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close this bookResource Management for Upland Areas in Southeast Asia - An Information Kit (IIRR, 1995, 207 p.)
close this folder7. Appendices
View the documentGlossary terms
View the documentCommonly used species in agroforestry in Southeast Asia
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View the documentReferences

Glossary terms

A

acid soil A soil with a pH value < 7.0. Usually applied to surface layer or root zone, but may be used to characterize any horizon.

agrisilviculture A form of agroforestry consisting of tree (woody perennial) and crop components.

agroecosystem analysis Developed by Gordon Conway and Khon Kaen University researchers (Thailand) in the early 1980s. It is often used in the diagnostic or planning stage and utilizes tools for pattern analysis.

agroforestry The use of trees in farming systems (see Chapter 2).

agrosilvopasture A form of agroforestry consisting of tree (woody perennial), crop and pasture/animal components.

alkali soil A soil that contains sufficient alkali to interfere with the growth of most crop plants.

alley cropping/farming Growing annual crops between rows of trees or shrubs, often leguminous. Pruned material from these is used as mulch around annual crops and also as fodder and fuelwood.

alluvial soil A soil developing from recently deposited alluvium and exhibiting essentially no horizon development or modification of the recently deposited materials.

annual plant A plant that grows for only one season (or year) before dying, in contrast to a perennial, which grows for more than one season. apiculture Honeybee rearing.

arid climate Climate in regions that lack sufficient moisture for crop production without irrigation. In cool regions, annual precipitation is usually less than 25 cm. It may be as high as 50 cm in tropical regions. Natural vegetation is desert shrubs.

B

bench terrace An embankment constructed across sloping fields with a steep drop on the downslope side.

biennial plant A plant which completes its life cycle in two years. Plants of this type usually produce leaves and a welldeveloped root system the first year; stems, flowers and seeds the second year; and then die.

biomass The weight of material produced by a living organism or collection of organisms. The term is usually applied to plants to include the entire plant, or it may be qualified to include only certain parts of the plant, e.g., aboveground or leafy biomass. Biomass is expressed as fresh weight or dry weight. bole The main tree trunk.

browse The buds, shoots, leaves and flowers of woody plants are eaten by livestock or wild animals.

budding The practice of splicing a bud from one tree into the bark of another, usually to obtain highquality fruit on hardy, established trees.

bund A ridge of earth placed in a line to control water runoff and soil erosion, demarcate a plot boundary, or other uses.

bush A small woody plant (see shrub).

C

canopy The upper layer of trees in a forest or a complex of trees.

carbon/nitrogen ratio The ratio of the weight of organic carbon (C) to the weight of total nitrogen (N) in a soil or organic material.

cereal A grass that is grown primarily for its seed which is used for feed or food.

clump A close grouping of stems of trees, bushes, or grasses.

community forestry A form of social forestry, where tree planting is undertaken by a community on common or communal lands.

component species Individual species that are parts of mixed systems.

contour An imaginary line connecting points of equal elevation on the surface of the soil. A contour terrace is laid out on a slope at right angles to the direction of the slope and nearly level throughout its course. A contour ditch is sometimes constructed along the contour to store and conserve water.

coppicing Cutting certain tree species close to ground level to produce new shoots from the stump. Also occurs naturally in some species if the trees are damaged.

cover crop A close-growing crop grown primarily for the purpose of protecting and improving soil between periods of regular crop production or between trees and vines in orchards and plantations.

crop growth rate The gain in weight of a plant on a unit of area in a unit of time.

crop residue The portion of a plant or crop that is left in the field after harvest, e.g., rice straw.

cropping pattern The yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops or of crops and fallow on a given area.

cropping system The cropping patterns used on a farm and their interaction with farm resources, other farm enterprises and available technology which determine their makeup.

crown The canopy or top of a single tree or other woody plant.

cut-and-carry Fodder or other plant products which are harvested and carried to a different location to be used or consumed by livestock.

cutting A piece of a branch or root cut from a living plant with the objective of developing roots and growing a new plant, genetically identical to the original parent (a clone).

D

deciduous plant A plant that sheds all or most of its leaves every year at a certain season. The opposite of evergreen.

deforestation Disturbance, conversion, or wasteful destruction of forest lands.

denitrification The biochemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous nitrogen, either as molecular nitrogen or as an oxide of nitrogen.

diagnosis and design Developed by ICRAF in the early 1980s as a methodology for the diagnosis of land management problems and the design of agroforestry solutions.

direct seeding Sowing seeds directly where they are to develop into mature plants.

discounting The process of determining the present worth of a future quantity of money.

drought The absence of precipitation for a period long enough to cause depletion of soil moisture and damage to plants.

drought tolerance The capacity of plants to survive drought; specifically adaptations that enhance their power to withstand drought-induced stress.

E

ecosystem All the plants and animals in a given area and their physical environment, including the interactions among them.

erosion (1) The wearing away of the land surface by running water, wind, ice, or other geological agents, including such processes as gravitational creep. (2) Detachment and movement of soil or rock by water, wind, ice, or gravity. The following terms are used to describe different types of water erosion:

accelerated erosion Erosion much more rapid than normal, natural, geological erosion; primarily as a result of the activities of humans or, in some cases, of animals.

gully erosion The removal of soil by water concentrated in deep, narrow channels.

natural erosion Wearing away of the earth's surface by water, ice, or other natural agents under natural environmental conditions of climate, vegetation and so on, undisturbed by humans.

rill erosion An erosion process in which numerous small channels of only several centimeters in depth are formed; occurs mainly on recently cultivated soils.

sheet erosion The removal of a fairly uniform layer of soil from the land surface by runoff water.

splash erosion The spattering of small soil and particles caused by the impact of raindrops on soils. The loosened and separate particles may or may not be subsequently removed by surface runoff.

evaporation Loss of moisture from surfaces other than plants.

evapotranspiration The combined loss of water from a given area and, during a specified period of time, by evaporation from the soil surface and by transpiration from plants.

evergreen Plants which retain their leaves and remain green throughout the year. Opposite of deciduous.

exotic A plant or animal species which has been introduced outside its natural range. Opposite of indigenous.

extensive Land use or management spread over a large area where land is plentiful (at least for those who control it). Opposite of intensive.

F

fallow Land resting from cropping, which may be grazed or left unused, often colonized by natural vegetation.

family A taxonomic category between order and genus. Plants or animals in the same family share some common characteristics.

farm-based agroforestry Agroforestry approach in which trees are incorporated into a farm ecosystem.

farm enterprise An individual crop or animal production function within a farming system.

farm forestry Tree planting on farms.

farming system All the elements of a farm which interact as a system, including people, crops, livestock, other vegetation, wildlife, the environment and the social, economic and ecological interactions between them.

farming systems research An applied problem-solving approach conducted by multi-disciplinary teams, with a degree of farmer participation. Evolved from cropping system research.

fertilizer Any organic or inorganic material which is added to the soil to supply one or more plant nutrients.

fodder Parts of plants which are eaten by domestic animals. These may include leaves, stems, fruit, pods, flowers, pollen, or nectar.

foliage The mass of leaves of plants, usually used for trees or bushes.

forage Vegetative material in a fresh, dried, or ensiled state which is fed to livestock (hay, pasture, silage).

forest-based agroforestry Agroforestry approach in which annual or perennial crops are incorporated into a natural forest ecosystem.

G

genetic resources Plant and animal stock with distinct inheritable characteristics of potential use within an agroecosystem.

genus A taxonomic category between family and species. A genus consists of one or more closely related species and, in plants, is defined largely in terms of the characteristics of the flower and/or fruit.

grafting The practice of propagating plants by taking a small shoot from one and attaching it to another so that the cambium layers from both are in contact and the transferred shoot grows as part of the main plant. This is normally used to obtain high-quality seedlings from hardy, well-established plants (rootstock).

green manure Green, leafy material applied to the soil to improve its fertility.

groundcover Living or nonliving material which covers the soil surface.

groundwater Water which is underground. It may be pumped to the surface or reached by plant roots or wells or may feed into bodies of surface water.

gully A deep, narrow channel cut into the soil by erosion. gully erosion (see erosion)

H

hedgerow or hedge A closely planted line of shrubs or small trees, often forming a boundary or fence.

herbaceous A plant that is not woody and does not persist above ground beyond one season.

herbivore An animal that feeds only on plants.

homegarden Traditional cropping practice around the house, usually includes fruit and fuel wood trees, vegetables, root crops, poultry and smaller livestock and sometimes a fishpond.

humid A climate in which rainfall exceeds potential evaporation during at least 9 months a year and usually more than 1500 mm annual rainfall.

I

indigenous Native to a specific area; not introduced. Opposite of exotic.

indigenous knowledge Local knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society.

infiltration The downward movement of water into the soil.

infiltration rate The maximum rate at which water can enter a soil under specified conditions, including the presence of an excess of water.

in-row tillage The agronomic practice of continuous cultivation of crops in a narrow band of soil (or row).

intensive Land use or management concentrated in a small area of land. Opposite of extensive.

intercropping Growing two or more crops in the same field at the same time in a mixture.

interface The area where there is a positive or negative relationship between two entities, such as between a row of trees and a row of crops.

internal rate of return (IRR) The maximum rate of interest that a project can repay on loans while still recovering all investment and opportunity costs, or, the earning power of money invested in a particular venture.

L

land equivalent ratio (LER) The ratio of the area needed under monoculture to a unit area of intercropping to give an equal amount of yield.

landscape An area of land, usually between 10 and 100 square kilometers, including vegetation, built structures and natural features, seen from a particular viewpoint.

Iand-use-map sketching A method used in extension work, where farmers make sketches of their existing land and how they want to change the land.

