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close this bookAgricultural Extension: Guidelines for Extension Workers in Rural Areas (SKAT, 1994, 298 p.)
close this folderQuestions List
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1 EXTENSION WORKER
View the document2 EXTENSION PLANNING
View the document3 EXTENSION SUBJECT MATTER
View the document4 EXTENSION METHODS
View the document5 EXTENSION ACCESSORIES
View the document6 EXTENSION CONTEXT

(introduction...)

Each section with the question lists follows the same format which is described here.

Chapter heading

Keyword

Reference number (1.1. to 6.7.)

Notes on the keyword: Definition, notes, principles

Cartoon or drawing to help explain the keyword

The question list includes questions which need to be clarified before starting work on the topic concerned. Questions are classified according to the following criteria: schedule of the work, increasing practical nature, aim, means etc. The lists of questions are neither exhaustive nor final. They should be used selectively and supplemented by the reader.

Related keywords to indicate other sections in the Guidelines which will give more information (either in the question lists or the theoretical chapters).

Pointers to the GTZ manual refer to corresponding sections in the GTZ-Manual: Agricultural Extension, 1989. The pointers mention first the number of the page, (for volume 2 follows the number of the chapter) and then a short title of the chapter or secton..
Chapter 1

1 EXTENSION WORKER


FIGURE

Extension workers' advice to extension workers

Aim for credibility and confidence with an open mind

"The adviser does not hold the ultimate key to 'development"'.

"Listen, observe and say little." "Respect the rhythm of the farm families "

Observe carefully and listen patiently!

Get to know the country and its people well!

"First gel to know the conditions thoroughly and only then start elaborating concepts." "Be considerate towards the language and customs of the farmers."

"Learn to see things with their eyes." "The farmer bears the consequences of any change on his farm."

Make the welfare of the farm family your center of interes

Learn from the farmer's example!

"Recognize the reasons for the use of existing techniques." "First find out what the farmer knows better than you."

"Farmers can often explain things to other farmers better than extension workers can." "Help to solve problems without imposing your own opinion."

Recognize the farmers as independent and experienced partners.

Aim for professional competence !!

"Don't give contradictory advice." "The extension worker must be able to combine theory and practice."

"Discuss the innovations with the farmers and adapt them to suit their resources." "Assess with the farmers the overall impact of an innovation."

Adapt innovations to local conditions and assess them within the overall context !!

Plan and assess together with those involved and those affected!

"Stop a while, look back and reassess with your partners the work done." "Listen to the farmers' opinions."

"The counsellor must ask the right questions."

What have we forgotten?

Source: quotations from an enquiry among more than 80 extension workers in projects in Asia, Africa and Latin America, together with their recommendations (LBL, 1987 unpublished).

Extension Worker

The Role of Extension Workers

Note We can not assume that the extension worker, the target population and the employer all see the extension worker's role in the same light.

Principle

It is important for an adviser to define clearly his/her role and to match his/her behavior to this definition.

You, too, are an adviser!

Put your passport photograph here

Question List

- What do the farmers expect from an extension worker?
- What role do the employers want the extension workers to have?
- To what extent do these expectations agree with how the extension worker sees his/her role?
- What attitudes and abilities characterize the role of an extension advisor/counsellor?
- For which subjects should women take the role of extension advisor/counsellor?
- What is the extension worker's opinion of the target group?
- How does s/he think s/he can best approach the target group?
- In what role would s/he like the target group to see him/her?
- When and where can extension workers exchange ideas and experience?
- How are the extension workers' suggestions collected and considered?
- How do the extension workers judge their activities

- What duties are the main tasks for extension workers in my institution?
- Whal aspects of extension work do they particularly like?
- Who is responsible for defining the tasks?
- What changes should be made in how tasks are defined?
- Where can women perform extension duties?

- Whose status is higher, the extension worker's or the farmer's?
- What is being done to help the extension worker do his/her work well?
- What further training is necessary to help the extension worker do his/her work better?

Related Keywords

1.4 The Social Environment
2.1 The Planning Team
A Definition of Extension
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
D Functions of Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

103 The situation of the advisers

Volume 2:

161 C4: Illusions of communication

Training

Definition


Training:

initial basic training

Advanced training:

learning new skills

Refresher courses:

refreshing old skills;


keeping up with new developments

Principle

Three to seven days of practical training every three months bring a breath of fresh air into extension work.


FIGURE

Question List

- What do extension workers mean by extension?

- What basic training (technical and methodological) is given to an extension worker?

- In what area (technical topics, methodological) should this training be increased or supplemented?

- In what areas of their work do extension workers themselves see weaknesses? How are these weaknesses revealed and talked about?

- How much do the extension workers want to receive further training? What incentive is there for them to do o?

- Who offers further training? Who could provide it?

- How frequently are courses for extension workers scheduled? Who defines the subjects covered?

- What should be achieved by further training?

- How is it ensured that the subjects covered on the courses meet the participants' expectations?

- How much are the problems of extension work included and discussed during the courses?

- How are the subjects of a course adapted to the particular extension activity?

- Who can participate in training courses?

- What resources are available to the extension worker to train him/herself by independent study? What incentives are there for him/her to do so?

- What are the constraints (time, family, finance) to prevent an extension worker attending further training courses?

- Who could fiance the training and to what extent?

Related Keywords

2.6 Staff Management
6.5 Research
6.7 Agricultural Training

Pointers to the GTZ · Manual

Volume 1:

219 Appraisal of advisers
223 Basic and advanced training

Volume 2:

323 E14: Circulars for advisers

Motivation

Definition

· Intrinsic motivation = willingness and enthusiasm stimulated by commitment success and recognition (i.e. from the job itself)

· Extrinsic motivation = willingness stimulated by artificial incentives (i.e. bonuses, privileges)

Principle

Intrinsic motivation must be the basic, driving force.


FIGURE

Question List

- Why did the extension worker choose to work in extension?

- What motivates an extension worker?

- What is the aim of the extension activities?

- Who drew up the extension worker's job description? How was the extension worker involved in preparing the job description?

- What are the extension workers' favorite tasks?

- How is the extension work evaluated and how is good performance rewarded?

- What indicates that extension workers are motivated to do their work?

- Where and when does competition arise among extension workers? How is this shown?

- What incentives promote a team spirit among the extension workers?

- What are the chances of promotion for an extension worker?

- What incentives does an extension worker receive (accommodation, vehicle, fuel, daily allowances, bonuses, excursions)?

- How does good performance in extension affect an extension worker's salary?

- What effect do material incentives have on the extension worker's performance?

- In what way do incentives improve motivation?

- What does the target group think about this?

- How are these incentives decided on? Who pays for these incentives?

- What can the target group contribute to motivate the extension workers?

- What, if any, are the circumstances that hinder motivation?

- How can these obstacles be removed?

- Personally: How do I as an extension worker reply to these questions?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
2.1 The Planning Team
5 7 Transport
5.8 Infrastructure
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
D Functions of Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:
218 Living and working conditions

Volume 2:
209 D5: The role of stimulation

Social Environment of the Extension Worker

Notes The extension worker is only one of many people whom the farmer meets; beside him/her (or in front of him/her) stand a whole series of other contacts (traders, traditional and governmental authorities... )

· There are counsellors at all levels from the field extension worker to the adviser at the ministry. Each of them has his/her own social environment.


FIGURE

Question List

- From what social class does the extension worker come?

- What helps to introduce the extension worker into the target group?

- What traditional social conventions must be observed while visiting (modes of formal greeting, courtesy gestures, gifts)?

- What does the foreign extension worker need to do regarding traditional and national hierarchies?

- What does the local extension worker need to do regarding traditional and national hierarchies?

- How much freedom does the local extension worker have to take decisions and express his/her own opinion?

- How long does an extension worker stay at his/her post and who decides to send him/her elsewhere?

- What does the target group expect from the local/foreign extension worker?

- What does the population say about the privileges and bonuses of the extension worker?

- What influence does the extension worker's "image" (jeep, lifestyle, barefoot counsellor) have on his/her activity?

- What is needed before farmers will recognize other farmers as advisers?

- Who selects the farmer extension workers? How are they selected (with which criteria)?

- Who decides about their employment and duties?

- How can the other farmers say what they want the duties of the farmer extension workers to be?

- How can the target population be involved in preparing the job description for the extension worker?

- What is the most appropriate form of employment for the farmer extension worker (e.g. as a civil servant, a local council employee, a project employee)?

- What co-ordination problems arise between the various contracts and employers?

