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close this bookScience and Technology in the Transformation of the World (UNU, 1982, 496 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
close this folderOpening addresses
View the documentZivorad Kovacevic
View the documentPavle Savic
View the documentMiroslav Pecujlic
View the documentKinhide Mushakoji
close this folderThe gear-box of priorities
View the documentAnouar Abdel-Malek
close this folderLe nécessaire et le possible dans la formation du mondial (Keynote Address)
close this folderHenri Lefebvre
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPremière Partie: Le Mondial, Esquisse d'une Analyse
View the documentDeuxième Partie: L'Informationnel et sa Problématique a l'Echelle Mondiale
View the documentConclusion
close this folderSession I: Science and technology as formative factors of contemporary civilization - from domination to liberation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReport on session I
close this folderTechnology and society
View the documentRalko Tomovic
View the documentConclusion
close this folderParadigmes scientifiques et auto-détermination humaine
View the documentYves Barel
close this folderScience and the making of contemporary civilization
close this folderJ. Leite Lopes
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. The physical image of the world
View the documentII. Science and underdevelopment in Latin America
View the documentIII. Science and dependent development
View the documentIV. Endogenization of science in which society?
View the documentV. The aims of science
View the documentVI. Science for liberation
View the documentNotes
close this folderSession II: Technology generation and transfer - Transformation alternatives
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReport on session II
close this folderThe collective self-reliance of developing countries in the fields of science and technology
close this folderSlobodan Ristic
View the documentI. General considerations
View the documentII. Co-operation among developing countries in developing national potentials
View the documentIll. The strengthening of the negotiating position of developing countries in science and technology
View the documentIV. Instead of a conclusion
View the documentNotes
close this folderScience and technology in Japanese history: university and society
close this folderKonji Kawano
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentI. Japan before the second world war
View the documentII. The change after the second world war
View the documentIII. The significance of ''the age of local communities''
close this folderLegal aspects of the transfer of technology in modern society
close this folderVestry Besarovic
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentThe relevance of the legal order to the transfer of technological knowledge
View the documentSome proposed measures on the national and international levels
close this folderPhilosophy (concepts) of scientific and technological development
close this folderVladimir Slambuk
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. Development and underdevelopment
View the documentII. Definition of some basic terms
View the documentIII. Existing philosophies of scientific-technological development
View the documentIV. Self-reliance
View the documentBibliography
close this folderSession III: Biology, medicine, and the future of mankind
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReport on session III
close this folderLa maîtrise de la vie: Pour quoi faire?
close this folderBruno Ribes
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. Necessite et enjeux
View the documentII. La 'logique' du vivant
View the documentIII. Quoi faire?
close this folderRestructuring a framework for assessment of science and technology as a driving power for social development: a biosociological approach
close this folderYuji Mori
View the documentI. Introduction - The darwinian and ned-darwinian systems
View the documentII. Sociobiology or biosociology? how to view humans and their society
View the documentIII. Three levels of production and consumption
View the documentIV. Needs
View the documentV. Science and technology as cultural phenomena
View the documentVI. The turning point of social development: space and time
View the documentNotes
close this folderHuman aspects of medical sciences: Medical technology and the responsibility of the physician
View the documentLjubisa Rakic
close this folderSession IV: The control of space and power
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentReport on session IV
close this folderToward a clearer definition of the role of science and technology in transformation
close this folderOsama A. El-Kholy
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. A view of the problem from within
View the documentII. The view from without
View the documentIII. Toward a clearer definition of the role of science and technology in transformation
View the documentAppendix I.
View the documentAppendix II.
View the documentAppendix III.
View the documentNotes
close this folderScience, technology, and politics in a changing world
close this folderJosé A. Silva Michelena
View the documentI. What kind of transformation?
View the documentII. The nature of the crisis
View the documentIII. World political trends
View the documentIV. The role of science and technology
View the documentV. A proposition
View the documentNotes
close this folderThe technology of repression and repressive technology: The social bearers and cultural consequences
close this folderZoran Vidakovic
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. The vicious circle of repressive technology
View the documentII. The main social figures of repressive technology
View the documentIII. Militarization of the economy and science: the birthplace of the metropolitan technocracy
View the documentIV. The genesis of the ''technocratic elite'' in dependent societies
close this folderNuclear energy in Latin America: The Brazilian case
close this folderLuiz Pinguelli Rosa
View the documentI. The Brazilian nuclear programme and the treaty with the federal Republic of Germany
View the documentII. Perspectives on nuclear energy in Brazil
View the documentIII. Nuclear energy and the prestige of national power
View the documentIV. The possibility of latin american nuclear co-operation
View the documentV. The position of brazil regarding nuclear proliferation
View the documentAppendices
View the documentReferences
close this folderSession V: From intellectual dependence to creativity
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderReport on session V
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentDiscussion
View the documentSummary
close this folderLa apropiación y la recuperación de las ciencias sociales en el contexto de los proyectos culturales endógenos
close this folderGuillermo Bonfil Batalla
View the documentIntroducción
View the documentI. El problema de la creatividad endógena en ciencias sociales.
View the documentUntitled
View the documentIII. La formación de una intelectualidad India contemporánea.
View the documentIV. Notas para un proyecto de desarrollo endógeno de las ciencias sociales.
View the documentNotas
close this folderOn the edge of a razor blade: the new historical blocs and socio-cultural alternatives in Europe
close this folderMiroslav Pecuilic and Zoran Vidakovic
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentI. The new janus - Two faces of science and technology
View the documentII. The pathology of power and science
View the documentIII. The new protagonist - social movements and organic intelligentsia
View the documentIV. Dramatic birth of alternatives
View the documentV. Self-reliance and solidarity (autonomy and new universality)
View the documentNotes
close this folderScience and technology in the history of modern Japan: imitation or endogenous creativity?
close this folderTetsuro Nakaoka
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentNotes
close this folderScience and technology as an organic part of contemporary culture
View the documentZvonimir Damjanovic
close this folderJoseph Needham's contribution to the history of science and technology in China
close this folderGregory Blue
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentNotes
View the documentReferences
View the documentGeneral report on the seminar
View the documentAppendix: Position papers
View the documentParticipants
View the documentFrom the charter of the United Nations University

