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close this bookThe Water Buffalo: New Prospects for an Underutilized Animal (BOSTID, 1981, 111 p.)
close this folderAppendixes
View the documentAppendix A
View the documentAppendix B
View the documentAppendix C

Appendix A

Water Buffalo in Africa

For the water buffalo, Africa is the unknown continent. Apart from Egypt, where the "gamoosa" is a major livestock resource, there have been few recorded experiences with the animal in Africa. While this may be attributed to disease, chances are it is because of historical oversight.

Small herds of buffaloes were recently introduced to Uganda, Tanzania, and Nigeria, but because there were so few animals no firm conclusions can be drawn. Initial observations, however, suggest that the water buffalo could have an important future role in Africa, south of the Sahara. There seems little reason to believe that they won't thrive there as they have done elsewhere in the tropics.

The following statements were provided by researchers involved in the enterprises.


"Uganda imported a herd of 12 buffalo cows and one bull in 1969. Grazed on poor-quality unimproved pasture they received neither supplementary feeding nor any preferential treatment over the East African zebus kept with them. The herd stayed 7 years at Entebbe before being moved to another part of the country. They proved to be very efficient converters of the low protein, high-fiber fodder. During this time the herd grew to 40 adult cows and 2 bulls (all other steers were slaughtered). The cows calved every year. The calves matured at 2 to 21/2 years; the zebu calves took at least 3 years to mature. Buffalo calves were much heavier than the zebus of comparable age.

"The buffalo cows averaged 7 liters of milk per milking. In taste it was preferred to zebu milk. Also, the quality of the meat after slaughter was much better than that of the zebus.

"A major advantage the buffaloes had over the cattle was that they were remarkably unaffected by diseases endemic to the area. Apart from a few calves that died of diseases that also killed cattle on the farm at Entebbe, the buffaloes resisted tick-borne diseases, the biggest killers of cattle in Uganda, and were unaffected by the virulent strains of East Coast Fever (Theileriosis), Uganda's most serious endemic animal disease."(Information supplied by G. L. Corry, Director, Veterinary Research Services, Entebbe Uganda)


Early in 1976, 194 buffaloes aged 6-9 months were imported from the environs of Darwin in Australia's Northern Territory. The animals settled down quite well, and by the end of 1978 the stock population had risen to about 320, the adults weighing about 400 kg with about 80 percent fertility. The animals were in excellent health when an outbreak of streptothricosis occurred early in 1979. Because of the intractable nature of this rare disease of cattle, sheep, and pigs, the apparent spread of the disease in the confined area of the ranch, and the persistence of the organism, the animals were slaughtered (information supplied by Dr. J. E. Erhiaganoma, Chief Veterinary Officer, Ministry of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Benin City, Bendel State of Nigeria)..


Tanzania introduced 21 buffalo heifers and 2 buffalo bulls from Egypt in 1968 and 1970. By 1977 the herd had grown to 150 animals. They were kept at the Livestock Production Research Institute at Mpwapwa, a site representative of central Tanzania (Mpwapwa is located at an elevation of 1,000 m. It receives an annual rainfall of 700 mm during a single season between late November and early May. Mean minimum temperatures of 13°C occur in June, and mean maximum temperatures of 26°C occur in November).

Over a period of 10 years the buffalo were studied and compared with crossbreeds of local Mpwapwa cows and Friesian steers. On average, the buffaloes conceived and calved 4 months earlier than the cattle, their mean calving intervals were about a month shorter, their birth and weaning weights were 1.5 times higher, and their daily weight gain was about double that of the crossbred cattle. The milk yield from the buffaloes was only about two thirds that of the crossbred cattle, but their rnilk's high butterfat content meant that the overall butterfat production was higher in buffaloes.

Figures reported are shown below:


In a second study (Shoo, R A. 1980. A study of the performance of Egyptian water buffaloes. Student project, Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine, University of Dar-Es-Salaam, Morogoro, Tanzania.), 30 buffaloes and 34 Mpwapwa cattle (not the crossbreeds) were compared (Mpwapwa cattle are a Tanzanian breed with 55 percent Asian, 35 percent African, and 10 percent European blood). The calving intervals were 396 + 126 days for buffaloes and 437 + 109 days for cattle. The buffaloes first conceived at mean ages of 23-25 months (matings occurred in both wet and dry seasons), the cattle at 27-36 months. The buffaloes calved at 35 months, the cattle at 46 months.

On farms at Ruvu and Mabuki the calving rate was 63 percent, and the mortality rate 1.2-6.9 percent(Rakha, A. 1980. water buffalo Production, Tanzania. Report of the technical Cooperation Program TCP/URT/9002, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations, Rome, Italy). The buffalo's overall milk yields averaged 1,237 kg in 225 days, or 5.5 kg per day.