- How many specialized advisers are needed? How many can a target group or a village community tolerate?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
2.6 Staff Management
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.6 Other Extension Services
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organization Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

57 Framework model of extension
103 The situation of the advisers
191 Density of advisers

Volume 2:

161 C4: Illusions of communication
181 C6: Contact farmers
205 D4: Committees as intermediaries

2 EXTENSION PLANNING


FIGURE


FIGURE


FIGURE

The Planning Team

Definition

The planning team = the people involved in planning an activity

Principle

· All those working on the implementation should be involved in the planning.
· The members of the planning team must be able to communicate with each other.


FIGURE

Question List

- Who is involved in the planning process (government, administration, project staff, representatives of the target group)?

- What roles do the members of the planning team play in planning (do they propose, co-ordinate, formulate, modify, decide, supervise, evaluate, check)?

- How freely can the local staff members decide and voice their opinions?

- How can the different members of a planning team see how much they have contributed towards reaching a decision?

- Who decides, at what level, about what questions?

- What decision structures allow the participation of the target group in this process?

- How do the target groups choose their representatives?

- Which decisions are reserved to the funding institutions?

- What is to be planned at which level?

- Who is responsible for the planning at the various levels?

- Who has the necessary abilities to do this?

- Who should participate in planning at which levels?

- Who are the key people who make sure the planning team is really representative?

- Who leads the planning team?

- How is the target group told about the progress of the planning?

- How can the needs of the target group be communicated to the planning teams at higher levels?

- What conditions favor joint planning by extension workers and farmers?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.3 Motivation
1.4 The Social Environment
2.6 Staff Management
6.1 Agricultural Policy
B Communication
L GOPP

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:
49 Participation
177 Planning extension work

Volume 2:

161 C4: Illusions of communication
195 D1: Problem-solving method (Botswana)
265 E1- E3: Target groups
341 F1: Participation of target groups

Situation Analysis

Note The analysis of any situation is influenced by the previous experiences of those involved (responsible administrators, implementors, target population)


FIGURE

Question List

- Why is a situation analysis required?

- What is the purpose of the situation analysis?

- Who asks for a situation analysis? Who has which interests in it?

- Which/whose situation is going to be analyzed (of the farmers, the elderly, the women, the young people)?

- Which topics are of particular interest? What questions need to be asked?

- What is most important - insights into complex interactions and relationships or the collection of quantitative data?

- Who should take part in the situation analysis? Who should play what role?

- How can obstacles to participation (due to age or gender) be removed?

- What role will the population play?

- What information is already available? Where?

- What information still needs to be obtained? What sources are available (written data, individuals or groups with special information, festivals as opportunities to learn about local customs etc.)?

- Who is paying for the situation analysis?

- How much time may it take?

- What are the methods of enquiry to be used?

- How precise must the situation analysis be?

- How many people will it require?

- How can they be recruited?

- What preparation will the participants need?

- How will the results be processed?

- Who is going to check the reliability of the information?

- For whom are the results intended?

- How are the results to be presented?

- How can the target population comment on the results?

- How will their comments and criticisms be taken into account?

- What steps are to follow the situation analysis?

- Is there room for any future changes in the programme?

- What should the situation analysis achieve (creating awareness, collecting information)?

Related Keywords

2.1 The Planning Team
2.3 Identification of Objectives
2.4 Operation Planning
2.7 Tools for Planning
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:
157 Situation analysis

Volume 2:

349 F4: Checklist for information gathering

Identification of Objectives

Definition

Identifying the objectives is a matter of setting extension aims and developing concepts.

Principle

Objectives must be desirable, achievable and clearly
defined.

It is only in this way that they can serve as a basis for
planning.


FIGURE

Question List

- Which objectives have already been decided? Can any of these be changed?

- What are the interests which led to these objectives being set?

- Whose interests led to these objectives being set?

- Which situation analysis serves as a basis for identifying the objectives?

- Who carried this out? Who took part in it?

- Whose views on the key-problems are expressed in the results of the situation analysis?

- In what form have the results of the situation analysis been recorded?

- How has the target group expressed itself regarding the results of the situation analysis?

- Who decides which of the identified needs are priorities?

- Who takes part in the problem analysis?

- Who defines the project's aims? Who must approve them?

- How can the participants in the problem analysis assess their contribution towards reaching a decision?

- Who developers the proposals for solutions to the problems identified? Who selects a certain solution?

- Which solution is the most desirable and feasible? How are the priorities decided?

- How is this decision made?

- What consideration must be given to the funding institutions?

- What demands are made on the extension service?

- On what is the interest in extension services based (prior experience, free services etc)?

Related Keywords

2.1 The Planning Team
2.2 Situation Analysis
2.4 Operation Planning
2.7 Tools for Planning
6.1 Agricultural Policy
L GOPP

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

46 Target-group orientation
177 Planning the extension work

Volume 2:

265 E1- E3: Target groups
345 F3: Features of successful extension

Operation Planning

Definition The operation planning seeks ways and means for achieving an objective.

Principle Clear planning makes the implementation and evaluation of an activity much easier.


FIGURE

Question List

- Who is responsible for operation planning?

- Who is going to take part in the planning?

- How can the target group be involved in planning the work?

- At which level does involvement of the target group make sense?

- How practical are the results of the planning? How do they fit with available staff, knowledge, material, finances?

- Where do bottlenecks exist and how can these be overcome?

- How must available manpower be used?

- Who will distribute the tasks at the different levels?

- To what extent are the staff consulted about this distribution of tasks?

- To what extent does the assignment of tasks fit with the abilities and wishes of the staff?

- How can the process be divided into a sequence of steps?

- When must intermediate evaluations be done?

- After which steps can changes be made?

- Which deadlines are fixed, which can be set at the planning stage?

- What outside factors affect the deadlines of the work (e.g. growing season, condition of the roads, national budget)?

Related Keywords

2.1 The Planning Team
2.3 Identification of Objectives
2.5 Organization of the Extension Service
2.6 Staff Management
2.7 Tools for Planning
L GOPP

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:
177 Planning the extension work

Volume 2:

51 A8: The "CFSME" Extension System
199 D3: Extension methods in Kawinga (Malawi)
345 F3: Features of successful extension
399 G8: Work programmes for field avisers

Organization of the Extension Service

Note The objective of extension affects the structure of the extension service.

Principle Participation as a stated goal is credible only when it is also practiced within the extension service.


FIGURE

Question List

- What do the target groups expect from an extension service?

- How can the extension service meet these expectations?

- What form of extension service can best fulfill these expectations?

- What changes in your own extension service seem necessary?

- How is the extension service being supported by supervision?

- On what traditional organizational structures can an extension service be based?

- What is the national extension service's structure? What does its organogram look like?

- Which of the various extension services are represented at different levels of the extension system's hierarchy?

- What special topics does the extension service cover?

- What services in addition to giving advice must the extension service provide (research, help with the acquisition of inputs, credits, storage and marketing)?

- Which of these other activities could hinder the extension work?

- Which private organizations also offer extension services? What services do they provide?

- What size of area is the extension service expected to cover?

- How many extension workers does the work plan ask for?

- What transport will be necessary?

- How will teamwork be encouraged in the extension service?

- What lines of communication ensure the flow of information and mutual understanding?

- How is reporting organized? Who reads the reports?

- Why are reports written?

- How can both male and female farmers be employed in the extension services?

- How can their extension activities be assured after the project finishes?

- What are the advantages and disadvantages of integrating the project into the national administration structure?

- How can well-tested extension methods be described and explained to promote their application in other regions?

Related Keywords

2.1 The Planning Team
2.6 Staff Management
5.8 Infrastructure
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.6 Other Extension Services
D Functions of Extension
J Extension Approaches

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

86 Organisation and management
191 Density of advisers
201 Organisation and management in extension

Volume 2:

91 B5: Reorganisation of agricultural extension (Benin)
205 D4: Committees as intermediaries
275 E4: Contact farmers
343 F2: Weaknesses in extension work

Staff Management

Definition

Managing means

- more: leading, guiding, accompanying
- than: directing, dictating, prohibiting

Principle

· Mutual respect and confidence between staff and their manager are essential.

· Managers need to share responsibility and decision-making power in an equal way.


FIGURE

Question List

- What demands are made on the extension worker? Who sets these demands?

- How are extension workers selected for employment? Who employs them?

- What are the contractual terms and who sets them?

- Who decides on the transfer of an extension worker?

- How long does an extension worker stay in the same area?

- Which type of management prevails in the extension service (e.g. authoritarian, participatory)?

- What do the extension workers expect from the extension service?

- Who sets up the job description for the extension workers? Who sets its terms? How is the description translated into day-to-day work?

