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close this bookCommunity Approach to Integrated Basic Services Promoting Health and Livelihood for the Urban Poor - UNCHS Pilot Project: Lucknow, Rajkot, Visakhapatnam (Government of India - HABITAT, 1999, 90 p.)
close this folder3. Rajkot City Project
View the document3.1 The City Profile
View the document3.2 Socio-economic Profile of Slums
View the document3.3 Infrastructure Arrangements
View the document3.4 Institutional Arrangements, Management and Finance
View the document3.5 Slum Areas under UNCHS Programme
View the document3.6 Strategies and Activities

3.1 The City Profile


Figure


Figure


Figure


Figure


RAJKOT - UNCHS SLUM LOCATIONS

Rajkot is situated in the heart of the Saurashtra region of western India. The city was founded in the 16th century by Rajput Chief Kunvar Vibhoji Jadeja. Till a permanent settlement was brought about by the British in the early part of the 18th century, the city had seen continuing strife and clashes between the Rajputs and the representatives of the Mughal rulers. The city changed hands a number of times. From 1808 till its merger with the Indian Union, Rajkot was ruled by the Jadeja Rajput clan.

Rajkot is the capital of Saurashtra and has a central location in the region being a part of Gujarat State. Its importance as a capital is attributed to its geographical location, its cultural heritage and the development potential possessed by the city. The present level of development is an outcome of the process of progressive development over many decades. It is a city which enjoys a position of importance in the field of trade, industry, education, transportation, communication, and entertainment.

With the process of urbanisation in the whole of India in the beginning of 20th century, Rajkot was also affected by the wave of urbanisation and industrialisation. The development of trade and industry gradually re-shaped the life of the people. In the early period the establishment of cloth mills in the city of Rajkot led to the development of new residential areas like Millpara, Harishchandra Plot, Gundewadi and Kewdawadi. The new railway station known as Bhaktinagar station also came into being. Later, new industrial estates, residential areas, schools, colleges and cinema houses were added with the process of urban growth. Independent India gave a further boost to development. Thereafter Rajkot eventually became an important centre for trade and commerce with a wide network of transport facilities by air, railway and road. Rajkot Municipality was subsequently converted into a Municipal Corporation in 1973. Rajkot Municipal Corporation (RMC) has the following statutory authorities under the Corporation Act:

1. General Body of the Corporation consisting of Councillors.
2. The standing committee consisting of 12 elected Councillors of the Corporation.
3. The Municipal Commissioner who is the Chief Executive Officer for the city administration.

The authority exercised by each of these organs of administration are specific. While the General Body and the Standing Committee are vested with the powers of taking specified policy decisions for the development of the city, the Municipal Commissioner as Chief Executive Officer of the Corporation is vested with executive and financial powers and is responsible for day to day administration of the Municipal Corporation.

In the Municipal Corporation, the elected wing takes decisions through collective wisdom byway of Boards/Committees. Though Rajkot city has witnessed ups and downs over the years, the general level of development, as can be noticed from the present status of the city, is very satisfactory and shows the record of past development despite water scarcity, financial constraints and controversies that naturally arise because of interaction of policies and the inter-relationship between the state and the local authorities.

City Growth and Physical Profile

The rapid growth of Rajkot may be attributed to commercial expertise supported by good transportation and communication facilities. The growth of the city has taken place in almost all directions as there is no physical barrier leading to continuous growth of the town. The municipal limits have been extended from time to time. The city area was extended from 38.00 sq.km. to 69.00 sq.km. in 1963. Recently there has been redistribution in 20 ward boundaries. Because of the constant growth of areas adjoining the city limit, the Rajkot urban government area which covers 483 sq.kms. area has been designated as the Rajkot Urban Agglomeration. The above urban area covers 7 town planning schemes in the surrounding villages of Rajiv Munjka, Nana Mava, Mota Mava, Mavdi, Vavdi etc. which adjoin the city of Rajkot. These areas are likely to merge in the city limit in the near future. The present RMC area is 104.86 sq.km.