The results of the introduction of buffalo to Tanzania are considered "quite encouraging and the future of buffaloes in Tanzania will be bright." (Oloufa, M. M. 1981. The future of water buffaloes in Tanzania Paper presented at the Tanzania Society of Animal Production Eighth Scientific Conference, Arusha, Tanzania May 26-29, 1981.) Future plans call for increasing the herd to about 200 animals with a view toward establishing another buffalo herd. In addition, 5 buffalo sires have been selected in Egypt for shipment to Tanzania.

Appendix B

Research Contacts

A directory of names in buffalo studies and research is available from the International Buffalo Information Center, Kasetsart University Library, Bangkhen, Bangkok 10900, Thailand.


Animal Industry Branch, Department of Primary Production, P.O. Box 5160, Darwin, Northern Territory 5790 (D.R. Thomson, B. Ford)

Berrimah Agricultural Research Station, Darwin, Northern Territory

Coastal Plains Research Station, near Darwin, Northern Territory

D. G. Tulloch, P.O. Box 38841, Winnellie 5789, Northern Territory

University of Queensland, Department of Animal Husbandry, St. Lucia, Queensland (D.D. Charles)


Associacao de Criadores de Bufalos do Brasil, Cx Postal 832, Sao Paulo (President, Dr. Paulo Joaquim Monteiro da Silva)

Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do Tropico Umido (Agricultural Reseach Center of the Humid Tropics), Caixa Postal, 48, Belem, Para, 66000

Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia (Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Zootechnology), Universidade Estadual "Julio de Mesquita Filho," Campus de Botucatu, Estado de Sao Paulo

Instituto de Zootecnia (Institute of Zootechnology), Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo (Prof. Alberto Alves Santiago)

Dr. Geraldo Mosse, Rua Apinages 716-CEP, 05017, Sao Paulo, S.P.

Dr. Walmore Muller Lacort, Ministerio de agriculture Explanada des Ministerios, Bloco 8-50 Andar Sala 518, 70.000 Brasilia, D.F.


Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Sofia (P. Ivanov, Z. Zahariev)

Buffalo Basis, Livestock Breeding Research Institute, Shumen (Dr. D. St. Polikhronov, Director; Dr. A. Alexis)


Department of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine, Nanking Agricultural College, Nanking (Professor Sieh Chen-Hsia)

Kwangsi Agriculture College, Nanning, Kwangsi (Professor Wang Pei Chien

Livestock Farm, Lu Hsu, Pinyang County, Kwasngsi Chang Autonomous Region

Research Institute for Animal Science, Nanning, Kwangsi (Dr. Chou Chi-Sheng)

Singchow Dairy Farm, Kwangtung Province

Costa Rica

Jose Luis Pacheco, Director, Dept Formento, 8502 JAPDEVA, Puerto Limon


Ain Shams University, Kasr-EI-Zaafran, Abbasiyah, Cairo (M.A. El-Ashry, A.M. El-Serafy)

Department of Animal Production, College of Agriculture, Cairo University, Cairo (Dr. M.T. Ragab)

University of Alexandria, 22 Al-Gueish Avenue, Shatby, Alexandria (K. El-Shazly)

Federal Republic of Germany

Dr. R. Dunkel, Herzeleidstrasse 39, 5330 Konigswinter 41, Bonn

Prof. Dr. H. Fischer, Insitut fur Tropische Veterinarmedizin, Wilhelmstr. 15, 6300 Giessen

Gesellschaft fur Agrarentwicklung (GAE), Meckenheimer Allee 113, 5300 Bonn 1


J. Kovacs, Department of Animal Husbandry, Agricultural University, Deak F. -u16, 8361Keszthely


Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University, Hyderabad, A.P. (Director of Research)

Animal Husbandry Commissioner, Government of India, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi

Animal Sciences, Director General, Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Bhavan, New Delhi

Central Buffalo Breeding Farm, Sambalpua, PO: Sunbeda, Distt. Kerapur, Orissa

Central Frozen Semen Bank, Hessarghatta, Bangalore, Kamataka

Central Murrah Breeding Farm, Almadi, Tamil Nadu

Central Surti Buffalo Farm, Dhamrod, Gujarat

Chief Superintendent, Govenment Livestock Farm, Hissar, Haryana

College of Veterinary and Animal Science, Chandra Sekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Mathura Campus, Mathura, U.P.

Co-ordinator, All India Buffalo Improvement Project, Natioal Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, (Dr. V. N. Tripathi)

Director, Military Dairy Farm, Army Headquarters, Quatermaster, General Branch, DHQ PO New Delhi 11

G.B. Pant, University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, U.P.

Government Livestock Farm, Anjora Distt: Durg, Madhya Pradesh

Gujarat Agricultural University, Reproductive Biology Research Unit, PO Anand Agricultural Institute, Anand, Gujarat

Haryana Agricultural University , Hissar, Haryana

Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Barcilly, V.P. (Dr. S.K. Ranjan)

Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur, 482004, M.P.