- How is the dedication and efficiency of the extension workers checked?

- How can extension workers participate in the assessment of their work?

- What are the most suitable criteria for evaluating an extension worker's performance?

- How are the extension workers accompanied and supported during their work (monitoring/backstopping)?

- How do the extension workers react to monitoring and back stopping?

- What is the extension worker's position in the local power structure? Where and how does this restrict his/her extension work?

- What privileges are customary (free accommodation, vehicle, salary bonuses, reimbursement of expenses)?

- What does the target group think about this?

- What incentive is offered for special efforts (a share in the profits on seed sales, honoring by the national government, distinction by the traditional hierarchy)?

- How can conflicts about privileges that arise with other extension workers or with partner organizations be resolved?

- Who is responsible for advising and supporting of the extension workers?

- On what does this supervision mainly focus: inspection/controls or on analysis and searching for solutions?

- How are supervisors trained for their duties?

Related Keywords

1.3 Motivation
2.1 The Planning Team
2.4 Operation Planning
2.5 Organization of the Extension Service
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
J Extension Approaches
M Dialogues in Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

86 Organisation and management
201 Organisation and management in extension

Volume 2:

185 C7: Problems of leadership style
281 E5: The methodology of extension talks
323 E14 Circulars for advisers

Tools for Planning

Note

· Visual aids such as blackboards, pinboards, charts etc.

· Documents such as job descriptions, work schedules, evaluations etc.

Principle Properly-used planning tools help both in assessing and organizing the extension work. They help to pinpoint strengths and weaknesses and make subsequent planning an easier task.


FIGURE

Question List

- What documents are available to help in the planning?
- What other sources of information exist? Which sources are accessible?
- Is documentation from earlier planning periods available?
- What can be learnt from it?

- What kinds of basic documents does the extension worker have?
- How are the progress and time schedules of the work visibly recorded?
- How is reporting organized in the extension service?
- How is the feedback provided to the authors of reports?
- How is experience collected and classified?
- Whose experience is included in the planning work?
- How are field notes used in extension work?
- Where do weaknesses arise in the course of planning?

- Whose help can be requested in planning the extension work?
- Who gives courses on techniques of planning?

Related Keywords

2.1 The Planning Team
2.6 Staff Management
2.8 Evaluation
L GOPP
N Recommendation for the Writing of Reports

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1: 165 Methods of collective information 221 Proposals for improving reports Volume 2: 329 E17: Using visualisation 383 G1- G8: Examples and suggestions for presentation

Evaluation

Purpose of Evaluation

Evaluation has three main functions:

- Assessing the aims and results (controlling the work)
- Supporting the extension worker (learning from experience)

- Ensuring contacts with other institutions at the same or a higher level (communication)


FIGURE

Question List

- Who wants/needslrequests an evaluation?

- Who has an interest in the evaluation?

- What is the aim of the evaluation?

- What is to be evaluated?

- What is the main reason for the evaluation?

- Whose questions are to be answered by the evaluation?

- Who is doing the evaluation?

- Who is taking part in the evaluation? In what role?

- What role does the target group play in the evaluation?

- What method of evaluation best suits the aim of the evaluation?

- What do the staff think about an evaluation of their activity?

- What is the attitude of the project staff and the extension service staff towards the evaluators?

- How openly will current problems be able to be talked about?

- What evaluation work can be done by the extension staff themselves?

- What written information is available for the evaluation?

- Are any results of earlier evaluations or situation analyses known?

- What diaries, field notes and statistics are available?

- How are these notes gathered and used?

- How was the evaluation prepared at the planning stage of the extension work?

- What criteria are used to assess whether the objectives of the extension programme have been achieved?

- What indicators (qualitative/quantitative) indicate whether the different sub-objectives have been reached?

- What measuring units are used for the indicators?

- At what cost can these indicators be checked?

- What effects will the evaluation have on planning future work?

- How often should an evaluation be done and by whom?

- How can a continuous evaluation procedure be set up for the extension work?

- How much time is available for the evaluation?

- What funds are available for it?

Related Keywords

2.1 The Planning Team
2.3 Identification of Objectives
2.6 Staff Management
2.7 Tools for Planning
L GOPP
N Recommendations for the Writing of Reports

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

221 Proposals for improving reports
233 Evaluation of agricultural extension

Volume 2:

311 E12: Evaluating training events
335 E18: External evaluation
345 F3: Features of successful extension

3 EXTENSION SUBJECT MATTER


In one culture, a problem has been solved in the same old way for years ...


...but it is doubtful whether it can be used in the same way in other cultures.


FIGURE

Means of Production

Definition Means of production = input obtainable by purchase or exchange i.e. seed, tools, fertilizer, chemicals.

(Land, labour and capital are production factors)

Principle The supply of means of production should not put farmers at risk by making them dependent on the external supply of the inputs.


FIGURE

Question List

- What means of production are in high demand from the target group?
- How does the extension service react to these demands?
- What criteria influence the decision of the extension service, about the inputs it supplies?
- What means of production can the farmers afford?
- What means of production are being used in the area?
- Which inputs are difficult to obtain when needed?
- Who has access to the means of production?
- Who sells the means of production?
- How promptly are the means of production supplied?
- What means of production can be obtained locally (seed, seedlings ...)?

- How much does the extension work depend on the supply of inputs?
- What organization could be responsible for selling and distributing the means of production?
- How can the availability of inputs be guaranteed beyond the duration of the project?
- What ecological side-effects are created by the use of certain means of production?
- How should the extension service respond if certain means of production are ecologically damaging?

Related Keywords

6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
6.3 Agricultural Credit
6.4 Supply and Marketing Services
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organizational Development
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

187 Provision of production means

Volume 2:

357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Production Techniques

Definition Production techniques = the ways in which an agricultural product is produced. Production techniques include the following notions:

· Crop cultivation
· Fodder cultivation

· Livestock breeding
· Livestock production


FIGURE

Question List

- Who has analyzed the situation and the production techniques being used?
- With what techniques are the target group familiar?
- What are the advantages of the existing production techniques?
- Who knows why this production technique was chosen or why it has remained unchanged?
- Who has an interest in introducing new techniques?
- What are the advantages of maintaining the traditional technique?
- What suggestions for improving the production technique have been tested already?
- Who developed the proposed solutions?
- What part did the target group play in helping to solve the problem?
- Who is likely to benefit from the technical solution suggested and who can use it?
- How can short-term increases in yield be achieved and maintained?
- What is being done to check whether the new technique fits into the existing farming system?
- How can the impacts of the new technique be assessed?
- What negative impacts are expected?
- How much will the social impacts be in the interest of the target group?
- How will old people, women and children be affected by the new technique?

Related Keywords

2.3 Identification of Objectives
4.4 Demonstrations
6.5 Research
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1:

Volume 2:

15 A1: Production technology approach
139 C2: Traditional level of knowledge
357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Rural Engineering / Farm Mechanization

Definition

· Rural engineering = soil-improvement measures (draining, irrigation, erosion prevention, reallocation and regrouping of land)

· Farm mechanization = the use of tools and machines

Principle Use only suitable technology which is adapted to the local environment, economy, social structures, production technique, maintenance, repair service and the skills of the target group.


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the rural engineering/farm mechanization problems of the target group?

- Why were the rural engineering/farm mechanization policies inappropriate?

- What problems concern the target group?

- What differences are there between the population's view of the problem and that of the extensionist?

- What is the farmers' attitude towards the problem situation?

- What suggestions/requests/ideas are proposed by the target group?

- What have the farmers done already to help solve the problem?

- What has been their experience?

- What advantages are there in keeping the traditional technology?

- What innovations are being proposed by local organizations?

- Where have such innovations been tested, what results have been achieved, and what impact do they have on the target group?

- How do the suggested innovations fit into the existing farming system?

- Who can use the innovation?

- Who profits most from the innovation ?

- What benefits does the innovation offer (production increases, labour-saving, soil conservation, yield ensurance)?

- What organizational structure is necessary to introduce the innovation?

- How can both short-term interests and sustained results be achieved?

- How can the impacts of the new technology be assessed?

- What negative side-effects are expected?

- How much will the social impacts be in the interest of the target group?

- How will old people, women and children be affected by the new technology?

Related Keywords

3.2 Production Techniques
4.4 Demonstrations
5.6 Demonstration Plots/Pilot Farms
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.5 Research
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1:

Volume 2:

357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Post-harvest Storage / Processing / Marketing

Observation

- The surplus yield of a good harvest is quickly lost
- if unsuitably stored
- if inappropriately marketed (seasonal collapse of prices).