The incessant process of urbanisation and rapid industrialisation has increased the population of Rajkot. From 132, 000 in 1951, the population figure rose to 559, 000 in 1991 registering a growth rate of about 323 percent in four decades. Though the population has grown by leaps and bounds the corresponding provision of housing facilities has not kept abreast. Shortage of housing facilities has contributed to the emergence of slums. At present there are 74 (64 recognised + 10 unrecognised) slum localities with an approximately population of 160000 inside the city Municipal limits.

The substantial increase in the city's population after independence made the city stretch in every direction without a planned layout. The city started experiencing ribbon development along the transportation corridors with poor quality dwellings. Many of the public open spaces and river banks were occupied by migrants. A large number of huts were erected without any supporting infrastructural facilities. Establishment of industries in some areas fostered the growth of many more slums and squatter houses in their vicinity. In spite of many physical developmental schemes undertaken by the government, the slums became an unavoidable part of the city. Thus, the layout of Rajkot, which was well planned in the grid-iron pattern with some open spaces as lungs and a river bank water-front, started decaying with the emergence of slums. Presence of squatter settlements made the city areas over-crowded, polluted the environment and deteriorated the standards of living of the people.

The slums in Rajkot are experiencing a faster growth rate than that of the city and many times that of the provision of facilities. There were 24 slums with 4927 households in Rajkot in 1972-73. At present, there are 74 slums with 28,000 households. This indicates an increase of 468 per cent in slum population in just twenty-five years.

Since the slum population is 160, 000 and the present population of Rajkot is 0.85 million, it can be concluded that almost 20 percent of the Rajkot population live in slum areas.

3.2 Socio-economic Profile of Slums

The population of the city has always shown a steep rise which is evidenced by the population statistics. A population of 36,000 in the year 1901 rose to 700,000 in the year 1991. By the end of 20th century, it is expected to rise to 900,000.

The UNCHS programme slum survey has shown that in Rajkot, 160,000 people live in 28/000 households in the 74 slums localities. The average household size is 5.71.

The population in the slums varies from one locality to another. The distribution of the slum localities in Rajkot in different ranges of population is given in Table 3.1.


Poor housing, lack of facilities, poverty and illiteracy were widespread prior to the UNCHS programme interventions in Rajkot slums.

Table 3.1 Rajkot Slums - Household Distribution by Range

Households (Ranges)

Slum Pockets (Numbers)

Percentage to Total Slum

>500

8

10.00

501-1000

27

36.48

1001-2000

14

18.90

2001 -3000

13

17.52

More than 3000

12

17.10

Total

74

100.00

Religion and caste play an important role in the social structure of the Rajkot slums. This is normal from the nomenclature itself. Certain slum pockets are known by the caste of its inhabitants. The majority (almost 90 per cent) of the slum dwellers are Hindus, the remaining being Muslims and Christians.

Productivity Stratification

If the capacity to earn and productivity are analysed taking age as a factor, the slum population of Rajkot had the following characteristics. The productive population, i.e. those people who were above 20 but less than 60, is about 53 per cent. The definitely dependent population, i.e. those less than 15 years and those above 60 worked out to about 35 percent. The population falling under the age group between 15 and 19 years is either dependent or productive. This is summarised as follows:

Productivity Stratification of Slum Population

Status

Percentage

Productive

53

Dependent

35

Other

12

Total

100

Education

In Rajkot slums, children below school going age form 8.91 per cent and older children (above 6 years) form 3.67 per cent of the total population. The age group 5-17 pre-dominantly consist of school going children and account for 22.7 per cent of the total population. Primary and secondary education is free of cost. Adult education programmes are being arranged under the UBS project through NGOs.

Slum Housing

Most of the slum population reside either in pucca or semi-pucca houses. About 10 per cent reside in huts made of kutcha (temporary) materials. Generally a house has one multi-purpose room, kitchen and verandah. The roofing material is either local tile or precast slabs. Because of the limited space, no toilet facility is available. To provide sanitation facilities, the RMC has constructed community latrines and surface drainage for disposal of waste water. Underground sewerage is also available in some of the slum settlements. Solid waste generated by the people is being collected and transported regularly through the city's solid waste management scheme. The maintenance of community latrine is a constant and vexing problem because of which the RMC has implemented two programmes, namely:

1. Conversion of community latrines into pay and use toilets
2. Provision of (low-cost sanitation) individual latrines with 80 per cent subsidy from RMC.