Pavle Savic

President, Academy of Sciences of Serbia

It is my privilege to welcome you with the wish that your efforts should provide the greatest possible contribution in solving the problems laid in the basis of our civilization. In other words, I wish you full success in the task that you have undertaken to carry out as men of science, inspired by human goals. Problems which are imposing themselves on every thoughtful creature of our times and on which the destiny of the human race is depending, undoubtedly are those which are the topic of this and other worldwide endeavours in our times.

Let me explain in a few lines why I consider that questions with which the seminar is dealing are not only of vital interest for the further development of our civilization and its role in the humanization of society, but as well of vital importance for its very survival. I have surveyed material prepared for this seminar and studied it as carefully as I could, and I wouldn't like to repeat what is written there for I want to save your precious time.

We all want, and in our vision of the future we strive, that our image of the future should be more human than the total pre-history of contemporary civilization. What premises for this vision do we have?

The main characteristics of the present times are the geometrical progression of the birth rate and the increasing expansion of population of our planet; and the exhaustion of classical energy resources, whereas energy resources are the roots of development of every civilization. That means that we are at a turning point between old and new civilizations, or, as Pecujlic would say in his study, we are on the threshold of "the future which has begun."

In the analysis of the structure of our civilization we must point to the great potential, both useful and destructive possibilities, of nuclear energy, which already substitutes for classic resources and imposes itself by its inexhaustible possibilities as the only possible successor of dying civilization based upon exploitation of classical energy resources.

Our generation, and generations that are coming, have to carry a heavy burden, because this change of civilizations causes revolutionary changes in the structure of human society: in the still-powerful capitalist society with its means of production vested in private property and a hired labour force alienated from surplus labour, as stated by Marx in his scientific analysis, while, on the other hand, socialist relations are accomplished and efforts are being put forward in creating such relations in specific conditions created by the history of each particular nation: when super-developed and extremely underdeveloped human communities simultaneously exist; when millions of men, women, and children are dying of starvation and diseases, and a minority enjoys the benefits of accumulated wealth.

You know all this better than I do, because you are dealing with these problems as specialists. Therefore, from the domain of sociology and political economy, I shall move to the field I am more familiar with.

Besides the nuclear resources of energy which nowadays exist as a reality, but are as well as a monopoly of super-powers, technology is using electronics in different ways: lasers, cybernetic computers as a special application of electronics, etc.

No reasonable man would expect, taking into consideration these conditions of our times, that technological development by itself can remove the increasing potential differences which from day to day threaten ever more to cause a spark.

Furthermore, no reasonable man would expect that the increase of population will stop by itself or that technological development by itself will provide the humanization of human society. We must be well aware that only by the conscious endeavours and active efforts of all progressive forces, by agreements and regulations agreed upon and based on scientific results, may threatening dangers to the survival of the human race be overcome. These dangers are not only in the destructive power of nuclear weapons, in the event of their application, but, although invisible at the first sight, far-reaching consequences for the human race lie hidden in biological discoveries, genetic mutations caused by chemical means, and pollution of the human environment by an unreasonable struggle for profit. Even today the situation in the human environment has been brought to an alarming state in technologically developed countries, and especially in developing countries which are procuring obsolete technology and thus becoming subject to neo-colonialistic dependence on technologically developed countries.

In such a complex situation as the contemporary world is, we come to the conclusion that it is necessary to organize endeavours of all progressive forces in order to provide that scientific achievements serve the majority instead of the minority. It is not a question of whether it should be done in the interests of morality, but whether it should be done in the interests of survival of the human race.

In order to be more explicit, I shall use an example from the history of the Spartan people who, in order to survive, hurled from the Tarpeian cliff all cripples, because they were only a dead weight and endangered the survival of this people. Our civilization is facing the same problem; in the interest of the human race's survival and the further development of productive forces we must find a Tarpeian cliff from which not people but all obstacles on the path to the aims of their more human life shall be hurled. That means, firstly, to be aware that the interests of the people are above the interests of individuals or particular castes; that social responsibility for the application of scientific and technological achievements should be enhanced; that the developed must endeavour to contribute to the development of the economically and technologically underdeveloped in order to accelerate the process of development of productive forces and to avoid the perilous consequences of existing and increasing contradictions. I would like to stress the following contradiction which governs the development of human society: the idea is born individually, but it is put into practice by collective work. This means that a man invents, but society undertakes the use, and responsibility for the use, of discoveries and technological processes in the interest of the community. I point to this in contrast to utopian and totally senseless tendencies to stop the process of development of science and technology, to stop progress because the world is going to perish because of new inventions.

It seems absurd, but it is true, One need only observe mass movements against the erection of nuclear plants, movements that are developing in technologically developed countries. It would be enough to inform people that they are under full and responsible control of science. But they also frequently undertake senseless endeavours to stop progress, to turn the historical course, as at the time of the introduction of the first railway or electricity.

At the end, I would like to express my sincere belief that the efforts which we put forward may make science and technology become the properties of society as a whole, providing for the humanization of human relations and creating the basis for a different, more human morality which conforms more to the conscience and welfare of people than one based upon the right of the stronger. I welcome you once more and wish you success in your work.