Iand-use system The way in which land is used by a particular group of people with a specified area.

leaching The removal of soluble materials from the upper soil layer by water moving vertically down.

legume Any plant species from the family Leguminoseae (e.g., beans, peas), many of which have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via bacteria in or on their roots.

litter The uppermost layer of organic material on the soil surface, including leaves, twigs, and flowers freshly fallen or slightly decomposed.

lopping Cutting one or more branches of a standing tree or shrub.

M

manuring Application of animal dung, compost or other organic material used to fertilize the soil.

microcatchment A small earthwork used to catch and direct rainfall to a crop or to livestock.

microclimate The temperature, sunlight, humidity and other climatic conditions in a small localized area (e.g., in a field or stand of trees).

mineralization The conversion of an element from an organic form to an inorganic state as a result of microbial decomposition.

mixed farming Cropping systems which involve the raising of crops, animals and/or trees.

mixed intercropping Growing two or more crops simultaneously with no distinct row arrangement.

monoculture The repetitive growing of the same, single crop on the same land.

mulch Plant or non-living materials used to cover the soil surface with the object of protecting the soil from the impact of rainfall, controlling weeds or moisture loss and, in some cases, fertilizing the soil.

multiple cropping Growing two or more crops in the same field in one year at the same time or one after the other.

multipurpose tree species Woody perennials which are grown to provide more than one product or service.

multistoried (sometimes written as multistoreyed) Relating to a vertical arrangement of plants so that they form distinct layers, from the lower (usually herbaceous) layer to the uppermost tree canopy.

N

natural vegetation The vegetative cover that would exist in a given area without interference from humans.

net present value (NPV) An indicator of a project's long-term value as estimated at the time of implementation; it is calculated by summing all the annual net costs or benefits over the prescribed life span of a project, discounted at a preselected rate.

nitrogen fixation The biological conversion of elemental nitrogen (N2) to organic combinations or to forms readily utilized in biological processes.

nitrogen cycle The sequence of chemical and biological changes undergone by nitrogen as it moves from the atmosphere into water, soil and living organisms and, upon death of these organisms (plants and animals), is recycled through a part or all of the entire process.

O

opportunity cost The economic value of a true sacrifice incurred by the choice of a given action.

overstory (or overstorey) The highest layer of vegetation, often the tree canopy, which grows over lower shrub or plant layers.

P

participatory rural appraisal (PRA) A set of facilitative and participatory technologies developed in the late 1980's by researchers and NGOs, to build upon local people's capabilities and to empower local people in the process.

pasture A portion of land covered with grasses or grasslegume mixtures suitable for grazing.

perennial plant A plant that grows for more than one year, in contrast to an annual, which grows for only one year (or season) before dying.

pH The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity (concentration) of a soil. A pH of 7 is neutral; a pH of less than 7 is acidic, one higher than 7 is alkaline.

pollarding Cutting back the crown of a tree in order to harvest wood and browse to produce regrowth beyond the reach of animals and/or to reduce the shade cast by the crown.

productivity, soil The capacity of a soil for producing a specified plant or sequence of plants under a specified system of management. Productivity emphasizes the capacity of soil to produce plant products and should be expressed in terms of yields.

pruning Cutting back plant growth, including side branches or roots.

R

rapid rural appraisal (RRA) A set of techniques developed in the early 1980s by researchers at universities and international centers to improve data gathering in natural resource management programs.

reforestation Replanting of a forest which has been chopped down or destroyed by fire. regeneration Regrowth

relative humidity The ratio expressed as percent between the quantity of water vapor present and the maximum possible at given temperature and barometric pressure.

relay cropping Growing two or more crops with their growing seasons overlapping, e.g., the second crop is planted before the first crop is harvested.

rhizobia Bacteria capable of living symbiotically with higher plants, usually in nodules on the roots of legumes, from which they receive their energy and capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen to combined organic forms.

ridging Making long parallel raised strips of earth usually on the contours, into which seeds are sown.

root sucker A shoot arising from the root of a plant.

rotation In agriculture, changing the crops grown on a particular piece of land (or crops and fallow) from season to season. In forestry, the length of time between establishment and harvesting of a plantation or tree.

runoff The portion of the precipitation on an area that is discharged from the area through stream channels. That which is lost without entering the soil is stream is "surface runoff' and that which enters the soil before reaching the stream is called "groundwater runoff' or "seepage flow" from ground water.

S

sapling A young tree, no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, a few meters high and about 2.5 cm in diameter at breast height.

seedling A young stage of a plant grown from a seed.

selective cutting Harvesting specific tree species or individuals in a forest and leaving the rest untouched.

semiarid Term applied to regions or climates where moisture is more plentiful than in arid regions but still definitely limits the growth of most crop plants. Natural vegetation in uncultivated areas is short grasses, shrubs and small trees.

sequential cropping Growing two or more crops in sequence on the same field per year. The succeeding crop is planted after the preceding crop has been harvested.

shifting cultivation A form of agriculture in which soil fertility is maintained by rotating fields rather than crops. New plots are usually cleared by "slash and burn" and cropped until soil exhaustion. The land is then left to regenerate naturally while cultivation is done elsewhere.

shrub A woody plant that remains less than 10 meters tall and produces shoots or stems from its base (see bush).

silvopastoral system A form of agroforestry system consisting of trees (woody perennials) and pasture/animal components.

situation-specific analysis An appraisal/diagnostic method developed by Chiangmai University in northern Thailand to examine interactions between local resource management system and dynamics of the system under a specific environment.

slope The incline or angle of the land surface, which can be measured as a percent or ratio or in degrees or grades.

small farm (small holding, farm household, small farmer) A farm that is at the same time a home and a business enterprise so that farm-management decisions are made, based on household needs as well as business interests.

social forestry The practice of using trees and/or tree planting specifically to pursue social objectives, usually betterment of the poor, through delivery of the benefits to the local people.

soil conservation A combination of all management and land-use methods that safeguard the soil against depletion or deterioration caused by nature and/or humans.

soil organic matter The organic fraction of the soil that includes plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms and substances synthesized by soil organisms.

sole cropping One crop variety grown alone in pure stand at normal density. Opposite of intercropping/mixed cropping.

species A taxonomic category below genus. A very closely related group of individual organisms which forms the basic unit for naming and classification according to distinguishable genetic characteristics.

staggered (planting, harvesting) Referring to activities carried out at different times or locations, instead of synchronized to occur at the same time or place.

stover The mature, cured stalks of maize or sorghum from which the grain has been removed.

stress Any factor that disturbs the normal functioning of an organism.

strip cropping Planting of alternate strips of grasses, or grains with other crops on contours in order to conserve moisture and decrease erosion.

subhumid In the tropics, a climate with average annual rainfall of 900-1500 mm.

succession An orderly process of change in a community (of plants, animals) that results from modification of the environment by organisms and culminates in a system attaining steady state, or climax.

sucker A side shoot from the roots of a plant; a side growth arising from an axillary bud.

T

taungya The intercropping of agricultural crops during the first years of forest plantation establishment.

tenure The right to property, granted by custom or law, which may include land, trees and other plants, animals and water.

terraces Soil and water conservation structures established on sloping lands to reduce the runoff of soil and water down the slope.

thinning An intermediate cutting aimed primarily at controlling the growth of a tree stand by adjusting stand density.

tiller An erect or semi-erect, secondary stem in grass species (such as rice).

topography The physical description of land; changes in elevation due to hills, valleys and other features.

transect walk A systematic walk with (small) farmer groups on their land to identify land uses and problems and to discuss potential improvements.

transpiration The loss of moisture from plants in the form of water vapor.

U

understory The lower layer of vegetation, often grasses, shrubs or crops that grow under taller vegetation.

V

viability The capability of living and developing in a given environment or, in the case of a technology, of being practiced in the long term.

W

water harvesting Collection and storage in a tank or in the soil of water (either runoff or streamflow) for securing water availability for crop growth, or animal and human consumption.

woody Plants which consist in part of wood; not herbaceous.

Z

zero-grazing Livestock production systems in which the animals are fed in pens or other confined areas and are not permitted to graze.

Sources

Delorit, R.J., L.J. Greub, and H.L Ahlgren. (eds.) 1974. Crop production. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.

Gardner, F.P., R.B. Pearce, and R.L Mitchell. 1985. Physiology of crop plants. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Smith, D.M. (ed.) 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th edition. John Wiley, New York, USA.

Soil Science Society of America. 1987. Glossary of soil science terms. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, WI, USA.

Soule, J. (ed.) 1985. Glossary of horticulture crops. John Wiley, New York, USA.

Wilson, T.C. 1978. Researcher's guide to statistics: Glossary and decision map. Univ. Press of America, Washington, D.C, USA.

Commonly used species in agroforestry in Southeast Asia

(China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam)

Scientific

English

Chinese

Indonesian

Pillpino

Thal

Vietnamese

Forest trees







Acacia auriculiformis

Acacia

Jinghehuang

-

Japanese acacia

Kruthin Napong

Keo la tram

Acacia mangium

Mangium

-

-

Mangium

Krathin Tepa

Keo tai tuong

Bambusa spp.

Bamboo

Zhuzhi

Bambu

Kawayan

Phai

Tre

Calamus spp.

Rattan

Teng

Rottan

-

Wai

May

Canarium spp.

-

-

Kanari

Pili

-

Tram

Cassia siamea

Thailand shower

Tiedaomu

-

Thailand shower

Kae lek

Muong xiem

Casuarina equisetifolia

Australian pine

-

-

Agoho

Son Tale

Phi lao

Cinnamomum cassia

Cinnamon

Rugui

Kayumanis

-

-

Que

Dendrocalamus spp.

