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close this bookEcotourism and other Services Derived from Forests in the Asia- Pacific Region: Outlook to 2010. (FAO - Forestry, 1997)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINFORMATION NOTE ON ASIA-PACIFIC FORESTRY SECTOR OUTLOOK STUDY
View the documentACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
View the documentA NOTE ON LANGUAGE
View the document1. INTRODUCTION
close this folder2. SERVICES PROVIDED BY FORESTS
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close this folder2.1 Categories Of Services
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View the documentEcological services
View the documentEconomic services
View the documentSociocultural services
View the documentScenic and landscape services and values
View the documentThe relative importance of the various services
View the document2.2 Relationship Between Services of Forests and Forest Production
View the document2.3 Institutional and Policy Environment
View the document2.4 Issues In Maintenance of Services of Forests
View the document2.5 Summary of Issues Related to Services Provided by Forests
close this folder3. ECOTOURISM
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View the document3.1 Ecotourism, Definitions, Concepts and Visitor Types
View the document3.2 Actors in the Ecotourism “System”
close this folder3.3 Overview of Tourism and Ecotourism in the Asia-Pacific Region
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View the documentTourism in the Region
View the documentFuture Growth in Tourism in the Region
View the documentEcotourism in the Region
View the documentPast and Future Ecotourism Growth in the Region
close this folder3.4 The Dimensions of Ecotourism
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View the documentEnvironmental Dimension
View the documentExperiential Dimension
View the documentSociocultural Dimension
View the documentEconomic Dimension
close this folder4. OUTLOOK: ISSUES, TRENDS, IMPLICATIONS, AND OPTIONS
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close this folder4.1 Preserving Services Derived from the Forest: Protected Area and Social Forestry Approaches
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View the documentProtected areas and their management
View the documentMovements towards a community/social forestry approach
View the document4.2 Need for Increased Research and Utilization of Results
View the document4.3 Importance of Social Issues in Management
View the document4.4 Continued Funding Difficulties in Natural Areas
View the document4.5 Ecotourism Management: Low Level of Funding and Reliance on Simplistic Strategies Like Carrying Capacity
View the document4.6 Growth in International and Domestic Visitation
View the document4.7 Change in the Visitor Market
View the document4.8 Continued or Increased Competition, Particularly for International Visitors
View the document4.9 Importance of Interpretation
View the document4.10 Importance of Partnerships Among Ecotourism Actors
View the document4.11 Greater Private Sector Roles in Management of Natural Areas
View the document4.12 Pressure to Use Natural Areas for Activities that are Not Nature-Dependent
View the document4.13 Professionalization of Operators and Desire to Exclude Those Not Meeting Professional Criteria
View the document4.14 Tendency for Dominance by Larger Operators and Those Located in Regional or National Centres
View the document4.15 Summary of Issues, Trends, Implications, and Options
View the documentREFERENCES
close this folderANNEX - COUNTRY ECOTOURISM NOTES
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View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: AUSTRALIA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: CHINA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: INDIA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: INDONESIA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: MALAYSIA
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: NEPAL
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: POHNPEI
View the documentCOUNTRY NOTE: THAILAND

2.2 Relationship Between Services of Forests and Forest Production

Conflicts arise between the relative importance of services compared to other factors, such as production values. In one respect, conflict can be seen as arising out of different values related to forests, some of which are subtle and relate to cross-cultural differences in interpreting protection or use. Issues surrounding rights of access by logging companies in countries, such as Papua New Guinea, with customary tenure systems provide examples of conflicts arising over competing values related to services of forests, the rights of indigenous people, and land tenure.

In the specific context of ecotourism, there have been some positive outcomes from forest production. For example, forestry roads enhance access to areas for ecotourists, and small clearcuts can enhance views and can be used as camping places. Moreover, harvest of selected trees within an area can enhance the experience for some visitors (further discussion of silvicultural effects on visitor experiences is provided by Brunson (1996) and Mattson and Li (1994)).

However, extensive clearcuts will reduce or eliminate demand for most types of ecotourism. Put simply, ecotourists are motivated to experience a natural environment that is perceived as intact and generally pristine. Though some level of environmental degradation may be overlooked or tolerated, noticeably degraded landscapes will be unappealing to most visitors. As dark (1987) suggests, the overriding question is not whether ecotourism should be integrated with other resource uses, but where, when and how such integration can be achieved.