The successful implementation if these efforts has had a positive impact on health and hygiene in the slums. The classification of the slum dwelling units according to type of building material is as follows:

Hutment Type

Number

Percentage Total

a) Temporary (Kutcha)

2660

9.5

b) Semi-Permanent

23660

84.5

c) Permanent

1680

6.0

Total

28000

100.00

As indicated above, 94 per cent of the hutments in the slums in Rajkot are built of semi-permanent or temporary (kutcha) material. This indicates the poor condition of the dwellings in slum population.

3.3 Infrastructure Arrangements

Rajkot city has all basic services like water supply, sewerage, street light, roads and solid waste management. All the services are being well maintained. However, because of the rapid expansion of the city, the services are inadequate. The augmentation of all the services has been taken up by the RMC. However, because of certain constraints, RMC is not in a position to fulfil the present demand for basic services. The main constraint is water, for which no reliable source is available for the city as a whole. During 1999 the city is facing one of the most acute crisis it has ever experienced for water and a Rs. 800 million city water supply augmentation project is under implementation. An overview of the city's infrastructure services is given in Table 3.2.

Table 3.2 Existing Facilities and Services at a glance

1.

City area

104.86 sq.kms.

2.

Present population

0.85 million

3.

Water supply



a) Per capita supply

135 lpcd


b) Coverage area

70 sq.kms.


c) Total water supply per day

105 mid (23 MGD)

4.

Sewerage



a) Coverage area

60 sq.kms. (partly commissioned)


b) Collective system

250 km.


c) Intermediate pumping stations

7 (all commissioned)


d) Sewage treatment plant

44.5 mld capacity (commissioned)

5.

Solid Waste Management



a) Per capita generation

400 gm per capita


b) Total generation

385 mt


c) City area coverage

65 sq.km.


d) No. of Manually lifted garbage bins

650


e) No. of Mechanically lifted garbage bins

425

6.

Roads



a) Asphalt

1100 km.


b) Metal

150 km.


c) Impermanent

950 km.

7.

Bridges

03

8.

Street lighting



a) Mercury tube lights

21000


b) Central Sodium lights

2000


c) Traffic signals

All major roads 13 nos.

9.

Dispensaries



a) Municipal Dispensary

04


b) Urban Family Welfare Centre

06

Provision of Basic Services in Slum Settlements

The RMC has sanctioned and implemented piped water supply extension projects in 66 slums in Rajkot. In addition, other provisions include roads, street lights and disposal of waste water in almost all the slums with financial assistance from the Gujarat Financial Board, MLA grant, MP grant etc. Subsequently, about 10 slums have been developed where RMC is also providing infrastructure facilities. Because of being a main trade and industrial centre, the migration from rural areas to Rajkot is very high and this has increased the pressure on basic services. The main problem of slums is proper shelter. Most of the slum population is residing in kutcha or semi-pucca shelters. To ease this situation the RMC has implemented a housing scheme for socially and economically weaker sections of society with financial loan assistance from HUDCO. 3012 EWS housing units have been constructed under this scheme.


Slum families have happily shifted to these fully serviced, one room flats. 3012 such units have been constructed with HUDCO financing. Recovery of instalment repayments from households is also progressing smoothly.

Critical Problem and New Approach

The basic problem of the city is severe encroachment on municipal land by the urban poor, inadequate water supply, frequent power cuts, and illiteracy. Concerted efforts are being made by RMC to tackle these problems.

Regarding the management of solid waste, the RMC has introduced privatisation in the transportation of garbage. To keep the environment clean the RMC has implemented a project with financial assistance from HUDCO as well as the World Bank. The solid waste is being disposed near Sokhda village where no scientific treatment is being given. However, the RMC is negotiating with some leading companies for implementing a scheme for scientific disposal of city solid waste.