Kaira District Cooperative Milk Producers Union Ltd., Anand, Gujarat (Dr. V. Kurien, Chairman)

National Dairy Development Board, Anand, Gujarat

National Dairy Research Institute (ICAR), Karnal 132002, Haryana (S.P. Arora, Dr. D. Sundaresan, Director)

Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, Punjab (Dr. J.S. Ichhponani, Dr. S.K. Misra)

University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwar Campus, Dharwar, Karnataka

University of Udaipur, Udaipur, Rajasthan


Balai Inseminasi Buatan Lembang, Jawa Barat (Dr. R.D. Simangunsong)

Directorate of Animal Husbandry, Department of Agriculture, Jl Salemba Raya 16, Jakarta (Dr. Jaman Zailani)

Pusat Penelitian den Pengambangan Ternak (Centre for Animal Research and Development), Bogor


Animal Rearing Station, Abu Ghraib, Baghdad


Animal Production and Health Division, FAO,00100 Rome

Associazione Provinciale Allevatori, via Redentare, Caserta (Professore de Franciscis,Presidente)

Instituto de Ricerche soll'Adattamento Bovini e dei Bufali, Ponticelli, Napoli (Director: Pro£ Lino Ferrara)

Instituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnica, via Onofrio Panvino, Rome (Prof. A. Pilla)

Instituto Sperimentale per la Zootecnice di Roma, via Salaria 31, 00016, Monterotondo Scalo (Dr. Augusto Romita)

Ugo Jemma, Torre Lupara, 81050 Pastorano, near Caserta


H. Shimuzu, The University of Tsukuba, Sakura-mura niihar gun ibaraki-ken 300-311


Central Animal Husbandry Station, Kluang

Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University Pertanian, Serdang, Selangor

Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, Serdang, Selangor


Artificial Insemination Project, Tfipureshwar, Kathmandu (Dr. A.C. Gupta)

Livestock Division, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Kathmandu (Dr. N.D. Joshi)


College of Animal Husbandry, Lahore (Dr. Mohammad Shafi Chaudhry)

Department of Animal Reproduction, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad (Dr. Rashid Ahmad Chaudhary)

Livestock Production Research Institute, Bahadurnagar District, Sahiwat, Punjab (Dr. S.K. Shah, Director)

Punjab Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore 13


Hugo Giraoud, Apartado 60-2745, El Dorado

Papua New Guinea

Department of Primary Industry, ERAP, P.O. Box. 348, Lae (John H. Schottler)

Sepik Plains Livestock Station, Ufimo via Wewak, E.S.P.


Animal Science Department, Central Luzon State University, Muiloz, Nueva Ecija

College of Veterinary Medicine, University of the Philippines Systems, Diliman, Quezon City Dairy Development Division, Bureau of Animal Industry, Sta. Mesa, Metro Manila (Dr. Conrado A. Valdez)

Dairy Training and Research Institute, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna 3720

Department of Animal Science, University of the Philippines at Los Banos, College, Laguna 3720 (Dr. V. C. Momongon)

Documentation Center on Water Buffalo, University of the Philippines at Los Banos Library, College, Laguna 3720

Philippine Council for Agriculture and Resources Research, Livestock Research Division, Los Banos, Laguna 3732 (Dr. Alfonso N. Eusebio)


W. Ross CockriII, 591 Vale do Lobo, Almansil, Algrave 8100

Sri Lanka

Department of Animal Production and Health, Peradeniya (Dr. K. Balachandran)

School of Veterinary Science, University of Sri Lanka, Peradenlya Dr. B.M.A.O. Perrera)


Food and Fertilizer Technology Center, P.O. Box 22-149, Taipei City


Animal Production Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine, University of Dar es Salaam, Morogoro (M.L. Kyomo)

DAFCO Farm, Ruvu

Director, Livestock Development Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Dar es Salaam

P.M.J. Katyega, Director, Livestock Production Research Institute, Private Bag, Mpwapwa M.M. Oloufa, FAO, Morogoro


Kasetsart University, Department of Animal Science, Bangkok (Dr. Charan Chantalakhana) Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Henri Dunant Street, Bangkok 5 (Dr. Maneewan Kamonpatana)

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproduction, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Henri Dunant Road, Bangkok 10500

FAO Regional Office, Maliwan Mansion, Phra Atit Road, Bangkok 2 (Dr. B. K. Soni)

