Carpentry for Vocational Schools  A Teacher's handbook (GTZ, 252 p.) 
12. CEILING 

TOPIC: 12. CEILING
INTRODUCTION: This topic teaches students the purpose of ceiling joists, different types of ceiling joists, the way ceiling joists can be joined, hanging of ceiling joists and the correct distance between ceiling joists and how to fit a manhole in the ceiling.
OBJECTIVES:
12.1., 12.2. Students must be able to describe what ceiling joists are and their purpose;12.3. Students must know the only place where ceiling joists can be joined.
12.4. Students must know that ceiling joists can also serve as floor joists for a second floor or as part of a roof construction.
12.5. Students must be able to describe how ceiling joists are hung correctly so that the ceiling construction is level and strong enough to carry the weight of the plywood.
12.6. Students should be able to define what a manhole is and its purpose.
12.7. Students should be able to describe a stairway and its purpose.
METHOD: First we have all the lessons in class where students take notes from the blackboard and copy down drawings or, if prepared, glue photocopies in their trade theory book.
Where possible demonstrate this topic on a building project. If not, again use the model house where students fix the prepared ceiling joists in the scale 1:10.
NOTE: At the end of this topic prepare a worksheet with questions about ceiling joists and hand it out for students to complete. Collect it later on for correction and assessment.