FIGURE

Question List

- How is stock-management done?

- Who is responsible for it?

- What problems do the target group have in storing and marketing their products?

- What suggestions have the target group proposed?

- What storage techniques are known or were once common?

- What limitations do these storage methods have?

- Where has experience been made with new forms of storage?

- What does the target group think about these new methods?

- How is agricultural produce marketed?

- Who has an interest in maintaining the existing storage/marketing system?

- Who has an interest in changing it?

- What kind of relationship exists between farmers and merchants?

- What services could a marketing organization offer, and what services are beyond its capacity (loans, social connections, overnight accommodation in the market town, purchases from the city, special services)?

- How much shared responsibility is the target group prepared to assume?

- How much do prices change from month to month, from year to year?

- What special marketing channels exist for particular products?

- What marketing monopolies exist?

- What influence does the state or the export economy have on agricultural marketing?

Related Keywords

5.7 Transport
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
6.4 Supply and Marketing Services
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organizational Development
I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

190 Marketing

Volume 2:

357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Farm Management / Finance / Credit

Principles

· Credits only for productive activities

· Credits only on the basis of thorough economic analyses


FIGURE

Question List

- What terms do the farmers use when talking about farm management?

- What is the economic and socio-cultural significance of each type of farm production?

- What farm management data is available? How reliable is it?

- How self-sufficient are the farming families?

- What goods are sold or purchased at the market?

- What goods are exchanged? Which are sold or bought?

- In what form are savings kept?

- What is the preferred way of investing capital?

- What advantages do the target group see in the credit system?

- What role have credits played in the current farming system?

- What are the traditional credit forms (neighborhood help, local savings-funds, banks, money lenders)?

- What are the advantages and disadvantages of these forms of credit?

- Who is/was the lender? What additional services does s/he offer? What influence can she have on the borrowers?

- Who has access to credit? Who has not (because of age, gender, economic status)?

- What advantages and disadvantages would there be for the farmer if the existing credit system was stopped?

- What prevents farmers from pursuing financial independence?

- What guarantees are necessary for obtaining credit?

- Who can produce these guarantees?

- What risks does the farmer run when she takes credit?

- What back-up plans are made in case of crop failure?

- What institutions are best able to provide credit?

- How will the credit service be financed?

- What rate of interest is considered fair?

- How can farm management advisers and credit officials work together?

Related Keywords

6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
6.3 Agricultural Credit
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
D Functions of Extension
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:
188 Credit

Volume 2:

85 B2: Extension and credit in farm systems (Kenya)
89 B4: Self-help groups (Nigeria)
357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations

Organizational Development

Definition Organizational development aims to increase the capacity of a group of people to solve their own problems and to adapt their organizational structure to the tasks to be done.


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the advantages of being in an organized group?

- What forms of cooperation exist within the traditional society?

- What traditional groups exist and how do they work?

- What "modern" forms of organization are there (e.g. interest groups, committees, associations, societies, cooperatives, trade unions, federations) and how do they work?

- Why have these organizations been set up? By whom?

- What legal rules apply to these organizations?

- What types of groups and organizations are the people familiar and comfortable with?

- What are the strengths and weaknesses of these types of organizations?

- What extension services could these organizations take over? What services could they not take over? Why not?

- Who can become a member of the organization (heads of families, women, young people, single people)?

- What women's organizations exist? What young people's organizations exist?

- What kind of experience has the target group already had with self-help organizations ?

- Why did previous organizational development efforts fail?

- What aspects of organizational development must be dealt with carefully to avoid failure?

- What benefits would a farming family get from taking part in the proposed self-help group?

- Whose interests are affected by setting up self-help groups?

- What other self-help organizations might compete with a new one?

- Where must care be taken in distributing responsibilities within a self-help organization?

- What tasks can the self-help organizations take over?

- What is the government's attitude towards the formation of farmers' organizations?

- What areas of organizational activity can be expected to receive government support?

- What training opportunities exist for self-help groups? What training needs do the groups have?

- What associations exist with which co-operation might be possible?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
2.5 Organization of the Extension Service
6.6 Other Extension Services
D Functions of Extension
E Animation / Organizational Development
I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

208 Self-help organisations

Volume 2:

89 B4: Self-help groups (Nigeria)
241 D7: Pedagogic approach to self-help,
"GRAAP"
357 F6: Checklist for evaluating innovations
363 F8: Farming village committee

4 EXTENSION METHODS


FIGURE

The success of extension depends to a very great extent on the choice of suitable methods. Furthermore, we have noted that the extension methods used focus on different areas of teaching and we have wondered whether our efforts in a training context really include the areas of teaching that are decisive for the success of extension. Here is an example to show what we mean:

Family Planning

What does the success of family planning extension depend on?

The ability to read numbers

· to follow a calendar
· to read a thermometer
· to understand biology
· to master contraception methods
· to understand demographic interrelationships

In other words, on some knowledge / skills

Frankness

· the willingness of men and women to talk with each other
· a sense of responsibility
· discipline
· social and cultural freedom or on personal attitudes/behaviour

(My project) .............................................

What does the success of extension depend on?

Knowledge/skills

Attitudes/behaviour

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

-------------------

------------------

Put a tick in the box where your project makes the most effort:

[]

[]

Now put a tick in the box where you notice the most frequent causes of difficulties and failures:

[]

[]

What do you conclude from this?

What alternative extension methods do you suggest?

Individual Counselling

Definition The focus of individual counselling is a specific problem of the client (transfer of the farm/succession, building plans, special crops).

Principles

· Only the one concerned can really know his/her problem
· Ensure confidentiality (e.g. no notes to be taken during the discussion)
· Keep your promises
· Ask rather than tell


FIGURE

Question List

- Who is interested in individual counselling (is counselling mainly offered or asked for)?

- How can the individual farming families be contacted?

- What extension subjects require individual counselling?

- What extension subjects make the expense of individual counselling worth wile?

- How much time and cost can be saved by prior specific information in group counselling

- What are the advantages of individual counselling?

- What training do the extension workers receive in using and assessing communication and problem-solving methods?

- Who can provide this kind of training?

- What are the traditional communication customs?

- How can women be addressed?

- What taboos must not be mentioned?

- What topics can be mentioned only to women or only to men?

- How should the counsellor react when offered gifts?

- How much friendship/preferential treatment is compatible with the role of counsellor?

- How does the extension worker's appearance influence the individual counselling?

- How can traditional customs of visiting fit with the extension worker's daily work routine (rules of hospitality, work programme)?

- What kind of behavior on the part of the counsellor can improve individual counselling?

- What mistakes must the counsellor avoid during individual counselling?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
B Communication
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
H Problem Solving Assistance
M Dialogues in Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

69 Problem solving and decision making
78 Communication
107 Individual extension

Volume 2:

281 E5: The methodology of extension talks
367 F9: Conducting individual extension talks
371 F10: The advisory process

Group Counselling

Note Group counselling is particularly suited for discussing problems which affect a whole group of people in a similar way (e.g. creating awareness or solving a problem).

Principles

· The farmers must define their problems themselves
· The group members give each other advice - even between meetings
· Group size should not exceed 20 persons
· Let the group know about the subject and the agenda before the meeting
· Be punctual; don't make the group wait for you


FIGURE

Question List

- Who suggested using group counselling?

- What is the aim of the group counselling?

- Who will be taking part?

- Why do the participants take part in this meeting?

- How is the meeting different from other group meetings (demonstrations, field days, visits)?

- What forms of counselling and discussion fit with the local customs?

- Who helped to decide the programme of the meeting?

- Who will preside the group meeting (counsellor, group leader, or a outside facilitator)?

- What sequences should there be in a group meeting?

- How do these sequences vary (group composition, group size, subject treated, work method)?

- What details are particularly important to include in the meeting?

- How will the group-meetings be followed-up (discussions, other meetings, feedback)?

- How are the discussions recorded?

- How can those who stay at home be informed of the discussion?

- How can the effect of a specific instruction be assessed?

- What facilities would be useful for a group meeting?

- How can best use be made of participants' experience?

- How can controversial issues be dealt with during the meeting?

- How and where can the counsellor obtain further training in animation techniques and facilitation skills?

- How can outside monitoring and support help?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
B Communication
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
F Adult Education
H Problem Solving Assistance
M Dialogues in Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

69 Problem solving and decision making
73 Groups and group processes
110 Group extension

Volume 2:

241 D7: Pedagogic approach to self-help
"GRAAP"
311 E12: Evaluating training events
329 E17: Using visualisation
403 G9 - G11: Teaching aids

Field Days

Note Field days help farmers and extension workers to consider the state of the crops and to discuss them together.