Bamboo

Longzhu

-

Bayog

Phai

Tre. Iuong

Desmodium rezonii

Desmodium -

-

Karikut-rikut


-

-

Dipterocarpus alatus

Dipterocarp

-

Damar

-

Yang

Dau rai

Erythrina spp.

-

-

Dadap

Dapdap

Thong fang

Vong

Eucalyptus spp.

Eucalyptus

Anshu

Eucaliptus

Red gum

Eveulyp

Bach den

Flemingia congesta

Flemingia

-

-

-

-

-

Gliricidia septum

-

-

Gamal

Madre de de cacao

KaeFarang

Do mai

Hevea brasiliensis

Rubber

Xiangjiao

Karet

Karet

Yangpara Takien

Cao su Sao

Indigofera teysmanii

-

-

-

-

-

Dau cham

Leucaena leucocephala

Leucaena

Yinghehuang

Lamtoro

Ipil-ipil

Krathinyak

Keo dau

Mangletia glauca

-

-

-

-

-

Mo

Melia azedirachta

Neem tree

-

Mindi

Paraiso

Sadao

Xoan

Pinus spp.

Pine

Shongshu

Pinus

Pine

Son

Thong

Pterocarpus spp.

-

-

-

Narra

Praduu

Giang huong

Samanea saman

Raintree

-

-

Raintree

ChamChulee

Cong/

Sesbania grandiflora

Sesbania

Mutianqing

Turi

Katuray

Kae ban

So dua

Styrax tonkinensis

Styrax

-

-

-

-

Bo de

Tectona grandis

Teak

Youmu

Jati

Teak

Sak

Tech

Fruit trees

Anacardium occidentale

Cashew

-

Jambu monyet

Kasoy

Mumuong Himmapan

Dieu

Annona muricata

Custard apple

Pinggua

Buah none

Guyabano

NoiNaa

Mang cau/ na ta

Artocarpus heterophyllus

Jackfruit

-

Langka

Langka

Kanun

Mit

Carica papaya

Papaya

Mugua

Pepaya

Papaya

Malakop

Du du

Citrus spp.

Citrus

Ju,che

Jeruk

Kalamansi

Som

Cam,chanh quat

Citrus reticulate

Mandarin

Ju

-

-

-

Quit

Cocos nucifera

Coconut

Kelapa

Niyog

Niyog

Dua


Coffea spp.

Coffee

Kafei

Kopi

Kape

Kafae

Caphe

Dimocarpus longan

Longan

Longgan

-

Longyan

LumYai

Nhan

Diospyros kaki

Oriental persimmon

Shizhi

Kesemek

-

Plub

Hong

Durio zibethinus

Durian

-

Durian

Duryan

Durian

Xoai

Lansium domesticum

Lanzones

-

Duku

Lansones

Lansat

Bon bon

Litchi sinensis

Lychee

Lizhi

-

-

Lingee

Vai

Mangifera indica

Mango

Manggio

Mangga

Mangga

Mamuong

Xoai

Nephelium lappaceum

Rambutan

-

Rambutan

Rambutan

Ngao

Chom chom

Persea americana

Avocado

-

Alpukat

Abokado

-

Bo

Psidium guajava

Guava

-

Jambu

Bayabas

Farang

Oi

Theobroma cacao

Cacao

Keke

Kakao

Kakaw

-

Cacao

Vegetables

Allium cepa

Onion

Yangchong

Bawang merah

Sibuyas

-

Hanh

Allium sativum

Garlic

Dacuan

Bawang putih

Bawang

-

Toi

Annonas conosus

Pineapple

Boluo

Nenas

Pinya

Subparot

Thom

Arachis hypogaea

Peanut

Huasheng

Kacang tanah

Mani

Tualisong

Dau phong

Brassica oleracea

Brocolli

-

Brokoli

Brokoli

-

Bap cai

Brassica

Cabbage oleracea

Baoxingcai

Kol

Repolyo

-

Bap su

Brassica pekinensis

Chinese cabbage

Baicai

Pecai

Petsay

-

-

Cucumis sativus

Cucumber

Caigua

Timun

Pipino

-

Dua leo/ chust

Curcurbita spp.

Squash

Mangua

Labu

Kalabasa

-

Bau,bi

Daucus carota

Carrots

Huluobou

Wortel

Karot

-

Ca rot

Glycine max

Soybean

Dadou

Kedelai

-

-

Dau nanh

Hibiscus esculentus

Okra

-

-

Okra

-

Dau bap

Lycopersicon esculenthum

Tomato

Xihongshi

Tomat

Kamatis

-

Ca chua

Oryza sativa

Rice

Shuidao

Padi

Palay

Kao

Lua

Piper nigrum

Pepper

Hujiao

Lada

Paminta

Prikthai

Ot

Solanum

Eggplant

Qiazhi

Terung

Talong

-

Ca tim

melongena







Vigna radiate

Mungbean

Ludou

Kacang hijau Munggo

Tuakiew

Dau xanh


Zea mays

Corn

Yumi

Jagung

Mais

-

Bap

Root crops

Colocasia spp.

Taro

Yunei

Talas

Gabi

-

Mon

Ipomea batatas

Sweet potato

Fanshu

Ubijalar

Kamote

-

Khoai fang

Manihot esculenta

Cassava

Mushu

Ubikayu

Kamoteng kahoy

NunSumpalangSan


Solanum tuberosum

Potato

Malinshu

Kentang

Patatas

-

Khoai tay

Zingiber officinale

Ginger

Jiang

Jahe

Luya

Khing

Gung

Livestock








Bee

Mifeng

Lebah

Bubuyog

Pung

Ong


Buffalo

Shuinui

Kerbau

Kalabaw

Kwai

Trau


Chicken

Ji

Ayam

Manok

Kai

Ga


Cow

Neiniu-

Sapi

Baka

Von

Bo


Duck

Ya

Itik

Bibe/itik

Ped

Vit


Fish

Yu

Ikan

Isda

Plu

Ca


Goat

Yang

Kambing

Kambing

Pae

De


Goose

E

Angsa

Gansa

Hon

Ngong


Pig

Zhu

Babi

Baboy

Mu

Heo, lon


Sheep

Mianyang

Domba

Tupa

Kae

Cuu

Resource institutions

Institutions

Expertise

Program focus

China



Agro-ecology Institute Zhejiang Agricultural University Hangzhou, 310029, Zhejiang Province, China

farming systems, agroecology

research and development, education

Institute of Forestry Research China Academy of Forestry Beijing, China

forestry and agroforestry

basic and applied research, demonstration, networking (APAN national focal point)

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information Chinese Academy of Forestry Beijing, China.

forestry, social forestry

information generation and dissemination

Institute of Soil Science Academia Sinica Nanjing, China

soil conservation, agroforestry

agroforestry networking project

Institute of Sub-tropical Forestry Research Chinese Academy of Forestry Hangzhou, China

sub-tropical forest, bamboo-based farm forestry

research, experiment station, documentation

Institute of Tropical Forestry Research Chinese Academy of Forestry Guangzhou, China

tropical forestry and agroforestry

research, experiment station, outreach

International Farm Forestry Training Center China Academy of Forestry Beijing, China

farm forestry, agroforestry

training

Indonesia



Agricultural Polytechnic-Kupang Jl. Adisucipto, Pentui P. O. Box 1111

dryland farming and agroforestry systems, indigenous

research and development, education and training

Kupang 8501 1, Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia

knowledge, agroecosystems, multipurpose tree species


Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (FAO-APAN) Jl. Gunung Batu 5 P. O. Box 481 Bogor 16004, Indonesia

agroforestry systems, human resource development

networking, training, information services, field demonstration

Asia Soil Conservation Network (ASOCON) Manggala Wanabakti Blok IV Lt. S. Jl. Gatot Subroto or P. O. Box 133 JKWB Jakarta 10270, Indonesia

soil conservation

networking

Badan Pendidikan den Latihan Pertanian(Agency for Agricultural Education and Training) Jl. Harsono No. 3, Pasarminggu Jakarta 12560, Indonesia

farming system, nature conservation, human resources development

networking, training and extension education, monitoring and evaluation methods

Balai Metodologi Informasi Pertanian(Agricultural Information Methodology Center) P. O. Box 252, Ciawi, Bogor, Indonesia

farming systems, people-based approach

instructional media training development, information services

Bogor Agricultural University Jl. Raya Pajajaran Bogor, Indonesia

forestry, farming systems, food technology

research and development, education and training

Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Center Jl. Gunung Batu 5 Bogor, Indonesia

agroforestry systems, nature conservation

research and development, training and extension, (APAN national focal point)

ICRAF Southeast Asia Programme Jl. Gunung Batu 5, Bogor, Indonesia

agroforestry

research and development

Kelompok Kerja Konservasi(Working Group for Conservation) c/o LP3ES, Jl. Mergapati 10 Mataram, Lombok, Indonesia

agroforestry, nature conservation

networking, information services

Nusa Tenggara Upland Development Consortium c/o World Neighbors Southeast Asia P. O. Box 71, Ubud 85071, Bali, Indonesia

agroforestry, nature conservation, gender, participatory approach

networking, information services

Perum Perhutani Gd. Manggala Wanabhakti Blok IV Lt 4 Jl. Gatot Subroto, Senayan Jakarta, Indonesia

agroforestry, non- wood forest product, nature conservation

research and development, training extension

PROSEA Network Office c/o Research and Development Center for Biology, LIPI Jl. Ir. H. Juanda 22 P. O. Box 234 Bogor 16122, West Java, Indonesia

fanning systems, indigenous and exogenous knowledge

research and development, networking, information services on plant resources, handbook, data bank

