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close this bookCommunity Emergency Preparedness: A Manual for Managers and Policy-Makers (WHO, 1999, 141 p.)
close this folderChapter 5 Training and education
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentA systematic approach to training
View the documentPublic education
View the documentSummary
View the documentReferences

Introduction

The objectives of training and education in emergency management are to:

- make the community aware of the hazards that face it;

- empower the community to participate in developing emergency management strategies;

- make the community aware of appropriate actions for different types of emergencies, and the organizations to which it can turn for assistance;

- enable emergency management personnel to carry out the tasks allotted to them.

A number of possible training and education strategies are suitable for different audiences and purposes. Strategy selection should be based on need, audience, purpose, and available time, money, and other resources. Training and education strategies may include (1):

- workshops, seminars, formal education programmes, or conferences;
- self-directed learning;
- individual tuition;
- exercises;
- pamphlets, videos, media advertisements, newsletters or journals;
- informal or formal presentations;
- public displays or public meetings.

This chapter describes a systematic approach to training useful for emergency management personnel and the development of public education strategies.

A systematic approach to training

The systems approach to training is a process for developing appropriate, effective, and efficient training programmes. Table 26 summarizes the steps in the process.

Analysing training needs

The objectives of the training needs analysis in emergency management are to:

- describe allocated tasks;
- determine those tasks that an organization’s personnel are capable of undertaking;
- determine which personnel require further training.

For any task there are desirable levels of skills and knowledge that will ensure that it will be performed correctly. Techniques for determining desirable levels of knowledge and skill may include (1):

- identifying competence required;
- vulnerability assessment;
- emergency planning;
- exercises;
- analysis of emergency operations.

Techniques for determining existing levels of knowledge and skill may include (1):

- skills audit;
- exercises;
- analysis of emergency operations.

A comparison between desirable and existing levels of knowledge and skill will indicate the training needs.

Table 26. The systems approach to traininga

Steps

Activities

Outputs

1. Analyse training need

· The job is analysed and task performances, together with task conditions and standards, are listed
· Training needs, and their priorities, are listed

· A list of task performances, conditions, and standards
· A schedule of training and priorities

2. Design training

· Training is designed to suit the results of job analysis
· Training objectives and assessments are written and placed in logical sequence

· Sequenced set of training objectives and tests

3. Develop instruction

· Instructional methods and media are chosen
· Course programme and content are compiled
· The instruction is trialled and amended until it is successful

· A programme of instruction has been successfully trialled

4. Conduct instruction

· The course is conducted
· Tests are administered
· Initial problems are remedied

· Trainees who have achieved course objectives
· A course modified as necessary

5. Validate training

· Problem areas from 4 and 5 are identified by analysing:

· Validated and successful training



- efficiency - whether best use
- was made of resources to
- achieve objectives
- effectiveness - whether skills
- and knowledge were increased
- appropriateness - the relevance
- of the training received to the
- job



· Training is modified or updated as



· necessary


aReproduced from reference 2 by permission of the publisher, Emergency Management Australia (formerly Natural Disasters Organisation).

Designing training

Training should be based on needs. To design appropriate training it is necessary to develop training objectives that are mandatory, measurable, realistic, and achievable. Training objectives describe the performance required in tasks, and therefore describe what a course participant should be able to do. For example, training objectives in an emergency management course may be based on participants learning to:

- explain how to form an appropriate emergency planning group;

- lead a group in identifying hazards;

- apply a number of methods for describing hazards, the community, and community vulnerability.

Assessment can take a number of forms, such as:

- observation in the workplace by a supervisor;

- demonstration in a structured and practical manner;

- project-based assessment where a relevant project is undertaken on an unsupervised basis;

- simulation of the task, including role-play;

- structured tests (either written multiple-choice, short answer, extended answer, or oral);

- continual assessment of work-based performance.

Developing and conducting instruction

A training or education plan should be developed containing:

- a summary of training and education objectives;
- a programme;
- allocation of responsibility;
- resource requirements;
- delivery modes;
- assessment, validation, and evaluation processes.

Validating training

To validate training, instruments should be developed and implemented for:

- assessment;
- validation;
- evaluation.

Assessment is the measurement of an individual’s current knowledge, skills, and competence, and is a baseline for measuring the effectiveness of training. Techniques may include practical assessment, on-the-job assessment, and examination. Assessment can be performed before and after training.

Validation is the comparison between the outcomes achieved by training and education and the desired outcomes, which determines the appropriateness of the training.

Evaluation is the process of determining the efficiency and effectiveness of a training and education plan. Part of the process is the comparison of outputs and objectives.

Public education

“The aim of public education is to ensure an alert and informed community. There is a requirement to have the community informed about the characteristics and possible effects of identified hazards. Public education material needs to contain action statements which will direct the public to make desired preparations and take appropriate actions. ... particular attention is given to identified special needs groups. A broad range of methods for dissemination should be considered, including:

- newspapers;
- radio;
- television;
- brochures;
- public meetings;
- school visits.

It is also useful to advertise the existence of hazard analysis and emergency plans, and to place these on public view.” (3)

Annex 4 contains information that can be provided to communities on personal protection in different types of emergencies.

Summary

The objectives of training and education in emergency management are to:

- make the community aware of the hazards that face it;

- empower the community to participate in developing emergency management strategies;

- make the community aware of appropriate actions for different types of emergencies and the organizations to which it can turn for assistance;

- enable emergency management personnel to carry out the tasks allotted to them.

A systematic approach to training is a process for developing appropriate, effective, and efficient training programmes, involving:

- analysing training needs;
- designing training;
- developing instruction;
- conducting instruction;
- validating training.

Public education programmes should be conducted to ensure an alert and informed community.

References

1. National emergency management competency standards. Canberra, Emergency Management Australia, 1995.

2. Australian emergency manual: training management. Canberra, Natural Disasters Organisation, 1992.

3. Australian emergency manual: community emergency planning guide, 2nd ed. Canberra, Natural Disasters Organisation, 1992.