Principle

The groups should be small (about 10 people).


FIGURE

Question List

- Who is the target audience of the field day (extension workers, farmers, farmers' families)?
- Which needs of the target group will be addressed during the field day?
- How is the date of a field day chosen?
- What are the objectives of the field day?
- What information should the field day provide and to whom?
- What is the link between the field day and other extension work?
- What arrangements must be made with the farmer whose fields will be visited?
- What information is particularly important to include in the field day and who will mention it?
- What opportunities are there for asking questions and exchanging experience?
- What written information should be distributed to those attending the field day?
- How can the participants make use of what they see?
- How can the impressions of the field day be passed to those who stayed at home?
- What transport will be required for the field day?
- What alternative programme is planned in case of bad weather?
- How much can the participants be expected to contribute to the costs of the field day?

Related Keywords

3.2 Production Techniques
6.5 Research
F Adult Education
Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

118 Field Days

Volume 2:

299 E8: Programming field days

Demonstrations

Purpose Demonstrations can illustrate and explain a new production method, a new tool or can show results.

Principles

· Rehearse the demonstration first.

· The participants should be invited to practice what is demonstrated (i.e. learning-by-doing).


FIGURE

Question List

- Who will take part in the demonstration?

- How can demonstrations be made accessible for women farmers?

- What is the wider context of the demonstration?

- What are the expected learning effects of the demonstration?

- What is the most appropriate form of demonstration for this?

- How should the demonstration be rehearsed first?

- Who helps decide the content of the demonstration?

- How will the demonstration be divided into a sequence of activities?

- Who will do the demonstrating?

- What preparation does the extension worker need in order to master the content of the demonstration?

- How many participants are expected?

- What demonstration and practice material is needed for practical teaching?

- How much time should be allowed for the practical exercises?

- Are the conditions of the site adequate to ensure a successful demonstration?

- What arrangements must be made with the farmer before using his/her land as a demonstration site (payment, rental of draft animals, access for outside visitors)?

- What transport problems might the participants have?

- What contribution can the participants be expected to make to the costs of the demonstration?

- How will it be checked whether the message provided by the demonstration has been understood?

- What alternative programme is planned in case of bad weather?

Related Keywords

3.2 Production Techniques
6.5 Research
F Adult Education

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

114 Demonstration

Volume 2:

177 C5: Experience of technical demonstrations
295 E7: Demonstrating the use of portable sprays
395 G6: The time needed for a demonstration

Field Trips / Excursions

Note Field trips and excursions provide opportunities for the participants to see production methods and conditions on other farms, in other regions or of former times.

Principles Let farmers meet farmers. Bring local innovators into contact with each other.


FIGURE

Question List

- Who will take part in the field trip?

- Who is invited and how many participants are expected?

- What should be done to allow women to participate in the field trip?

- What is the learning objective of the field trip?

- What is the link between the field trip and other extension work going on?

- What information during the field trip is particularly important and who points it out?

- How can the participants make use of the experience of the field trip (opportunity for discussion, follow-up)?

- What additional teaching aids are required?

- How can the teaching effect of the field trip be assessed afterwards?

- How can the experience of the participants be communicated to those who remained at home?

- Whose permission must be obtained for the visit?

- What transport is required?

- How much can the participants be expected to contribute towards the costs of the field trip?

Related Keywords

1.2 Training
1.3 Motivation
3.2 Production Techniques
3.3 Rural Engineering/Farm Mechanization
6.5 Research
6.6 Other Extension Services
I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

90 The diffusion of innovations
118 Field days

Volume 2:

299 E8: Programming field days

Courses

Note Courses can provide basic knowledge on specific topics. They can improve abilities and skills and they are suitable for exchanges of ideas and experience.


FIGURE

Question List

- Who suggested this course?
- Why would a course be better than a demonstration, a field day or an excursion?
- To whom is the course offered and who can make use of the offer?
- How many participants are expected or allowed entry?
- What previous training do the participants need to have?
- What is the main incentive for participants to attend the course?
- How must the course be offered and organized to let women participate in it?
- How can the participants contribute their own experience and discuss their own problems?
- What does the course aim to teach?
- What do the participants want to learn?
- How can it be checked whether those two (teaching and learning) objectives coincide?
- What has been the experience with similar courses?
- Who decides the content, the timing and the form of the course? On the basis of what criteria?
- Who gives the course?
- What written information and course materials need to be given the participants?
- How do the participants' interests match with how the teacher sees them?
- What social/economic impact does the course have on the students?
- How can it be checked whether the teaching aim has been achieved?
- How sensible is it to let participants help to decide the content or the form of the course?
- What kind of certificate should be given at the end of the course?

Related Keywords

1.2 Training
1.3 Motivation
2.6 Staff Management
1.5 Research
6.6 Other Extension Services
F Adult Education

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

84 Structuring of learning processes
121 Extension work in training centers

Volume 2:

311 E12: Evaluating training events
403 G9 - G11: Teaching aids

Theatre / Storytelling / Songs

Notes

· Theatre and stories told in public are very popular and common in many cultures.
· Irony is not understood everywhere; different cultures have very different senses of humour

Principles

· Theatre or storytelling as part of an extension event should not last more than half an hour.
· Everything should be based on local forms and known characters.


FIGURE

Question List

- For which occasions is theatre traditionally performed?

- Who would enjoy seeing a play?

- Who would be prepared to act in a play?

- Who would be able to write a play for the specific extension situation?

- How can the extension workers make sure that the message (the teaching points) has been correctly understood and interpreted by the actors?

- What forms of acting are well-known (irony, absurdity, exaggeration ...)? To whom are these forms familiar?

- When can a play be performed?

- What context is suitable for this?

- Who is a traditional storyteller?

- What are his/her stories about?

- How can a teaching message be built into the existing stories?

- What is the significance of songs in the local culture?

- Who sings these songs? On what occasions?

- To which best-known tunes could extension messages be sung?

- What experience has been obtained with this technique?

Related Keywords

1.4 The Social Environment
B Communication
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
E Animation/Organizational Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

145 Methods of live presentation

Volume 2:

241 D7: Pedagogic approach to self-help
"GRAAP"
255 D9: Festivities

Farmers' Meetings / Information Days

Notes More people attend a farmers' meeting than a group meeting or a course. Information transfer and decision-making are the most common activities in farmers' meetings.

Principles

· Choose relevant subjects to discuss
· Invite the people well ahead of time
· Tell the invited people about the topics before the meeting
· Prepare the site for the meeting
· Prepare written information for all the participants


FIGURE

Question List

- What is the purpose of the meeting/information day?

- Who will invite people to the meeting?

- Who is responsible for the choice and arrangement of the meeting place?

- How will the participants reach the meeting place?

- Which is the best day for meetings?

- Who has a special interest in the meeting?

- How can it be guaranteed that everyone interested has been contacted? (Special occasions for women and young people.)

- What do the participants expect of the meeting?

- What disputes are likely to happen?

- Who will facilitate the meeting?

- What is the agenda of the meeting?

- What details are particularly important to include in the meeting?

- What decisions must be taken during the meeting?

- How are decisions traditionally taken within the target group?

- What role do the traditional opinion-makers play?

- What guarantee is there that decisions taken by the participants will also be implemented?

- Who is responsible for keeping the minutes of the meeting?

- How can the results of the meeting be followed up?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

84 Structuring of learning processes

Volume 2:

255 D9: Festivities
325 E15: How to prepare and deliver a speech
373 F11: Checklist for preparing and running a
meeting

Radio Broadcasts

Note

Radio broadcasts allow information to be spread rapidly among the population.

Principles

· Only very up-to-date news is suitable The first ten seconds of the broadcast will catch or lose the attention of the listener

· Speaking freely is more effective than reading a text

· The main points must be repeated several times


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the opportunities for broadcasting?

- Which target groups should the broadcast reach?

- How many people of the target group listen to the radio?

- What news should be broadcast?

- What extension topic is suitable for broadcast by radio?

- Who has enough knowledge to prepare the broadcast?

- What is the best form of the broadcast (a short programme, a long feature, or a series of broadcasts)?

- How can it be checked whether the news reaches its destination?

- How will enquiries from the audience be dealt with?

- How can the listeners report their reactions to the broadcasts?

- Are the extension workers able to provide additional services? What further programmes are planned?

Related Keywords

B Communication
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

84 Structuring of learning processes
137 Radio broadcasts

Volume 2:

325 E15: How to prepare and deliver a speech
377 F12: Checklist for using media

Agricultural Fairs

Note New ideas, tools, equipment, and machines can be shown to the public at agricultural fairs.