World Neighbors Southeast Asia Office P. O. Box 71, Ubud 85071, Bali, Indonesia

people-based approach, upland development program

networking, media development, information services

World Neighbors Southeast Asia Media Support Program Studio Driya Media, Jl. Makmur No. 16 Bandung 40161, West Java, Indonesia

people-based approach, upland development program

networking,media development, information services

Yayasan Bina Swadaya Jl. Gunung Sahari III/7, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia

agroforestry, social forestry

training

Papua New Guinea



Bubia Research Station LAE, Morobe Province Papua New Guinea

farming systems

research, information services

Highlands Agricultural Experimentation Station, Aiyuva P. O. Box 384 Kainantu, EHP Papua New Guinea

agroforestry/farming systems

research, information services

Land Utilization Section Department of Agriculture and Livestock P. O. Box 1863 Baroko, Papua New Guinea

land suitability assessment, soil survey, agroclimatology, agroecological zoning, land use planning

planning, coordination, information services

Subsistence Agricultural Improvement Project Department of Morobe LAE, Morobe Province Papua New Guinea

agriculture

training and extension

Wan Ecology Institute Private Bag LAE Morobe Province Papua New Guinea

indigenous knowledge, agriculture, land use, wildlife ecology

research, information services

Philippines



Bureau of Agriculture Research Department of Agriculture Visayas Avenue, Diliman Quezon City, Philippines

farming systems

research and development, networking

Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau Department of Environment and Natural Resources College, Laguna 4031, Philippines

natural resources technology generation, ecosystems

research and development

International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center Silang, Cavite 4118 Philippines

integrated community-based rural development, environment, natural resources, agriculture, rural enterprise building

integrated approach, research, networking, media development, training and extension, information services

International Rice Research Institute Los Ba Laguna Philippines

farming systems, crop management, post- harvesting technology

research and development

Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc. 427 Durian St., Juan Subdivision Matina 8000, Davao City Philippines

agroforestry, gender, human resource, land tenure

people-centered development program, networking, training, extension

Mag-Uugmad Foundation, Inc. 39-2 Pelaez St. 6000 Cebu City PhiIippines

soil and water conservation, farming systems, farmer- centered development

people-centered development, networking, training, extension, media development, research

Mariano Marcos State University Institute of Sustainable Dryland Agriculture College of Agriculture and Forestry Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines

dryland agriculture, farming systems

research and development

Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center Kinuskusan, Bansalan Davao del Sur, Philippines

upland technology development, farming systems

training, extension, media development, research and development

Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources and Development Los Ba Laguna Philippines

forestry, agriculture, farming systems

research, technology generation, verification dissemination and development

Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement P. O. Box 10479 Broadway Centrum, Quezon City, Philippines

natural resources management

advocacy, research, information services

Southeast Asia Regional Center for Research in Agriculture Los Ba Laguna, Philippines

agriculture

research and development, training

University of the Philippines at Los BaCollege, Los BaLaguna, Philippines

agronomy, human ecology, forestry, biological science, natural resources, rural development

research and development

- College of Forestry



- Institute of Biological Science



- Department of Agronomy



- College of Human Ecology



Thailand



AgricuIture Department Paholyothin Road, Chajutak Bangkok 10900, Thailand

sustainable agriculture

research and development

CARE Thailand18 A Sub Soi, Aree 4 North Paholyothin 7, Bangkok 10400 Thailand

natural resource management, watershed management, community development

extension

Faculty of Agriculture Chiangmai University Chiangmai, Thailand

natural resource conservation

research and development, training

Faculty of Forestry Khon Kaen University Khon Kaen, Thailand

nature conservation, human resource development

research and development, training

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Maliwan Mansion39 Phra Atit Road Bangkok 10200, Thailand

rural development, food security, agroforestry, farm management, marketing, women in development, soil and water conservation

development assistance through expert consultation, training, networking, information services

Farming Systems Research and Development Office of Agricultural Economics Paholyothin Road, Chatujak 10900 Bangkok, Thailand

farm-based approach

research and development, training

Hill Areas Development Foundation P. O. Box 1 I Mae Chan District Chiangrai 57110, Thailand

natural resource management, community development, soil and water conservation

education, extension

Kasetsart University Chajutak, Bangkok 10903 Thailand

nature conservation, human resource development

research and development, training

- Faculty of Agriculture



- Faculty of Forestry



Multipurpose Tree Species Network for Asia P. O. Box 1038 Kasetsart Office Bangkok 10903, Thailand

farm forestry, integrated agricultural systems

research and development

Office of Community Forestry Royal Forest Department Paholyothin Road, Bangkhen Bangkok 10900, Thailand

agroforestry, social forestry

planning and development, training(APAN national focal point)

Population Development Association Sukhumvit Soi 12 Bangkok, Thailand

people-based approach

research and development

Regional Community Forestry Training Center c/o Faculty of Forestry Kasetsart University P. O. Box 1111 Bangkok 10903, Thailand

social forestry

training, Information services, networking

Royal Forest Management Chatujak, Bangkok Thai land

natural forest management and conservation

planning and development

- Natural Forest Land Use Management Division



- Silviculture Division



- Watershed Conservation Division



Save the Children P. O. Box 49 Nakhon Sawan 60000, Thailand

farm forestry, community forestry

development, networking, training

Sustainable Agriculture Extension Division Agriculture Extension Department Paholyothin Road, Bangkok Thailand

agroforestry and farming systems

extension

Thai-German Highland Development Program P. O. Box 67 Chiangmai 50000, Thailand

farming and agroforestry systems, watershed, natural resource management, land use, community based

research and development

Vietnam



Agriculture Research Institute No. 1, 1 16 Nguyen Binh Chieu Street District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

agriculture

research and extension

CARE International in Vietnam130 A, Thung Khue Hanoi, Vietnam

community forestry, upland farming system, community development

training and extension

Center for Natural Resources Management and Natural Environmental Studies15 B Trieu Viet Vuong Hanoi, Vietnam

natural/agricultural/ rural resources, agroforestry, biodiversity

management and development (upland area)

Center for Soil and Fertilizer Research and Techno-Transfer(ISF/MAFI), 37 Ben Chuong Duong District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

soil fertility

research and extension

College of Agriculture and Agroforestry Thuduc, Ho Chi Minh City65/5 a Nguyen Trong, Tuyen Street Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

agriculture, forestry

development and extension

Forest Science Institute Chem-Tu, Liem Hanoi, Vietnam

forestry

research (APAN national local point)

Forestry College Xuan Mai, Hatay Province Vietnam

silviculture, social forestry, wood processing

research and development, training, networking

Hanoi Agricultural University Gia Lam, Hanoi Vietnam

agriculture, agro- ecology, farming systems, food production

research and development

Langa Union of Forest Enterprise Ministry of Forestry Hanoi, Vietnam

dipterocarp forest

research and extension

Upland Farming Systems, R & D Center University of Agriculture No. 3 Bacthai Province, Vietnam

upland farming and agroforestry systems, soil and water

research and development, training and extension conservation

Participants and workshop staff

Participants

Ms. Kwanchewan Buadeng (Thailand)
Dr. Lope A. Calanog (Philippines)
Dr. Roberto V. Dalmacio (Philippines)
Alma Monica A. dela Paz (Philippines)
Dr. Narciso R. Deomampo (Thailand)
John Dixon (Thailand)
Antonius P.Y. Djogo (Indonesia)
Ines Vivian D. Domingo (Indonesia)
Patrick B. Durst (Thailand)
Riri Fithriadi (Indonesia)
Dr. James H. French (Indonesia)
Dr. Sunarya Hadiwisastra (Indonesia)
Helle Qwist-Hoffman (Thailand)
Peter Qwist-Hoffman (Thailand)
Nguyen Huu Hong (Vietnam)
Dr. Kennedy Igbokwe (Philippines)
Michael Jensen (Thailand)
Wu Jianjun (China)
Dr. Junus Kartasubrata (Indonesia)
Chun K. Lai (Indonesia)
Teunchai Lakhaviwattanakul (Thailand)
Pearmsak Makarabhirom (Thailand)
Dr. Stanley C. Malab (Philippines)
Cai Mantang (China)
Dr. Evelyn Mathias (Philippines)
Nguyen Ba Ngai (Vietnam)
Bui Ngoc Quang (Vietnam)
Dr. Hamish Richards (United Kingdom)
Dr. Walfredo Raquel Rola (Philippines)
Prem Sharma (Nepal)
Bishan Singh (Philippines)
Dr. Naik Sinukaban (Indonesia)
Mike Stainburn (Philippines)
Nguyen Van So (Vietnam)
Dr. Yoyo Sulaiman (Indonesia)
Esther Velasco (Philippines)
Tran Duc Vien (Vietnam)
Balthazar Wayi (Papua New Guinea)
Zheng Wei (China)

Editors
David Abbass
Lyn Capistrano-Doren
Scott Killough
Ray Montes
Dr. Paul Mundy (Workshop coordinator)
Jimmy Ronquillo (Scheduling)
Sheila Siar

Artists
Ric Cantada
Albert Contemprate
Arnold Gardon
Rannie Ramacula

Desktop publishing
Mamet Magno
Jel Montoya
Angie Poblete

Logistics
Lhai Kasala
Angie Poblete

Support
Thess Aquino
Carding Belenzo
Gerry Medina
Jel Montoya
Rollie Ramos

* Did not attend the workshop

Participants' profiles

Kwanchewan Buadeng

Kwanchewan "Jid" Buadeng is a Social Researcher at the Social

Thai-German Highland Development

Research Institute, Chiangmai University, Thailand. She holds a

Program

Masters in Anthropology from the Ateneo de Manila University,

P O Box 67, Chiangmai 50000

Philippines. Jid has attended many national and international

Thailand

workshops and presented papers at the Asian Farming Systems

Fax 66-53-211 808

symposium, Farming Systems Development working groups of


GTZ projects and other conferences.

