPM and extension experts, personally or by correspondence.

7. Drafting of final report and including last feed-backs from projects.

8. Publication.

It is intended to use the results of this study as an input in various workshops focusing on the issue of "Extension in complex situations".