As stated earlier, most of the slums within the city limit are still in need of improvement in their basic services provision namely: water supply, sewerage, health facilities, primary education etc. To improve infrastructure facilities, RMC has introduced the UBC and ICDS programmes in two slums. Under the UDC Programme, RMC has constructed Community Development Centres in which various activities like sewing classes, cooking classes, embroidery and handicraft classes etc. are arranged by the Project Officer. Under the same programme, the poor are being provided loans for small business and other self-employment activities.


Attendance is high for pre-school education conducted daily in the community development centres. Teachers are invariably women from the same slum.

Similarly, in the ICDS Programme, the main target is children upto the age of 5 years. They are being provided supplementary nutrition, immunisation, pre-school education etc.

The RMC has also set up five dispensaries in which full time doctors and para-medical staff have been appointed. Treatment and medicine is free and various health camps are also being arranged with the help of local NGOs. The RMC has also started a medical service through a mobile dispensary which is run by an NGO. Other national and state programmes for slum upgradation, poverty alleviation, education etc. are also being implemented regularly.

3.4 Institutional Arrangements, Management and Finance

The effective delivery of various urban services depend upon finance available. The Municipal Corporation levies taxes, fees and charges, which are its main sources of income. The Corporation also earns income byway of return from capital, rents, charges for services rendered, sale proceeds of immovable properties, donations etc. The main tax base of the Municipal Corporation is as follows:

1. Octroi Tax on the entry of goods in the town for sale, use or consumption.
2. Property tax that includes water tax, conservancy tax etc.
3. Toll tax
4. Entertainment tax

Town planning schemes in the city have also improved certain areas. The town planning department which is an independent statutory body for the preparation and finalisation of town planning schemes has prepared eight schemes for new areas of the city.

Participatory Approach

No project planning for urban projects can succeed without the cooperation and participation of the communities involved. In acknowledgement of this fact, and keeping in view the basic concept of the UNCHS programme, the RMC has made concerted efforts to mobilise community groups. It has also encouraged NGOs working in the sector of slum upgradation and urban development to participate wherever possible. This has resulted in a participatory approach which works extremely will in the city. The community expresses its desires for action on a number of developmental issues through Community Based Organisations, prioritises them and gains implementation from the RMC and relevant NGOs.

3.5 Slum Areas under UNCHS Programme

With the introduction of the UNCHS programme in Rajkot, a total of 25 slums were identified, out of the existing 74, for inclusion under the programme. A description of the selected slum areas is given in Table 3.3.

Table 3.3 Details of Slums under UNCHS Programme - Rajkot

Sl. No

Ward No.

Name of the slum

No. of huts

Population

House Type

Water Supply

Toilets

Drainage

Garbage






Temporary

Semi Permanent

Permanent

Individual Tap (No.)

Handpumps
(No.)

Standpost
(No.)

Individual
(No.)

Community
(No.)

Connection Facilities

Bin Facility
(Yes/No)

1.

3

Liludi Wokali

559

2765

525

29

05

182

9

11

122

14

Yes

No

2.

16

Rukhadia Para

320

1527

110

0

210

52

7

8

24

8

Yes

Yes

3.

13

Dharamagar

196

836

45

0

151

80

1

1

24

8

Yes

No

4.

19

Sagamagar

123

531

63

54

06

20

3

0

3

0

Yes

No

5.

20

Naya Tharala

108

461

56

0

52

26

1

2

6

0

Yes

No

6.

20

Manharpara

542

2421

258

0

284

297

0

4

15

30

Yes

Yes

7.

18

Lalparsinagar

514

2171

340

0

168

186

0

2

5

0

Yes

No

8.

9

Lohanagar

420

1976

0

178

242

138

0

5

2

8

Yes

No

9.

20

Kasturba-Harijanvas

49

210

0

16

33

11

0

2

5

0

Yes

No

10.

16

Popatpara Part-1

368

1824

0

143

185

118

4

6

45

27

Yes

No




Part-2

235

1015

10

50

171

110







11.

17

Jay Prakashnagar

658

2564

115

458

85

93

2

4

81

10

Yes

No

12.

16

Santoshinagar

388

1832

193

133

62

51

1

11

12

0

Yes

No

13.