Dr. Lope Calanog


Ecosystems Research and Develop-

Dr. Lope A. Calanog is a Supervising Science Research Specialist

ment Bureau

at the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau of the

Department of Environment and

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) in the

Natural Resources

University of the Philippnes - Los Ba At present, he is the head

University of the Philippines at Los

of the Community Forestry Section of the Ecosystems Research

Ba College, Laguna 4031

and Development Bureau of the DENR. He has just completed his

Philippines

Ph.D. in Community Development. Soon, he will be completing a


book tentatively titled Adaptive Traditionalism of a Swidden


based Upland Community.

Roberto Dalmacio

Dr. Roberto "Bert,, V. Dalmacio is the Instruction Division Coor

UPLB Agroforestry Program

dinator at the UPLB Agroforestry Program, Philippines, and is

College of Forestry

also an Associate Professor in Silviculture and Forest Influences.

University of the Philippines at Los

He teaches graduate courses in silviculture and agroforestry and

Philippines

advises graduate students. He conducts research in the fields of


silviculture and agroforestry. He also designs and coordinates


training courses in reforestation and agroforestry and serves as a


resource person in topics dealing with silviculture and


agroforestry.

Alma Monica de la Paz

Alma Monica A. dela Paz is the Executive Director of the Kapwa

Executive Director

Upliftment Foundation, Inc., in Matina, Davao City, Philippines.

Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc

Alma is currently a member of the board of directors of

427 Durian St., Juan Subdivision

PHILDHRRA, a national coalition of NGOs. She is one of 18

Matina 8000, Davao City, Philippines

private-sector representatives to the Regional Development Coun


cil of Region XI as well as serving as a member of the Economic


Development Committee of the Council. She also represents


Kapwa in the Regional Upland Development Committee of the


DENR.

Dr. Narciso Deomampo


FAO Regional for Asia and the

Dr. Narciso R. Deomampo is the FAO Regional Farm Manage

Pacific (RAPA)

ment Economist based at the FAO Regional Office in Bangkok,

Maliwan Mansion

Thailand. Before joining RAPA, Dr. Deomampo worked as an

39 Phra Atit Road

FAO Project Manager in Sri Lanka on Agricultural Marketing

Bangkok 10200, Thailand

Extension from 1985-1986. He was assigned as FAO Marketing

Fax 66-2-280 0445

Economist in the Northern Areas of Pakistan from 1987-1989. In 1990, Dr. Deomampo was the Chief Technical Adviser of FAOTCP Project in Chiangmai, Thailand, on Group Marketing and Extension. In 1991, he was appointed as Chief Technical Adviser of FAO/UNDP Marketing Project - Lesotho, Southern Africa for two years.


John Dixon


Programme Coordinator

John Dixon is a farmer from Queensland, Australia. He holds

FARM Programme

degrees in Rural Science, Agricultural Economics, Natural Re

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the

source Management and Sustainable Agriculture. He has worked

Pacific

for FAO in Africa, the Near East, Asia and its headquarters. He

Maliwan Mansion

now serves as coordinator of the UNDP/FAO/UNIDO Farmer

39 Phra Atit Road

centred Agricultural Resource Management Programme.

Bangkok .0200, Thailand


Fax 66-2-280 0445


Antonius P. Y. Djogo


Director

Antonius "Tony', P.Y. Djogo is the Director of Agricultural Poly

Agricultural Polytechnic-Kupang

technic, Kupang, Indonesia. He graduated from Bogor Agricul

Jl. Adisucipto, Pentui

tural University Indonesia in 1980 (from the Department of Soil

P O BOX 1111

Sciences] Faculty of Agriculture). He has attended several

Kupang 85011

trainings in-country and overseas. The research and development

Nusa Tenggara Timur

areas in which he specializes include: agroecosystem analysis,

Fax 62-391-31001

agroforestry and social forestry; dryland farming systems; and


farmer-based dryland farming systems development.

Ines Vivian Domingo

Ines Vivian "IV,, D. Domingo is the Coordinator of the World

Southeast Asia Media Support

Neighbors - Southeast Asia Media Support Program. She is based

Program

in Bandung Indonesia. She coordinates the production of low-cost

Studio Driya Media

media in a variety of topics, including sustainable upland agriculture.

JI. Makmur No. 16


Bandung 40161


West Java, Indonesia


Patrick Durst

Patrick B. Durst is a Regional Forestry Officer for Asia and the

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the

Pacific at FAO, Bangkok, Thailand. Before joining FAO, he

Pacific (RAPA)

worked for nearly eight years with the Office of International

Maliwan Mansion

Forestry, USDA Forest Service—first as Special Projects Coordi

39 Phra Atit Road

nator for the Forestry Support Program, then as Coordinator for

Bangkok 10200, Thailand

Asia and Near East Programs and finally as Asia-Pacific Branch

Fax 66-2-280 0445

Chief.



Riri Fithriadi

Riri Fithriadi is the Agroforestry Extension Specialist of the FAO

Agroforestry Extension Specialist

Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (FAO-APAN). He joined

FAO Asia-Pacific Agroforestry

APAN in 1993 and was responsible for information and technology

Network

exchange, training, field activities and networking in Indonesia. In

JI. Gunung Batu 481

1990-1993, he worked with the Studio Driya Media in Bandung,

P O Box 481, Bogor 16004

Indonesia, as Associate Director for Research and Development

Indonesia

and was responsible for media development management and some field activities.

Dr. James H. French

Dr. James "Jim,, French is the Information and Training Specialist

Information Specialist

of the FAO Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (FAO-APAN).

FAO Asia-Pacific Agroforestry

Home is shared between New Hampshire, Bangkok and Bogor.

JI. Gunung Batu 481

Jim has lived in Thailand for 14 years and in Indonesia for 5 years.

P O Box 481, Bogor 16004

Most of this time was with UNDP working on rural development,


Indonesia watershed management and rubber replanting programs. In Indo nesia, he worked with Winrock International on researchextension linkages and the Upland Agriculture and Conservation Project. His doctorate is in extension education and his masters is in communication.

Dr. O. Sunarya

Dr. Sunarya "Ooy" Hadiwisastra is an Agriculture Extension

Hadiwisastra

Specialist at the Agency for Agricultural Education and Training of

Balai Diklat Pertanian

the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. He holds a Ph.D. in Devel

Proyek P4K Pusat

opment Communications from UPLB, Philippines. At the Agency,

JI. Harsono RM 3

Ooy serves as the project secretary of PHK (Income-generating

Jakarta 12560

activities for small farmers and landless).

Indonesia


Fax 62-21 -780 5209


Nguyen Huu Hong

Nguyen Huu Hong is a lecturer and researcher in upland rice,

Deputy Director

upland farming systems and agroforestry at the University of

Upland Farming Systems (R & D Center)

Agriculture, No. 3, Bacthai, Vietnam. He holds an MSc degree on

University of Agriculture No. 3

agronomy from Migazaki University in Japan. He is the deputy

Bacthai Province, Vietnam

director of agroforestry, research and development center for the


northern mountains in Vietnam.

Dr. Kennedy Igbokwe


Water Resources Management

Dr. Kennedy Igbokwe is the Water Resources Management Spe

Speciaiist

cialist at the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction,

International Institute of Rural

Philippines. He graduated from Central Philippines University with

Reconstruction

a BSc degree in Agricultural Engineering and holds MSc and

Silang, Cavite, Philippines

Doctoral degrees in Agricultural Engineering with specialization in

Fax 63-96-402 0891

soil and water management from Central Luzon State University,


Philippines. He is presently involved in conceptualizing and devel


oping water resources/watershed management projects and participatory technology development for rainfed agriculture improvement in the semi-arid areas of India.

Michael Jensen

Michael Jensen is an Associate Professional Officer/Agroforestry

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the

of FAO-RAPA. He holds an M.Sc. degree on Agroforestry and

Pacific (RAPA)

Forest Ecology from Copenhagen University and the Royal Veteri

39 Phra Atit Road

narian and Agricultural University. Since 1992, he has been work

Bangkok 10200, Thailand

ing with FAO—first in the Regional Wood Energy Development

Fax 66-2-280 0445

Programme and then at the Forestry Section of RAPA, both


located in Bangkok, with agroforestry as his main responsibility. He has previous working experience in ecological research in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Wu Jianjun


Associate Professor and Deputy

Wu Jianjun is the Deputy Director of the Agro-ecology Institute,

Director

Zhejiang Agricultural University, China. He has worked in the

Agro-ecology Institute

Institute since 1987 as an instructor, researcher and associate

Zhejiang Agricultural University

professor. In addition to teaching (crop production, groecology,

Hangzhou, 310029

specific topics on agroecosystems and integrated farming systems),

Zhejiang Province

he conducts research on Chinese ecological agriculture, farming

People's Republic of China

systems development on red soil hilly areas (uplands) and the

Fax 86-571 -604 9815

structure and mechanisms for integration of agricultural education,


demonstration, training and extension.

Dr. Junus Kartasubrata

Dr. Junus Kartasubrata heads the Network Office of the Plant

Acting Head

Resources of South East Asia (PROSEA) Foundation in Bogor,

PROSEA Network Office

Indonesia. He holds a doctorate in Forestry from Bogor Agricul

c/o Research and Development

tural University.