Office of Livestock Development Project, Tha Phra, Khon Kaen

National Buffalo Research and Training Center, Surin


Steve Bennett, 61 Mucurapo Road, Port-of-Spain


G. L. Corry, Director, Veterinary Research Services, P.O. Box 24, Entebbe

S. Mugerwa, Faculty of Agriculture, MaKerere University, P.O. Box 7062, Kampala

United Kingdom

T. B. Begg, Resident Veterinary Surgeon, Howletts and Port Lympne Estates, Ltd., Port Lympne, Lympne, Kent CT21 4PD

P. N. Wilson, BOCM Silcock Ltd., Basing View, Basingstoke, Hampshire RG21 2EQ

United States

Wyland Cripe, Asst. Dean for Public Services, College of Veterinary Medicine, Box J-125, JHMHC, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610

J. Harrington, IRI Research Institute, Inc. One Rockefeller Plaza, New York, New York 10020 James Hentges, Department of Animal Science, Room 2104 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

Jack Howarth, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616

Nels M. Konnerup, 609 East Iverson Road, Camano Island, Washington 98292

A. P. Leonards, P.O. Box 1094, Lake Charles, Louisiana 70602

John K. Loosli, Department of Animal Science, Room 2103 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

Robert E. McDowell, Department of Animal Science, Frank B. Morrison Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853

Hugh Popenoe, International Programs in Agriculture, 3028 McCarty Hall, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611

William R. Pritchard, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, California 95616


Abelardo Ferrer D., Quinta Nueva Exparta, Avenida Jose Felix Rivas, San Bernardino, Caracas

Appendix C

Advisory Committee on Technology Innovation

HUGH POPENOE, Director, International Programs in Agriculture, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, Chairman


WILLIAM BRADLEY, Consultant, New Hope, Pennsylvania

HAROLD DREGNE, Director, International Center for Arid and Semi-Arid Land Studies, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas

ELMER L. GADEN, JR., Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia

ANDREW HAY, President, Calvert-Peat, Inc., New York, New York (member through 1980)

CARL N. HODGES, Director, Environmental Research Laboratory, Tucson, Arizona

CYRUS MCKELL, Institute of Land Rehabilitation, Utah State University, Logan, Utah

FRANCOIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

DONALD L. PLUCKNETT, Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, Washington, D.C.

THEODORE SUDIA, Deputy Science Advisor to the Secretary of Interior, Department of Interior, Washington, D.C.

Board on Science and Technology for International Development

GEORGE BUGLIARELLO, President, Polytechnic Institute of New York, Brooklyn, New York, Chairman


EDWARD S. AYENSU, Director, Office of Biological Conservation, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. (member through 1980)

PEDRO BARBOSA, Department of Entomology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland (member through 1979)

FLETCHER L. BYROM, Chairman, Koppers Company, Inc., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

HARRISON BROWN, Director, Resource Systems Institute, The East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii

DORIS GALLOWAY, Department of Nutrition Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California

MARY E. CARTER, Associate Administrator, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C.

ELIZABETH COLSON, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, California

BREWSTER C. DENNY, Dean, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (member through 1980)

ROLAND I. FUCHS, Chairman, Department of Geography, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii, ex-officio

HERBERT I. FUSFELD, Director, Center for Science and Technology Policy, Graduate School of Public Administration, New York University, New York, New York (member through 1979)

MARTIN GOLAND, President, Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, Texas (member through 1979)

LINCOLN GORDON, Senior Fellow, Resources for the Future, Washington, D.C. (member through September 1980)

JAMES P. GRANT, President, Overseas Development Council, Washington, D.C. (member through 1979)

N. BRUCE HANNAY, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Engineering, ax-officio

GEORGE R. HERBERT, President, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina

WILLIAM N. HUBBARD, JR., President, The Upjohn Company, Kalamazoo, Michigan (member through 1980)

ROBERT N. KREIDLER, Private Foundation Consultant, New York, New York

RICHARD LASTER, Executive Vice President, General Foods Corporation, White Plains, New York

JOHN LISTON, Director, Institute for Food Science & Technology, College of Fisheries, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington

THOMAS F. MALONE, Foreign Secretary, National Academy of Sciences, ex-officio FRANCOIS MERGEN, Pinchot Professor of Forestry, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut

RODNEY W. NICHOLS, Executive Vice President, Rockefeller University, New York, New York (member through 1980)

DANIEL A. OKUN, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina

E. RAY PARISER, Senior Research Scientist, Department of Nutrition and Food Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts

NAMES BRIAN QUINN, Amos Tuck School of Business Administration, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire (member through 1979)

PRISCILLA C. REINING, Director, Project on Desertification, International Division, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, D.C. (member through 1980)

RALPH W. RICHARDSON, JR., Department of Horticulture, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania (member through 1979)

FREDERICK SEITZ, President Emeritus, Rockefeller University, New York, New York

H. GUYFORD STEVER, Consultant, Washington, D.C.

BILL C. WRIGHT, Program Officer, Africa and the Middle East, International Agricultural Development Service, New York, New York


MICHAEL G. C. McDONALD DOW, Deputy Director

JOHN G. HURLEY, Deputy Director