20

Vinodnagar

33

161

11

14

08

11

1

1

8

0

Yes

No

14.

18

Paru near Sitala Mata's Temple

83

449

05

61

17

38

0

1

2

4

Yes

No

15.

20

Gurubalaknagar

38

190

0

24

14

24

0

1

3

0

Yes

No

16.

3

Navyugpara

52

290

0

33

19

13

0

0

0

0

Yes

No

17.

6

Yadavnagar

61

345

0

53

08

48

0

0

9

0

Yes

No

18.

20

Lakhajiraj Yodyognagar Street No. 15

150

750

150

-

-

75

-

1

0

8

No

No

19.

3

Slum Area Jilla Garden

236

1500

-

-

236

236

-

-

236

0

Yes

Yes

20.

13

SP School Jamnagar Road

250

1470

-

-

250

250

-

-

250

0

Yes

No

21.

13

Kitipara Parash Bhistivash

290

1830

-

-

-

23

-

2

0

18

Yes

Yes

22.

18

Pedak Para Mafatiya Para

363

1600

30

300

23

0

-

2

0

0

No

No

23.

17

Bhagwatipara

658

2199

99

408

151

93

-

16

81

10

Yes

Yes

24.

16

Shantoshi Nagar

388

1562

245

133

10

62

-

11

12

14

No

No

25.

5

Jungleshvar

1198

7435

176

392

627

150

-

10

300

12

Partly

Yes

3.6 Strategies and Activities

Strategies

A city level Workshop was first organised in Rajkot in October 1998. The objective of the Workshop was to provide relevant information and guidance to the representatives of the neighbourhood committees, non-governmental organisations, elected representatives of the urban local bodies and officials engaged in providing basic services concerning health and livelihood of the urban poor. The idea was to clarify the concept of an integrated approach based on synergy and convergence and to introduce related strategies for community development to the participants of the seminar.

The Workshop was attended by a representative of UNCHS, the nodal officer for Rajkot from Ministry of Urban Development, the Municipal Commissioner, elected representatives including the Mayor, Deputy Mayor, Chairmen of the standing committees, members of neighbourhood committees, representatives of NGOs, academicians, medical and paramedical professionals etc.

The strategies adopted as per the recommendations of this Workshop were as follows:

· Slum development programmes should be based on active public participation.

· People should be encouraged to articulate their needs and determine their priorities.

· Neighbourhood committees should be formed for all slum areas.

· House-to-house survey of the slum areas should be extended to cover the slum pockets in the areas recently merged with the Rajkot Municipal Corporation which were earlier managed by three different municipalities.

· Specific work based on the felt needs should be directly recommended by the Neighbourhood Committees and should not be imposed by officials of the Corporation.

· In the majority of the notified slums basic services have already been satisfactorily provided by the Corporation. Hence slum pockets mostly deficient in these services should be taken up on a priority basis.

· The Workshop identified the need to conduct the training programmes in areas which include Solid waste management - hygienic and healthy practices; Peoples participation in cleanness; Better personal and public health practices; Universalisation of primary education; First-aid techniques; and Empowerment of women.

Details of Activities

The following activities were undertaken for slum development in Rajkot under the UNCHS project:

(i) House-to-house survey of all slum areas of the city was carried out by the Gujarat Slum Clearance Board. This survey provided specific information on the following subjects.

· Various types of information on families residing in different slums.

· Basic amenities provided in slums (residence-wise & area-wise) like electricity, drinking water supply, street light, underground drainage, garbage disposal etc.

· Information regarding status/condition of each slum.

(ii) Subsequent to the survey the level of basic services concerning drinking water supply, road communication, street lighting, solid waste disposal, public utilities etc. were determined. Slum pockets deficient in these services were identified.

(iii) Neighbourhood committees were formed and activated to come up with specific recommendations for work related to basic services to be taken up in their areas.

(iv) Estimates were prepared for specific work in various slum areas which were to be executed subsequently.

(v) A seminar was organised in October 1998 to review the work done till that point of time and to provide full information to the representatives of the NGOs and members of the Neighbourhood Committees where development works were to be taken on a priority basis.