Centre for Biology


LIPI, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 22


P.O. Box 234


Bogor 16122, West Java, Indonesia


Fax 62-251 -336 425


Scott Killough

Scott Killough is the Director of the Environment, Natural Re

Director

sources and Agriculture program at the International Institute of

Environment, Natural Resources and

Rural Reconstruction. He has been involved in management of

Agriculture

research and training activities in upland farm management in the

Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite

Philippines, India, Guatemala and Ethiopia. Before joining IIRR,

Philippines

he worked with the Peace Corps in Guatemala and in the U.S.A.

Fax (632) 522 2494


Chun K. Lai

Chun Lai, Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (APAN) Regional

Regional

Coordinator, was born in Hongkong and raised and educated in the

FAO Asia-Pacific Agroforestry

U.S. He holds forestry/international forestry degrees from the

Jl. Gunung Batu 481

University of Maine at Oroneo and from Yale University. His

P O Box 481, Bogor 16004

professional experience includes assignments in the Northwestern

Indonesia

U.S. (U.S. Forest Service), West Africa (Peace Corps, Fulbright


Program and USAID), Bangladesh (Winrock International) and Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network—FAO network based in Bogor, Indonesia. His total experience exceeds 1 5 years in the field working on forestry and agroforestry.

Teunchai

Teunchai "Jai" Lakhaviwattanakul is a Professional Forest Officer

Lakhaviwattanakul

at the Royal Forest Department, Thailand. She is also the current

Chief, Agroforestry Branch

APAN National Coordinator in Thailand.

Office of Community Forestry


Forest Department


Pa halyoth in Road, Bangkhen


Bangkok 10900, Thailand


Fax 66-2-579 1718


Pearmsak Makarabhirom

Pearmsak Makarabhirom is a Technical Forestry Officer of the

Agroforestry Branch

Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand. He is also a Pro

Office of Community of Forestry

gram Officer of the Regional Community Forestry Outreach

Forest Department

Program of the Regional Community, Forestry Training Center for

Pahalyothin Road, Bangkhen

Asia-Pacific. He is experienced in agroforestry research and

Bangkok 10900

extension, community forestry and forestry extension.

Thailand


Fax 66-2-579 5416


Dr. Stanley Malab


Assistant Professor

Dr. Stanley "Stan,, C. Malab is a Professor and Director for Re

Institute of Sustainable Dryland

search at the Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos

Agriculture, College of Agriculture

Norte, Philippines. His present assignments include: Professor of

and Forestry, Mariano Marcos State

Forest Science, Director for Research and Development; and

university

Concurrent Director of the Institute of Sustainable Dryland Agri

Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines

culture. He has conducted research on nitrogen dynamics on

Fax 63-77-792 3131

agroforestry systems, bamboo technology, sand dune utilization


and computer modelling for agroforestry systems.

Dr. Evelyn Mathias

Dr. Evelyn Mathias is the Coordinator of the Regional Program for

IlRR, Silang, Cavite

the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge in Asia (REPPIKA) at

Philippines

the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. Her major

Fax (632) 522 2494

interests are in ethnoveterinary medicine, the use of indigenous


knowledge in development, livestock development and the delivery of animal health care services. Before joining IIRR, she was a visiting lecturer at the Bogor Agricultural University in Indonesia. Dr. Mathias holds a Dr. Med. Vet. degree (equivalent to Ph.D.) in veterinary medicine and a DVM degree, both from Justus- Liebig University in Giessen, Germany. She has a Master's in International Development from Iowa State University, USA.

Dr. Paul Mundy

Dr. Paul Mundy is the Director of the Communication Division at

Director, Communication Division

the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. A British

IlRR, Silang, Cavite

national, he worked as an editor in the Central Research Institute

Philippines

for Food Crops in Indonesia and in Egypt before joining IIRR. He


has a Ph.D. in Mass Communication from the University of Wisconsin.

Nguyen Ba Ngai

Nguyen Ba Ngai is a Lecturer in Social Forestry at the Forestry

Lecturer in Social Forestry

College of Vietnam. He teaches forest management and social

Forestry College, Xuan Mai

forestry

Hatay Province, Vietnam


Fax 84-4-250 000


Bui Ngoc Quang

Bui Ngoc Quang is a Project Officer of CARE International in

Project Officer

Vietnam. He has experiences in community forestry in the northern

CARE international in Vietnam

mountainous provinces of Vietnam; agroforestry systems in the

130 A, Thuy khue

uplands; participatory rapid appraisal; and working with ethnic

Hanoi Vietnam

minorities at the community level.

Fax 84-4-2337 14


Dr. Hamish Richards

Dr. Hamish Richards is an executive committee member of the UK

Development Consultancy Services,

Freedom From Hunger Campaign. He has undertaken

Ltd.

consultancies for the UN Population Programme (project evalua

Heath, Cardiff CF4 4HG

tion); UNESCO (nonformal education); Pacific Commissioner

Wales, United Kingdom

(population/human resource development); ILO (population

Fax 44-1222-750 621

programme management and child care facilities); and European


Community (plight of street children).

Dr. Walfredo Raquel Rola

Dr. Walfredo "Wally" Raquel Rola is an Assistant Professor at the

Department of Community and

Department of Community and Environmental Resource Planning

Environmental Resource Planning

at the University of the Philippines at Los Ba He has been

University of the Philippines

engaged by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) several times as

at Los Ba

an agricultural economist or financial analyst in reformulating and

College, Laguna, Philippines

evaluating projects in the Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia. Cur


rently, he is serving as a management system and logistic specialist for an ADB


funded Vegetable Integrated Pest Management Project in the Philippines.

Prem Sharma

Prem Sharma is the Regional Coordinator/Chief Technical Advisor

FAD-FARM

with FAO. He is also the Regional/Senior Scientist (Land-use) of

CTA, Watershed Management

CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. He has authored over 40 publica

FAO office in Nepal

tions in watershed management, agroforestry, soil conservation,

P. O. Box 25, Kathmandu

irrigation, natural resources management for uplands in Asia and

Nepal

Latin America.

Fax 977-1-526358


Bishan Singh

Bishan Singh is the executive president of the Management Insti

PCSD Programme Manager

tute for Social Change. He has more than 30 years of experience in

Asian NGO Coalition

the NGO movement. He is the President of the Pahang Association

PO Box 3107

of Consumers, a post he has held for the last 20 years. He was the

Quezon City

past president of the Federation of Malaysian Consumers' Associa

Metro Manila, Philippines

tions and co-chair of the Education Committee of the International


Organization of Consumers' Unions. Bishan was the first awardee


of the "Consumer Advocate Award" of the Government of


Malaysia.

Prof. Dr. Naik Sinukaban

Dr. Naik Sinukaban is the Head of the Soil and Water Conserva

Department of Soil Science

tion Laboratory at Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.

Bogor Agricultural University


Jl Raya Pajajaran


Bogor


Indonesia


Fax 62-251-312708


Nguyen Van So

Nguyen Van So is a lecturer of the University of Agriculture and

College of Agriculture and Forestry

Forestry, Thu Duc Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. He holds an M.S.

Thuduc, Ho Chi Minh City

degree in silviculture and forest influences at the University of the

65/5a Nguyen Trong, Tuyen Street

Philippines at Los Bawith a minor in social forestry. His area

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

of specialization includes plantation forestry, water and soil con

Fax 84-8-960 713

servation measures and social forestry.

Esther Velasco

Esther Velasco is IlRR's Gender and Development Specialist. She

Research Division

develops research and development programs and provides train

Internationai institute of Rural

ing aimed at improving gender equity in developing countries.

Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite

Before joining IIRR, she served as the Program Coordinator of the

Philippines

University of the Philippines at Los Ba Gender Program for


Rural Development. Ms. Velasco has a master's degree in Sociol


ogy, from Ateneo de Manila University.


Mr Tran Duc Vien

Tran Duc Men is a Lecturer and Researcher at the Center for

Centre for Natural Resources

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Studies,

Management and

University of Hanoi Vietnam

Environmental Studies


University of Hanoi


15 B Trieu Viet Vuong


Hanoi


Vietnam


Fax 844-2-66618


Balthazar Wayi

Balthazar Wayi is a Chief Land-use Officer at the Department of

Chief Land-use Officer

Agriculture and Livestock in Boroko, Papua New Guinea. He

Land-use Section

graduated from the University of Papua New Guinea in 1977, with

Department of Agriculture and

a Bachelor of Agricultural Science. In 1983, he obtained a post

PO Box 1863

graduate diploma in Agricultural Science from Massey University

Boroko

in New Zealand. In 1985, he was awarded an MSc in Soil Science

Papua New Guinea

at the State University of Ghent in Belgium. His field of expertise

Fax 675 - 214354

is soil survey, soil classification, level land suitability evaluation


and land-use planning.

Zheng Wei

Ms. Zheng Wei is an Editor at the Chinese Academy Forestry in

Institute of Scientific and Technical

Beijing, China. She graduated from the Northeast Forestry Univer

Information

sity and specialized in forestry botany. She now works at the

Chinese Academy of Forestry

Institute of Scientific and Technology Information on the

Beijing, China

agroforestry program.

Fax 86-1-258 2317


References

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ANGOC. 1977. Soil Conservation Handbook. Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction and Maintain Agriculture Resources Development Bureau. Tai Sowing the Seeds for future, Report of the Second Asian Development Forum, Sustainable Agriculture Towards Food Security and Enhanced Quality of Life, 2226 February, 1993. Cagayan de Oro, Philippines.

Asdak, C. and T.P. Sandjaja. 1989. Traditional Agroforestry Systems: A Potential Role for Rehabilitating Degraded Watershed Areas. Proceedings of International Seminar on Agricultural Change and Development in Southeast Asia, 20-23 November, 1989. Jakarta, Indonesia.