Principles

· The fair should take place after the harvest
· A small amount of information should be presented impressively


FIGURE

Question List

- What exhibitions and fairs are traditionally held?

- With what traditional festival could the fair be combined?

- Who can organize an agricultural fair?

- Who will invite people to the fair?

- How will the fair be advertised?

- What other extension services could co-operate (health service, forestry department, home economics, arts and crafts)?

- What topics should be dealt with at the fair?

- How should topics be presented (demonstration, exhibition, audiovisual show, film, poster, competitions)?

- Who can participate in the exhibition and the competitions?

- Who should be on the jury? Who instructs the jury?

- On what criteria should the prizes be awarded?

- What kinds of prizes encourage the winners without creating bad feelings among the losers?

- Who will award the prizes?

- What should be handed out to the public and in what quantity (brochures, leaflets)?

- How will the extension workers need to be prepared for the fair?

- What additional requests can be expected?

Related Keywords

6.5 Research
B Communication
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

127 Agricultural shows

Volume 2:

255 D9: Festivities and agricultual exhibition
305 E10: Local agricultural exhibition

Campaigns

Note During a campaign the use of a wide variety of communication methods on a single topic is designed to achieve an efficient transfer of information on, e.g. vaccination, afforestation etc..

Principles

· Announce the campaign well in advance
· Plan and prepare for the campaign carefully
· Use campaigns for simple topics only
· Everybody involved in the campaign must be well co-ordinated


FIGURE

Question List

- What message should the campaign convey?

- What level of coverage is desired (regional - national)?

- How does the campaign fit into the annual programme of extension work?

- How urgent is the campaign?

- Who is demanding / Supporting / challenging it?

- What institutions are going to take part in it?

- What does the extension service expect from it?

- How can the campaign tasks be divided?

- How many staff will be required?

- What material will be necessary? How much?

- Who will take part in planning the campaign? And in the running it?

- What is the aim of the campaign (sensitization, warning, instructing, encouraging, educating)?

- What are the advantages of having a central campaign team? What are the advantages of a mobile campaigning team?

- How long is the campaign going to last? How many repeats are planned of the same campaign?

- What methods of communication are most suitable?

- How can the campaign be made more popular (competitions, shows, sports events, accompanying popular festivals)?

- What does the population already know about the campaign topic?

- How can questions which the campaign raises be answered?

- What accompanying measures and additional services need to be performed by the extension service?

- How can the success of the campaign be assessed? What criteria will be useful in this assessment?

Related Keywords

B Communication
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1: 124 Campaigns Volume 2: 373 F11: Checklist for preparing and running a meeting

Competitions

Note

Competitions can be very effective as an additional incentive to large-scale extension work.

Principles: The rules of the competition must be clear and easily understandable

· The prizes should be modest
· The jury should include both local people and outsiders


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the benefits of holding an agricultural competition?

- What should the competition achieve or promote?

- What extension subject can be incorporated into a competition?

- Who can take part in the competition (small holders, large-scale farmers, women farmers, young people; single persons, families or groups of persons)?

- What incentives will there be for participation?

- What criteria will be used to judge the performances?

- Who should be on the jury? Who will instruct the jury?

- What would be suitable prizes? (They should encourage the winners but avoid envy and frustration among the losers.)

- What additional extension methods could supplement the competition?

Related Keywords

1.3 Motivation
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
E Animation/Organizational Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1:

Volume 2:

209 D5: The role of stimulation in extension

5 EXTENSION ACCESSORIES


FIGURE

A picture to help explain how covered compost pits are constructed shows a man blackening a pole in the fire to protect it against termites.

However, farmers saw in this picture:

- a man planting a tree - a man holding a gun
- someone spraying insecticide powder
- a man weeding
- a carpenter at work
- someone burning a pile of grass

Observation: The technique of blackening wood in fire is little known; thus, all the farmers' interpretations miss the intended message and instead refer to activities familiar to them.

Conclusion: Visual aids in extension must be checked to make sure their message is clearly understandable before they are used in training sessions.

Technical Leaflets / Brochures

Note Technical leaflets and brochures provide summaries of the main points about a specific question.

Principles

· Check the contents to make sure they are understandable

· Technical leaflets should not have more than four pages while brochures should not have more than ten.


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the literacy levels among the target population for men and women?

- At what audience are the technical leaflets aimed?

- What function do the leaflets have in the extension work?

- When and in what context should they be distributed?

- How much is the presentation adapted to the target public?

- How are the leaflets tested and with whom?

- What results were obtained from testing the understanding of the leaflets' message?

- Who is responsible for producing the brochures?

- How can the target group take part in the development of the brochures?

- What printing facilities are available?

- What written information is available?

- How are experiences usually recorded?

- How reliable are the research results on which the brochures are based?

- How are farmers/experiences with traditional forms of cultivation and animal husbandry recorded and shared?

- What other means of communication will do the same job (media comparison)?

- How frequently must the leaflets be revised and updated?

- How should the leaflets be distributed (free or at a price)? How will they reach remote areas?

Related Keywords

1.2 Training
6.5 Research
G Transmission of Information
I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

137 The spoken and written word
146 The potential of medias

Volume 2:

139 C2: Traditional level of knowledge
143 C3: Design of pictorial representation
319 E13: Pretesting pictorial material
323 E14: Circulars for advisers

Posters / Displays / Calendars

Purpose Posters and displays help to focus attention on a particular message during large-scale meetings.

Principle All pictures, drawings and illustrations must be checked to make sure their message is easily understood.


FIGURE

Question List

- What message is the poster meant to give?

- Whom should the posters address?

- How understandable are the drawings/illustrations without any text? Who, among the target audience, can read?

- Who is appealed by the poster?

- Who tests how the message of the poster is actually interpreted? Whom do they check with?

- What has been learnt from the production of earlier posters?

- Who can draft and draw the posters?

- How can the target group take part in the production of the posters?

- What material is available locally? What printing methods allow the posters to be produced locally?

- What are the advantages of using a poster (compared to other media) for the particular situation?

- What other extension methods must be included in the planning?

- Are calendars used or asked for in the rural regions?

- When should calendars be distributed? On what occasion?

- What recommendations should the calendars show?

- What message should be shown on the calendar's pages (monthly pages)?

- What experience have other institutions had with calendars?

Related Keywords

G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

139 Pictorial illustrations
146 The potential of media

Volume 2:

131 C1: Failure in intercultural communication
143 C3: Design of pictorial representation
319 E13: Pretesting pictorial material

Rural Newspaper

Notes

· People who do not read often, prefer large type
· Drawings make reading more attractive
· Most extension services over-estimate the value of a rural newspaper (the willingness to read and the ability to understand and digest the information is less than is usually assumed).


FIGURE

Question List

- What is the aim of a rural newspaper?

- Who wanted it, who suggested it?

- At what audience is it to be aimed?

- What kinds of rural newspapers already exist and what can be learnt from them?

- Who can provide information about existing newspapers?

- How can the newspaper be advertised?

- How can the impact of the newspaper be measured?

- What type of rural newspaper/circular letter most effectively supports the extension work?

- What do we have to demand from the publishing organization to ensure that editing, printing and distribution are carried out well? Do such local organizations exist?

- In what language should the paper be published? Why?

- How regularly should the newspaper appear?

- How should it be distributed (free or at a price)?

- How can non literate target groups learn about the contents of the paper?

- What are the conditions for including outside articles in the newspaper?

Related Keywords

6.5 Research
6.6 Other Extension Services
B Communication
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
G Transmission of Information

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

137 The spoken and written word

Volume 2:

101 B6: "Minka" a peasant newspaper in Peru
143 C3: Design of pictorial representation
319 E13: Pretesting pictorial material

Flannel Board Courses

Notes

· Flannel board pictures help to illustrate a point, and structure and record group discussions.

· Suitable for groups of up to 30 participants. A sheltered place, out of the wind is best.


FIGURE

Question List

- What is the aim of the flannel board course?

- Who will be the audience?

- For what occasions can flannel board courses be arranged?

- Who is familiar with this technique?

- Who can teach the technique?

- Who can train the extension workers how to run flannel board courses?

- Which are the key pictures of the extension subject to be discussed?

- Who can draft, draw and colour the pictures?

- How have the key pictures been tested and among whom?

- Where can the necessary materials be obtained?

- How can the extension workers and the target audiences contribute in the production of the pictures and the flannel boards?

- How can the content be developed further?