(vi) The Gujarat Slum Clearance Board was directed to commence its survey in the newly acquired area of determining the level of basic services in the slum pockets and to identify the requirements for community services.


This new public latrine replaces the old dilapidated one in the background. Slum dwellers are willing to pay for the upkeep of this vital facility.

The details of work implemented in the 10 slums initially taken up under the UNCHS programme are summarised in Table 3.4. Further, the on-going activities till the end of the programme period have also been delineated. These have been categorised broadly under three heads - Education and Awareness Creation, Vocational Training and Physical Slum Improvement. These proposed activities are tabulated in Table 3.5.


Young women train at this slum vocational training facility. Tailoring and beauty treatment are seen by slum women to have good potential for sustained livelihood.

Table 3.4 Details of Work Implemented during 1998-1999

S. No.

Name of Slum Pocket

Gutter

Road

Community Latrine

Piped Water Supply

Street Light

Sewerage

Total
Rs '000


Amount

Quantity
(m)

Amount

Quantity
(m)

Amount

Quantity

Amount

Quantity

Amount

Quantity
(nos.)

Amount

Quantity
(m)


1.

Rukhadiya Para

0.79

1320.00

0.35










114

2.

Dharar Nagar

0.07

120.00

0.35










42

3.

Loha Nagar

0.26

430.00

0.42


0.19

Repair work







87

4.

Kasturba-Harijanvas

5.74

9570.00



4.67

Construction of 10 seat Latrine


0.76

8 poles




1117

5.

Popat Para

0.15

250.00

1.59

2650.00



0.15

Line connection





204

6.

Jayprakash Nagar

1.17

1950.00











117

7.

Kitti Para

0.12

200.00











12

8.

Pedok Para

0.53

880.00

1.38

2300.00









191

9.

Santoshi Nagar

2.23

3720.00

2.32

3870.00









455

10.

Jangleshvar

1.50

2500.00

4.35

7250.00

0.12

Repair work

0.14

Line connection

0.17

2 poles

8.98

1800.00

1526


Total

3855

Table 3.5 On-going Activities for Slum Improvement

Activity

Investment
(Rs. Million)

A. Education and Awareness Creation


1. Workshop on Modern Techniques of Solid Waste Collection and Hygienic and Healthy Practices

0.05

2. Workshop on People's Participation in Cleanliness in the City

0.36

3. Awareness Drives on Better Personal & Public Health Practices in Slum Areas

0.35

4. Drive for Universalization of Primary Education

.00

5. First-Aid Training Programme

0.70

6. Workshop on Empowerment of Women: Rights & Opportunities for the Women

0.30

B. Vocational Training


1. Vocational Training for income-generating activities

0.64 to 0.80

C. Slum Improvement


1. Housing Scheme for Urban Poor

38.4

2. Internal Streets in the Slum Areas

3.5

3. Gutters

10.0

4. Underground Drainage

10.0

5. Street Lighting

0.5

6. Improvement of Services in Public Toilets


7. Construction of Public Toilets

15.0

8. Community Centres

8.0

Total

69.13

Investment Plan

Keeping in view the concept of converge of activities under various programmes coupled with the necessity to ensure the extension of facilities and improvement of other slum areas in a sustainable manner, a city level investment plan has been prepared for Rajkot. It gives a broad outline of future activities and anticipated costs. The Plan is presented in Table 3.6.

Table 3.6 Investment Plan

Activity Proposed in Slums

Investment
(Rs. Million)

A. Education and Awareness Creation

· Health and Hygiene education
· First Aid Training
· Primary Education
· Anganwadi and Balwadi
· Empowerment of Women
· Social Mapping
· Participatory Learning and Action

3.0

B. Vocational Training

Training for income generating activities like, plumbing, carpentry, motor mechanic, typing, data entry operator, gold smithy/silver smithy, beauty parlour, embroidery, tailoring, handicrafts etc.

1.0

C. Slum Improvement

· Basic services like water supply, public toilets (improvement and construction, gutters, internal streets, underground drainage, street lighting etc.
· Social services like community half, health centre etc.
· Housing scheme for urban poor.

90.0

Total

94.0