Avila, M. and S. Minae. 1992. Diagnosis and Design for Technology Development. Lecture note for ICRAF-DSO training course. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya.

Axinn, G. 1988. In Education for Agriculture. IRRI, Philippines.

Balangue, T.O. 1988. Interactive Land Use Planning Algorithm. Ph.D. Dissertation (Forestry). Graduate School, University of the Philippines at Los Ba Laguna, Philippines.

Banilodu, L. and N.T. Saka. 1993. Descriptive Analysis of Sumba Forest: Research Results. Widya Mandiri Catholic University, Kupang, Indonesia.

Carlson, Les E. and Keith R. Shea. 1986. Increasing Productivity of Multipurpose Lands: IUFRO Research Planning Workshop for Africa: Sahelian and North Sudanian Zones, Nairobi, Kenya, 9-15 January, 1986. International Union of Forestry Research Organization. Canada.

Celestino. A.F. and F.P. Elliot. Hilly Land Farming Systems in the Philippines: An Assessment. Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute.

Chambers, R. 1992. Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory. Discussion Paper 311. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, Great Britain.

Chambers, R. and B. Ghildyal. 1985. Agricultural Research for ResourcePoor Farmers: The Farmer-Firstand-Last model. Agricultural Administration and Extension, 20. in Chambers et al. 1989.

Chambers, R. and J. Jiggins. 1986. Agricultural Research for Resourcepoor Farmers: A Parsimonious Paradigm. IDS Discussion Paper 220, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, Great Britain.

Chambers, Robert, Arnold Pacey and Lori Ann Thrupp. (eds.) 1991. Farmer First: Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research. Immediate Technology Publications: Great Britain.

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Combe, J. and G. Budwoski. Classification of Agroforestry Techniques. Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Costa Rica, Latin America

Conway, G.R. 1985. Agroecosystems Analysis. Agricultural Administration, 20. pp 31-55.

Cook, Cynthia and Mikael Grut. 1989. Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Farmer's Perspective. World Bank Technical Paper, 112. The World Bank. Washington, D.C. 95p.

CVPED. 1992. Forestry for People and Nature. Field Research and Theory on Environment and Development in the Cagayan Valley, Philippines. Cagayan Valley Programme on Environment and Development.

Danusastro, H. 1980. The Role of Homegarden as a Source of Additional Family Income. Seminar on the Ecology of Homegardens III. Institute of Ecology, Pajajaran University, Bandung, Indonesia.

Davison, D.A. 1980. Soils and Land Use Planning. Longman, New York.

Denholm, Jeanette and Min Bahadur Ryachhetry. 1990. Major Agroforestry Activities of Nongovernmental Organizations in Nepal: A Survey. Research Report Series, 10. HMG Ministry of Agriculture, Nepal. Winrock International.

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Devendra, C. (ed.) 1990: Shrubs and Tree Fodders for Farm Animals: Proceedings of a Workshop in Denpasar, Indonesia, 24-29 July, 1989. International Development Research Centre, Canada.

Djogo, A.P.Y. March 1994. Proses Perkembaw, Pekewang dar Tartaw Konsortium Pengembangan Datao Timgi usa Tenggara (Nusa Tangan Upland Development Consortium). Paper presented to NTUDS Annual. Matara. 10-21 April, 1994.

Fabos, J.G. 1979. Planning the Total Landscape: A Guide to Intelligent Land Use. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.

Fabos, J.G. 1985. Land Use Planning: From Global to Local Challenge. Chapman and Hall, New York.

FAO. A Forester's Guide for Community Involvement in Upland Conservation, with Special References to the Asia-Pacific Region.

FAO. A Forester's Guide for. Community Involvement in Upland Conservation. 1986. Based on the work of James H. French and Romeo H. Gecolea. Rome.

Fong Jie. 1992. Compilation of Highefficiency Agricultural Patterns in China. Agricultural Publishing House, Beijing, China.

Forestry College of Vietnam. 1993. Report on the National Research Theme for Social Forestry in the Northern Province of Vietnam.

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Forestry/Fuelwood Research and Development Project. 1994. Growing Multipurpose Trees on Small Farms. 2nd ed. Winrock International, Thailand.

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Handbook #2. 1983. Farm Irrigation Structure, Water Management Synthesis Project Colorado State University and Utah State University.

Hoey, P.M. 1987. Conservation Farming Systems for the Highlande. Int. Sem. Impact of Agri. Production on the Environment. NRCT, MIAT, JSPS, SAEDA, TUA and CMU. Dec. 17-20, 1987. Chiangmai, Thailand.

Hufschmidt, M.M. 1986. A Conceptual Framework for Watershed Management. In: Watershed Resources Management—An Integrated Framework with Study from Asia and Pacific. Eds. K.W. Easter, J.A. Dixon and M.M. Hufschmidt

Jodha, N.S., Banskota and Tej Partap (eds.) 1992. Sustainable Mountain Agriculture: Perspective and Issue. Vol. 1. Nepal: International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development. 389p.

Kartawinata, K., H. Soedjito, T. Jusup, A. P. Vayda and C. J. P. Calver. 1984. The Impact of Development on Interactions between People and Forest in East Kalimantan: A Comparison of Two Areas of Kenyah Dayak Settlement. East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Kerkhof, Paul. 1990. Agroforestry in Africa: A Survey of Project Experience. London: Panos Publications, Ltd. 216p.

Knipscheer, H. and R. Harwood. 1988. Onstation versus On-farm Research: Allocation of Resources in Developments in Procedures for Farming Systems Research. Proceedings of an International Workshop in Indonesia. Edited by Sukmana, S., P. Amir and D. Mulyedi. Published by AARD, Winrock International, IDRC.

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Leones, Julie P. 1987. The Impact of an Agroforestry Project on Upland Farming in San Francisco, Cebu, Philippines. New York: Department of Agricultural Economics, Cornell University. 65p.

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Markandya, A. (ed.) 1994. Policies for Sustainable Development, 4 Essays. FAO.

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Mbonye, Arsen and Kihika Kiambi. n.d. How to Collect, Handle and Store Seeds. KENGO Agroforestry Training Series. Kenya: KENGO. 22p.

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Moya, T.B., W.C. Dela Vena and S.I. Bhuiyan. 1986. The Potential of Farrn Reservoir in Rainfed Areas. Phil. Journal of Crop Science, 11(2): 125-132.

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Narayana, V.V.D. 1993. Soil and Water Conservation Research in India. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Indian Council of Agriculture, New Delhi, India.

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Personal interview with Umbu Hilu, Yayasan Tananua Sumba FarmerLeader by l.V. Domingo.

Poffenberger, Mark. 1990. Keepers of the Forest: Land Management Alternatives in Southeast Asia. Ateneo de Manila University Press, Philippines.

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Siew Tuan Chew. 1989. Agroforestry Projects for Small Farmers: A Project Manager's Reference A ID Evaluation Special Study, 59. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Agency for International Development. 42p.

Singh, R.P. Farm Ponds. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, India.

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Soenarto. 1987. Wen Hipere, Suatu Sistem Budidaya Ubi Jalar (Ipomoea batatas (L) Lan.) di Lembah Baliem, Irian Jaya (Wen Hipere, A Farming System for Sweet Potatoes (Ipomaea batatas) in Baliem Valley, Irian Jaya. MS thesis, Faculty of Graduate Study, IPB Bogor, Indonesia.

Terra, G. J. A. 1953. The Distribution of Mixed Gardening in Java. Landbouw 25:163-223.

Tohir, K. A. 1951. Pedoman Bercocok Tanam. (Manual for Farming Practices). Dinas Balai Pustaka, Jakarta, Indonesia.

Undan, R.C. 1992. Small Farm Reservoir. Background paper presented during the Investment Forum sponsored by CLARRDEC and DOST m held at Bulwagang Kapampangan, San Fernando, Pampanga on July 23, 1992.

Valdez, J.A. 1991. Small-farm Reservoir and Service Area Sizing Based on Catchment Characteristics and Hydrology. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Central Luzon State University, Mu Nueva Ecija, Philippines.

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Vergara, Napoleon T. and Rodolfo A. Fernandez. 1989. Social Forestry in Asia—Factors that Influence Program Implementation. Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and Research in Agriculture (SEARCA).

Wodicka, Stefan. Planning Meeting for Local Tree Species Research in NTT. World Neighbors.

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References for each chapter

Introduction

Lai, C.K. and K.G. Tejwani. 1991. AsiaPacif c Agroforestry Profiles. APAN Document No. 1. AsiaPacific Agroforestry Network.

Melink, W., Y.S. Rao and K.G. MacDicken. (eds.) 1991. Agroforestry in Asia and the Pacific. RAPA. pp 182193 and 297-300.

Nair, P.K. (ed.). 1989. Agroforestry Systems in the Tropics. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 642-655.

Nair, P.K. 1993. An Introduction to Agroforestry. Kluwer Academic Publisher.

Overview of upland issues and approaches

ANGOC. Community Participation, NGO Involvement and Land Tenure Issues in the Philippine Reforestation Program: Assessment of the ADB - funded Contract Reforestation Program in the Philippines.

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ANGOC. 1984. Status Papers on NGO Involvement in Rural Development: A Perspective of Ten Countries in Asia.

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FAO. 1994. Farming Systems Development Approach to Helping Small-scale Farmers.

FAO. 1990. Farming Systems Development—Guidelines for the Conduct of a Training Course in Farming Systems Development.

FAO. 1989. Guidelines for Land Use Planning. Interdepartmental Working Group on Land Use Planning. FAO, Rome.