- How can the extension workers' experience with flannel board courses be fed back to headquarters?

- How are suggestions of the target audience taken into account for future productions of flannel board courses?

- What are the alternatives to using the flannel board technique? How can the flannel board course be supplemented by other techniques?

Related Keywords

B Communication
E Animation l Organizational Development
F Adult Education

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

139 Pictorial Illustrations
146 The potential of media

Volume 2:

143 C3: Design of pictorial representation
241 D7: Pedagogic approach to self-help
"GRAAP"
311 E12: Evaluating training events
319 E13: Pre-testing pictorial material
377 F12: Checklist for using media
403 G9-G11: Teaching aids

Slides / Films / Video

Suitability

· Slides and films can be used effectively to introduce new themes in large scale and small-group meetings.

· Video recordings are very impressive as a mirror of personal behavior.

· Slides, films and video are technically complicated tools, relatively easy to break (damage in transport!) and always depend on a source of energy!

· The novelty of the medium often attracts the audiences attention, but at the cost of effective communication of the message.


FIGURE

Question List

- What is the target audience?
- What should be achieved by the show?
- What message is meant to be transmitted to the public?
- What are the "viewing" habits of the target group?
- How has the understanding of the pictures been tested and with whom?
- How appropriate are the local conditions for the use of these media in the project?
- For which part of the extension service could they be used?
- Who is familiar with using these tools? Who will be handling them during the show?
- What justifies their high costs of their use?
- What advantages or disadvantages do they have, compared with other tools and methods?
- What preconditions must be fulfilled?

Related Keywords

B Communication
C Value Concepts - Value Systems

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

142 Slides and films

Volume 2:

143 C3: Design of pictorial representation
319 E13: Pre-testing pictorial material
37 7 F12: Checklist for using media

Demonstration Plots / Pilot Farms

Definition Innovations (new crops, new cultivation techniques, infrastructure and equipment) are demonstrated and advertised on demonstration fields and pilot farms. A distinction must be made between demonstration of the method and demonstration of the results.

Principle

It must be possible for the farmer to copy a pilot farm, at least in part.


FIGURE

Question List

- What is going to be demonstrated?

- What experience has already been obtained with demonstrations and where?

- What do the target group think about the proposed solution?

- What have they said about it? What doubts do they have?

- What criteria were used to choose the demonstration fields?

- When is it best to set up several fields, and when to set up only one pilot farm?

- How can the target group help choose the demonstration fields?

- Which farmer(s) does the target group agree as the most suitable to take care of the demonstration fields?

- What should be the responsibility of the extension worker in the maintenance of the demonstration fields (on farm research - OFR)?

- How can the farmer's interest in maintaining the demonstration field be encouraged?

- How should the farmer be compensated for his/her work?

- Who will cover the risks of a crop-failure?

- What is the best location for the field to allow comparisons with other cultivation methods?

- What guarantee is there that the new method being demonstrated is definitely better than the method normally being used by the farmers? In what ways is it better?

- How do these demonstration plots relate to the broader context of the extension work?

Related Keywords

6.5 Research
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Munual

Volume 1:

114 Demonstrations

Volume 2:

177 C5: Experience of technical demonstration
291 E6: Demonstration plots
309 E11: Establishing a school garden
Transport

Note Insufficient or unsuitable means of transportation are the most frequent reasons for extension events not happening.

Principle Keep transportation requirements to a minimum when designing your extension service.


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the transport requirements of the extension service (regular passenger transport, excursions, transport of products)?

- How do other organizations solve their transport problems?

- How do the farmers solve their transport problems?

- What public transport facilities are available?

- What vehicles can be rented?

- Which means of transport are suitable for the region?

- What kind of vehicle should be allocated to which extension worker (motorcycle, moped, private car)?

- How are the extension staff members/the target group involved in decisions about the transport requirements?

- Who can use the vehicles, who is responsible for their distribution?

- What are the advantages of a vehicle pool? What are the advantages of assigning vehicles to individuals?

- How is continuous availability of vehicles guaranteed?

- Who maintains and services the vehicles and who trains staff in maintenance and repair?

- Who is responsible for the supply of spare parts?

- What is the cost of transport compared to the economic value of extension work?

- How is the use of the vehicles regulated?

- What are the regulations about the private use of vehicles?

- Who sets the regulations about the use of vehicles and who supervises this?

- How can the transport system be continued after the project ends?

- What are the alternatives to providing transport for the extension workers (decentralized stations, walking etc.)?

Related Keywords

1.4 The Social Environment
2.4 Operation Planning
2.5 Organization of the Extension Service
L GOPP

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

194 Transport

Volume 2:

339 E19: The use of vehicles Infrastructure

Note Extension services depend on infrastructure (e.g. accommodation, training facilities, storage, stables, roads, wells).

Principle Be aware of subsequent maintenance costs when planning to build infrastructure.


FIGURE

Question List

- What premises are needed for the extension work (housing, training, storage, stables)? Who decides whether they are necessary?

- Where should the premises be built to avoid insurmountable or unnecessary transport problems?

- What type of construction is most suitable for the location? What criteria must be used in making this decision?

- Who decides on the type of construction and the financing?

- What part of the costs are paid by the target group?

- How should the buildings be constructed?

- Who builds the training premises?

- Who builds any necessary accommodation for the extension workers in the villages?

- How is ownership agreed where buildings are partially built by the target group?

- Who decides how the premises will be used?

- What other events may training premises be used for?

- Who pays for maintenance and repairs of the buildings?

- Who holds keys and has access to the buildings?

- Who is responsible for other rural infrastructure (roads, wells, market places ...)?

- What financial contribution can be expected from the users?

- How should the project be involved?

- Who is responsible for maintenance of the infrastructure?

Related Keywords

2.5 Organization of the Extension Service
3.4 Post-harvest Storage/Processing/Marketing
3.6 Organizational Development
5.6 Demonstration Plots/Pilot Farms
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organizational Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

121 Extension work in training centers
187 Infrastructure
193 Living quarters and offices

Volume 2:

6 EXTENSION CONTEXT


FIGURE

Agricultural Policy

Note The agricultural policy sets the conditions for extension work and also influences its role.

Principle Extension work must involve being aware of and influencing the agricultural policies behind it.


FIGURE

Question List

- Which target groups benefit from the current governmental policy?

- How is land ownership and land use legally controlled?

- What is being planned to provide marginalized groups with access to land ownership and production-inputs?

- What status does agriculture enjoy in politics?

- What influence do the farmers have on government policy?

- What is the influence of trade policy on agriculture (e.g. import of foodstuffs, export production)?

- What kind of supervision checks that agricultural policies are being complied with?

- How does agricultural policy affect extension (production regulations etc.)?

- What decisions can be taken at regional, district or municipal level?

- Who co-ordinates the extension service? At what level?

- Where do bottlenecks occur due to agricultural policy (training, transport system, price policy, research)?

- How necessary is it to cooperate with the government? What opportunities would this cooperation provide?

- Where is there tension between the political hierarchy and the extension structure?

- What would be the advantages and disadvantages of integrating the project into the national administrative structure?

- What are the possibilities of transferring well-tried extension ideas to partner organizations?

Related Keywords

1.4 The Social Environment
2.1 The Planning Team
2.3 Identification of Objectives

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

24 Rural poverty

Volume 2:

Price Policy / Subsidies

Notes

· Price policy and subsidies determine agricultural production
· Fixed prices prevent a changing market from influencing production levels.


FIGURE

Question List

- For what products are there price guarantees?
- What production incentives exist?
- What effect do these have?
- What means of production are subsidized?
- Who has access to subsidies?
- Why are these subsidies granted? By whom?
- What effect do subsidies have?
- Who decides the distribution of subsidies?
- Who profits most from subsidies?- To whom are subsidies given (groups/individuals)?

- How much subsidizing makes sense?
- How long can subsidies be paid?
- What must be expected when subsidies are withdrawn?
- What long-term effect must be expected from giving subsidies?
- What effect will there be if the extension service participates actively in providing subsidies?
- What export taxes are imposed?

Related Keywords

6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.3 Agricultural Credit
D Functions of Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual Volume 1:

Volume 2:

19 A2: Improvement of farming systems
209 DS: The role of stimulation in extension

Agricultural Credit

Definition A distinction must be made between long-term credit linked with mortgages and short-term (consumer) credit.

Principles

· The cost of obtaining credit (interest, commissions) must be less than the extra profits achieved because of the loan

· Credit should be given based on prior saving: - own savings = hot money - outside capital = cold money; The lower the temperature of the money, the lower the commitment to repay.


