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close this bookAssessment of Experience with the Project Approach to Shelter Delivery for the Poor (HABITAT, 1991, 52 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. Recent trends in shelter projects
close this folderII. Financial and economic impact of shelter projects
View the document2.1 Mobilization of household savings
View the document2.2 Affordability, subsidy and cost recovery
close this folder2.3 Institutional framework and financial management
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.3.1 Institutional culture of public-sector agencies
View the document2.3.2 Role of local government agencies
View the document2.3.3 Relationship with local community groups
View the document2.4 Comparison with non-project shelter standards and costs
close this folderIII. Social impact of shelter projects
View the document3.1 Social impact at the local level
View the document3.2 Contribution to residential stability
View the document3.3 Proximity of projects to employment locations
View the document3.4 Job creation at the local level
View the document3.5 Impact of projects on the development of community based and non-governmental organizations
View the document3.6 Acceptability of project components to project beneficiaries
close this folderIV. Impact of the project approach on total shelter demand
View the document4.1 Shelter demand and levels of supply by projects
View the document4.2 Replicability of housing projects
close this folderV. Shelter projects and national policies
View the document5.1 Impact of projects on policy, and consistency of project and policy objectives
View the document5.2 Consistency with the objectives of the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000
close this folderVI. Achieving a multiplier effect through shelter projects
View the document6.1 Impact on institutional capabilities and public-sector roles in the shelter-delivery process
View the document6.2 Impact on urbanization, urban growth, spatial planning and infrastructure provision
View the document6.3 Addressing constraints in land and housing markets
View the document6.4 Impact on building and planning codes, regulations and standards
View the document6.5 Development of the construction industry and construction techniques
close this folderVII. Conclusions and recommendations
View the document7.1 General criticism of the project approach
View the document7.2 Projects in the context of national shelter strategies
close this folder7.3 Future emphasis and priorities in housing projects
View the document(introduction...)
View the document7.3.1 Projects to provide new shelter
View the document7.3.2 Upgrading projects
close this folder7.4 A framework for assessing the efficiency of project components
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View the document7.4.1 Elements provided by projects
View the document7.4.2 Provision of other elements
View the document7.4.3 Guidelines for preparing and assessing future shelter projects
View the document7.5 The role of projects in the development and implementation of national shelter policies and the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000
View the documentList of references

7.5 The role of projects in the development and implementation of national shelter policies and the Global Strategy for Shelter to the Year 2000

Many countries now accept the need to adopt an enabling strategy towards shelter provision. This is reflected in the recent national shelter policies of India, Pakistan and several other countries. Yet, few countries have succeeded in translating such objectives into operational programmes, or relating existing project approaches to them. Since projects represent a major component of public-sector intervention in most countries, and are likely to remain so for some years to come, they provide an important starting point for the implementation of enabling strategies. If the recommendations outlined above were to be implemented at national, provincial and local levels, the range of shelter options available in practice to the urban poor would increase significantly within a short time.

It is highly unlikely, of course, that progress will be achieved on all elements simultaneously, or that delivery systems could respond efficiently to rapid change on all fronts. The primary concern should therefore be to identify and address local priorities, or bottlenecks that restrict the efficiency of existing urban land and shelter delivery systems and their ability to meet the needs of low-income groups. Projects can then be designed specifically to address these constraints and widen options for future development. Creating such an iterative approach in the shelter sector, while integrating projects as parts of programmes focusing on the promotion of enabling shelter strategies, will more than justify the retention of the project approach. In this context shelter projects will function as instruments of the shelter provision process whereby the capabilities of all actors in the shelter sector can be utilized.