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close this bookRural Energy and Development: Improving Energy Supply for Two Billion People (WB, 1996, 132 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentAbbreviations and acronyms
View the documentExecutive summary
View the documentThe new agenda
View the documentThe role of the world bank
close this folderChapter one - Introduction
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe challenges ahead
View the documentPast responses
close this folderChapter two - The rural energy situation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEffects of biofuel use by the poor
View the documentPollution and health
View the documentEcological damage
View the documentEnergy efficiency
View the documentThe transition to modern fuels
close this folderChapter three - Emerging practices and policies
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEnabling people to choose from among alternative forms of energy
View the documentAvoiding unnecessary subsidies
View the documentAddressing market failures
View the documentHigh start-up costs and risks
View the documentExternal costs and benefits
View the documentEmphasizing participation and institutional development
View the documentParticipation?
View the documentLocal institutional development
View the documentDecentralization
View the documentRecognizing the central role of good enabling conditions for development
close this folderChapter four - Options for rural electrification
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentProgress to date
View the documentPricing and financial policies
View the documentCost-effectiveness and the choice of alternatives
View the documentCosts of grid supplies
View the documentReducing initial investment costs by using appropriate design standards
View the documentMicro-grids supplied by diesel generators
View the documentElectricity supplies from renewable energy sources
View the documentRegulatory and price reforms, unbundling, and privatization
View the documentImplication for rural electrification
View the documentApproaches
close this folderChapter five - Innovations in renewable energy
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentTechnical progress in using the solar resource
View the documentPolicies toward new renewable energy sources in rural areas
View the documentProgram development
View the documentPrices
View the documentCredit
View the documentTaxes and subsidies
close this folderChapter six - Cooking fuels: toward more sustainable supply and use
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentImproving end-use efficiency with biomass stoves
View the documentImproving charcoal efficiency
View the documentDeveloping more sustainable ways to supply biomass
View the documentAgro-forestry and farm forestry
View the documentParticipatory to forest management
View the documentImproving access to kerosene and gas
View the documentSubsidies versus price liberalization
View the documentDistortionary effects of high taxes on cooking fuels
close this folderChapter seven - The role of the world bank group
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPolicies and operations since the 1970s
View the documentRural electrification
View the documentThe sustainable in a production and use of wood-fuels
View the documentRenewable energy
View the documentProject innovations and advisory services
View the documentThe way forward: a renewed commitment by the world bank group
View the documentBroadening the scope of energy sector reform
View the documentInvestments
View the documentOpportunities for partnerships
close this folderAppendix
View the documentWorld bank lending for rural and renewable energy projects, fiscal 1980-95
View the documentMethodology for estimation of world bank lending to rural and renewable energy projects
View the documentNotes
View the documentBibliography

Program development

Establishing a program involves significant effort. The first task is to survey solar and wind resources. Such surveys have long been carried out for hydro programs, as geological and engineering investigations have usually been carried out for many potential sites. and data on river flows have been collected for several decades. but they are rarely available for solar or wind energy In addition. a program of field tests of equipment with a fairly substantial number of consumers (often several thousand households) will be necessary not only to justify the investment in the equipment. but to establish supporting maintenance services and to monitor progress.

As with any new area of investment. issues arise in connection with risks and uncertainties In the field of renewable energy. some of the questions raised are at a quite elementary level For example. some projects designers may not even have assessed the level of solar. wind. and biomass resources. while potential consumers are often not up-to-date on technical developments. costs, and how similar projects elsewhere have performed The predisposition of institutions to resist change is also a factor that widely impedes new investment and initiative

Another major task is to familiarize professionals in the electricity industry engineers. managers. financiers, regulators with the new possibilities Expanded education and training, including visits to operating projects. may help to change negative perceptions and aid the development of investment programs Beyond this. the facilities and curriculums of universities and technical colleges may need to be developed to provide appropriate education and training

The financial requirements needed to develop programs. identify and prepare divestments, and provide education and training are generally small in relation to the costs and benefits of the investments that eventually emerge As with the development of programs using more traditional renewable energy forms, such as micro-hydro schemes. biogasifiers, and sustainable ways of using wood-fuels. the participation of nongovernmental organizations in project development can be beneficial. Bilateral aid organizations and nongovernmental organizations. often working in collaboration. have also been influential in establishing pilot schemes and offering education and training to engineers and technicians from developing countries The many applications of PVs in developing countries owe much to such efforts.