FIGURE

Question List

- What is the traditional credit system (neighborhood help, local savings funds, banks, money lenders)?
- What has been the experience with the traditional credit system (positive, negative)?
- Who has access to credit?
- What are the conditions for obtaining credit (interest, repayment, guarantees)?
- Who are the lenders?
- What official credit institutions exist?
- How does the extension service co-operate with these organizations?

- How does the target group take part in planning the credit programme?
- What credit volume is available and how is it fed?
- Who decides whether a credit is granted or not?
- What happens to people who are slow to repay?
- What are the extension workers' duties in the credit programme?

- What type of liability exists (group - individual)?
- What is the procedure in the event of crop failure?
- How can indebtedness of the borrower be avoided?

Related Keywords

3.4 Post-Harvest Storage/Processing/Marketing
3.5 Farm Management/Financing/Credit
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
6.4 Supply an Marketing Services
D Functions of Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

188 Credit

Volume 2:

85 B2: Extension and credit (Kenya)
89 B4: Self-help groups (Nigeria)

Supply and Marketing Services

Principles

· Many extension services make sense only if the farmers have access to the necessary production inputs.

· Avoid project-linked supply and marketing services.


FIGURE

Question List

- What supply and marketing services do the farmers need?

- Where are there bottlenecks and gaps in supply and marketing?

- How have supply and marketing been organized up till now?

- What relationship exists between merchants and farmers?

- What services do the traditional merchants provide, and what services do they not offer?

- Who could provide the supply and marketing services which are currently lacking?

- What preparation would this require?

- How can the target group participate in these preparations?

- How can the extension service also participate in this?

- What inputs should/must be provided by the extension service itself?

- How should extension workers participate in selling inputs and in marketing products? What would happen if they did get involved with these services?

- To what extent should extension workers' vehicles be used for transporting inputs and products?

- What price guarantees exist in the supply and marketing services?

- What effect do price guarantees have?

Related Keywords

3.4 Post-Harvest Storage/Processing/Marketing
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.2 Price Policy/Subsidies
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organizational Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

187 Provision of production means
190 Marketing

Volume 2:

51 A8: "CFSME" Extension system
303 E9: Extension work at markets

Research

Note "Research" can range from basic agricultural research right through to farming systems research programmes. The most valuable partners for extension are those researchers ... whose priorities relate to practical needs, ... who are ready to discuss and co-operate.

Question: What do researchers expect from extension?


FIGURE

Question List

- How and by whom is the research topic defined?

- How do the extension service and the farmers participate in this decision?

- Which farmers would benefit from research into this topic?

- How much contact is there between research and extension?

- How are the knowledge and questions of the rural people integrated into the research work? What role does extension play in this context?

- In what form do the results of research reach the extension service?

- Who is responsible for providing this information?

- Which of the research centre's publications are accessible for the extension workers?

- How are the results of research recorded and processed?

- What duties does the extension service perform during field trials?

- What production conditions exist on the pilot farm/research unit? What conditions prevail on the farms of the target group? How can the results be compared/transferred?

- What criteria apply for the choice of a pilot farm?

- In what way is the research work inadequate or doing research in the wrong direction? How can these problems be overcome?

Related Keywords

5.1 Technical Leaflets/Brochures
5.6 Demonstration Plots/Pilot Farms
6.1 Agricultural Policy
D Functions of Extension
G Transmission of Information
I Developing Extension Topics
K Farming Systems Research

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

185 Research

Volume 2:

67 A10: Farming Systems Research

Other Extension Services

Principles Co-ordinate your own extension work with extension services specialized in other fields.

· Avoid giving contradictory advice


FIGURE

Question List

- What other extension services are active in the region? In what special topics?
- What lessons can be learnt from their work?
- What do the farmers think about the different extension services?
- What do the farmers expect from the extension services?
- How are the tasks of each of the extension services defined? How can they complement each other?
- What advantages do the farmers see in each of the different extension services?
- How is extension work co-ordinated in the region?
- Who is responsible for co-ordinating extension activities?
- Who is represented in this co-ordination?
- How can the farmers voice their requests about co-operation between the different extension services?

Related Keywords

2.1 The Planning Team
4.11 Campaigns
6.1 Agricultural Policy

I Developing Extension Topics

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

130 Extension in rural schools

Volume 2

47 A7: Decentralized development work
(Bolivia)

Agricultural Training

Note

· Formal agricultural training is offered at several levels, from basic courses in agriculture to studies at university level.

· Where farming is not highly commercialized, informal agricultural training is very important.


FIGURE

Question List

- What are the opportunities for obtaining basic agricultural training? Where?
- At what level and in what special subjects is basic training available?
- What are the conditions for admission? To whom is this training available?
- What are the opportunities of getting a scholarship? What conditions are linked to it?
- Where can student trainees be placed?
- What expectations do the students have for future employment?
- How does the number of trainees match the need for trained workers?
- What are the opportunities for further training? How should/must basic training be complemented?
- How do the agricultural schools and the extension service co-operate?
- How is the subject of extension taught in schools?
- How can an extension organization co-operate in the training of agricultural staff?

Related Keywords

1.2 Training
1.3 Motivation
2.6 Staff Management
4.6 Courses
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.6 Other Extension Services
F Adult Education

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

130 Extension in rural schools
223 Basic and advanced training of advisers

Volume 2:

43 A6: Farmer training centers (Kenya, Senegal)
A Board Game for Extension Workers (for 2 - 6 players)

Rules of the Game

· You will need a dice (sides marked 1- 6) and a pebble or bean of a different colour for each player.

· Throw the dice and move the pebble the number of squares indicated by the dice. If you land on a numbered square, look the number up on the list below to discover what difficulties or successes appear in your extension work and what effect this has on your game.

· The first to "get home" wins the game. While the others are getting "home", the winner can think about the insights s/he has gained.

1 The government has stopped subsidizing fertilizer. Since then, the project's compost and barnyard manure programme has become very popular among the farmers.

-> Advance 3 squares

2 The project has set up a cheese dairy. The farmers produce large quantities of milk from which cheese is made. However, the local population doesn't buy the cheese because it is too expensive

-> Miss 2 throws in order to develop new marketing outlets or devise a new strategy

3 Your information campaign has resulted in large parts of the population becoming members of savings and credit cooperatives they have already succeeded in raising the starting capital. You are made an honorary member of the cooperative

-> Continue playing normally

4 The erosion control measures of the extension service in the neighboring area have proved successful. You have been cooperating closely with this extension service for 3 months. This cooperation was a good move.

-> You got an extra throw

5 The extension workers with little basic training were replaced a year ago by qualified agronomists. since all of these agronomists choose from the towns or from other regions, they are not familiar with the local conditions.

-> Choose:

· Miss two throws and give the old extension workers specialized technology

· Miss 5 turns end give the new egronooms time to get familiar with their new surroundings

-> Take your shoes of end 90 on playing barefoot

6 At the last formers meeting several farmers complained that the agricultural adviser, the animal husbandry adviser and the home economics adviser have all given contradictory advice.

-> Miss 2 turns and prepare e co-ordination meeting

7 The project's extension method has been declared the "national extension method".

-> Each player pets you on the back twice, but work goes on

-> You get an extra throw

8 The project has encouraged the cultivation of soya. However, during this year's harvest a large delivery of surplus soya reaches the country from the USA. The market price drops by half. This costs the project its credibility among the population.

-> Miss 2 turns and discuss with the players on your let and right how the effects of agricultural policies can be predicted better

9 The seed-supply-to-farmers campaign that was to take place only once is now operating for the third season and occupying a third of the extension workers.

-> Miss 2 turns end consider how the campaign could continue independent of the extension service

10 During an interview you spoke disparagingly about the country's agricultural policy. This was published in today's newspaper.

-> Put your pebble on 'Start"; you have two rounds' time to get your luggage reedy

11 Thanks to co-operation with the bean research center the project has been able to propose a new kind of bean to farming families. The farmers include this new variety in their existing lot of 20 varieties and obtain good results with it.

-> You get en extra throw

12 The previous extension worker in your area distributed agricultural credit with a generous hand and so was very popular with the farmers. Repayment of the credit is very slow and headquarters now demands at you play debt collector.

-> Miss 3 turns and collect $5. from each player

13 Working with the agricultural school you have developed a new idea for the training of extension workers this idea is also very popular with extension workers.

-> Each player gives you a flower

14 You forgot to invite representatives of the research center to the extension party three months ago. since then the researchers have not been putting much effort into your joint projects.

-> Buy the players a bottle off wine to get beck into the research workers' good books


FIGURE