FAO. 1985. Report of the Expert Consultation on Farming Systems Development. 23-26 July, 1985.

Friedrich K.H. 1986. Farming Systems Development in Developing Countries. Paper presented at the Farming Systems Research and Extension Symposium held at Kansas, USA.

Haen H. and J. Dixon. April 1992. Systems Approach to Sustainable and Rural Development in Asian Uplands, Farm Management Notes for Asia and the Far East. No. 15.

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Ortolano, L. 1984. Environmental Planning and Decision-making. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Paris, Thelma. 1992. Integrating the Gender Variable in Farming Systems Research. RAPA Regional Expert Consultation Data Base for Women in Agriculture and Rural Development.

Poffenberger, M. (ed.). 1990. Keepers of the Forest: Land Management Alternatives in Southeast Asia. Kumarian Press, Connecticut.

Qwist-Hoffmann, H. 1994. Integrating Conservation into the Farming System—A Case Study from a Land Use Planning Process in Forest Village Settlement in Northern Thailand. M.Sc thesis. Department of Soil Science, the Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Denmark.

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Shaner, W.W., P.F. Philipp and W.R. Schmehl. 1982. Farming Systems Research and Development. Guidelines for Developing Countries. Westview Press.

Werner, Jurgen. 1993. Participatory Development of Agriculture Innovations: Procedures and Methods of On-farm Research. Typo-Druck-Robdorf: Federal Republic of Germany.

2 Integrated upland systems management and

3 Soil and water conservation approaches

An Important Role of Agroforestry in Land Use in Vietnam. 1987. Nairobi, Kenya.

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Dalmacio, R. 1991. Assisted Natural Regeneration and Accelerated Pioneer Climax Series Strategies: Emerging Ecological Approaches to Forestation. Book Series No. 121/1991: Improved Reforestation Technologies in the Philippines. PCARRD.

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FAO. 1989. Agroforestry Initiatives by Farmers in Thailand. RAPA.

Forest Research Newsletter. 1993. Vietnam—Sweden Forestry Cooperation Programme, No. 2.

Forestry College of Vietnam. 1992. National Seminar on Agroforestry in Midland/Upland Areas of Vietnam. Project GCP/RAS/131/ NET.

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F/FRED. Growing Multipurpose Trees On Small Farms.

FTPP. The Community's Toolbox: The Idea, Methods and Tools for Participatory Assessment, Monitoring and Evaluation in Community Forestry.

He Qingtang, Yantengtaizao. 1994. Paper Collection of Cooperative Research under China Loess Plateau Land improvement Technical Training Project. China Forestry Press.

Hensleigh, T.E. and B.K. Holaway (eds.) n.d. Agroforestry Species for the Philippines. Philippines. 404p.

ICRAF. A Tree for All Reasons-The Introduction and Evaluation of Multipurpose Trees for Agroforestry.

International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. 1992. Agroforestry Technology Information Kit. Silang, Cavite, Philippines.

Kartasubrata, J. 1980. Agroforestry Systems and Technologies in Indonesia. Proceedings of International Seminar on Agricultural Change and Development in Southeast Asia (ISACDESA), 20-23 November, 1989. Indonesia.

Le Trong Cue, Kathleen Gillogly and A.Terry Rambo. 1990. Agroecology System in Northern Midland. Vietnam Reports on Vietnamese. No. 12.

Li Lianchu. (Chief ed.). 1993. Multidimension Agricultural Patterns in China. Henan Science and Technology Publishing [louse, Zhengzhou, China.

Li Changzhe. 1991. Research on Afforestation Technology and Its Benefits of Water and Soil Conservation Forest in Taihang Mountain Region. China Science and Technology Press.

Liang Yiming, et al. 1992. Theory and Practice of Eco-agriculture of Soil Conservation in Rolling Loess Region. Soil and Water Conservation in China. 9:28-31.

MacDicken, K.G. and J.B. Raintree. 1991. An Overview of Multipurpose Tree Species. In D.A. Taylor and K.G. MacDicken (eds.) Research on Multipurpose Tree Species in Asia. Arlington, Virginia: Winrock International and the International Foundation for Science. pp. 5-18.

MaeDicken, K.G. and N.T. Vergara. 1990. Agroforestry: Classification and Management. John Wiley and Sons. New York.

Makarabhirom, P. 1991. Agroforestry Systems in Thailand. In Melink, W. Y. S. Rao and K.G. MacDicken: Agroforestry in Asia and Pacific. FAO-RAPA.

Michon, G., F. Mary and T. Bompard. 1986. Multistoried Agroforestry Garden in West Sumatra. Agroforestry Systems 4:315338. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk publishers, Dordrecht.

Milan, Paciencia Po, Josef Margraf and Friedhelm Goeltenboth. 1993. Ecology of the Philippines. VISCA-GTZ Ecology Program.

Millar, C.E., et al. 1958. Fundamentals of Soil Science. John Willey & Sons. New York, U.S.A.

Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center. 1992. Sloping Agricultural Land Technology (SALT). Philippines.

Modlenhauer, W.C., N.W. Hudson, T.C. Sheng and S. Lee. (eds.). 1991. Development of Conservation Farming on Hillslopes. Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny,Iowa, USA.

Nair, RK. (ed.) ]989. Agroforestry Systems in the Tropics. Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands. pp. 642-655.

Nair, P. K. 1987. Agroforestry Systems Inventory. Agroforestry Systems 5: 301-307. Marinus Nijhoff. The Netherlands.

Nair, P.K. 1984. Fruit Trees in Tropical Agroforestry Systems. Honolulu: East-West Center. pp. 57-68.

Nair, P.K. 1984. Soil Productivity Aspects of Agroforestry. Science and Practice of Agroforestry 1. Nairobi: ICRAF. 85pp.

National Academy of Sciences, 1974. More Water for Arid Lands: Promising Technologies and Research Opportunities.

NFTA. 1984. Training Workshop: Production and Management of Fast-growing Trees. Nitrogenfixing Tree Association, Paia, Hawaii, USA.

Nguyen Huu Hong. 1992. Farming Systems Research in the Uplands of North Vietnam. Proceedings of the Upland Ricebased Farming Systems Research Planning Meeting. 28 April - 1 May, 1992. Chiangmai, Thailand.

Nguyen Huu Hong. 1992. Upland Farming Systems Research in Trang xa Village, Vonhai District Bac that-Vietnam. Proceedings of the Upland Ricebased Farming Systems Research Planning meeting. 28 April- 1 May, 1992. Chiangmai, Thailand.

Ning Jiangus, et al. 1992. Crop Choice and Rotation System for Newly Built Terraced Land in Semi-arid Region. Soil and Water Conservation in China 2:4345.

Nitis, 1. M. 1989. The Three-strata System May Increase the Productivity of Dryland Farming in Bali. Paper at Workshop on Fodder Production, IPB - Australia Project, Bogor, Indonesia. 19-22 January, 1989.

Norman, David and Malcolm Doughas. 1994. Farming Systems Development and Soil Conservation. FAO.

PCARRD. 1993. Manual on Small-farm Reservoir. Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development.

PCARRD. 1977. The Philippine Recommends for Soil Conservation.

PURC. 1990. Soil Erosion Control Measures for the Uplands. Philippine Uplands Resource Center. De La Salle UniversityResearch Center. Manila, Philippines.

So, Nguyen Van and Nguyen Dinh Phuc. 1989. Report on the Development of Different Plantation Techniques in Ma Da State Forestry Enterprise. Unpublished paper.

Soemarwoto, O. and 1. Soemarwoto. 1981. Homegardens in Indonesia. Paper for the Fourth Pacific Science International Congress, Singapore, September 1-5, 1981. University of Pajajaran, Bandung.

Tejwani, K.G. and C. K. Lai. 1992. AsiaPacific Agroforestry Profiles. FAOAPAN Field Document No. 1.

Tholen, P.M. 1992. Recommendations for Soil and Water Conservation. Technical Support for World Food Programme Transmigration Development Project. FAO INS/89/ 004. Jakarta. Unpublished.

Torquebiau, E. 1984. Man-made Dipterocarp Forest in Sumatra. Agroforestry System 2: 103-127. Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers, Dordrecht.

UPLB Agroforestry Program and Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc. 1994. Soil and Water Conservation Management. Philippines.

Vo Tong Xuan. Draft Project Proposal for Vietnam Farming Systems R and D Network. Dr. Agr., University of Can tho, Hau giang, Vietnam.

Vo Tong Xuan. Upland Farming Systems Development in Vietnam. Dr. Agr., University of Can Tho, Hau giang, Vietnam.

Wiber, Fred and Carol Stoney. 1989. Understanding Agroforestry Techniques. VITA. 15p.

Widagda, L. C., O. Abdoellah, G. Marten and J. Iskandar. 1984. Traditional Agroforestry in West Java: The Pekarangan (Homegardens) and Kebun-talun (Perennial-Annual Rotation) Cropping Systems. EAP-East-West Center, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.

Wood, A. and G. S. Humphreys. 1982. Traditional Soil Conservation in Papua New Guinea. In Traditional Conservation in Papua New Guinea: Implications for Today. Monograph 16. Institute of Applied Social and Economic Research, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

Wu Jianjun. 1992. Ecological Agriculture is Economically Logical. Far Eastern Agriculture. March/April: 7-9.

Young, A. 1989. Agroforestry for Soil Conservation. Science and Practice of Agroforestry 4, ICRAF, C.A.B. International, Wallingford, United Kingdom.

4 Diagnostic methods and tools

Ashby, Jacqueline A. 1990. Evaluating Technology with Farmers: A Handbook. CIAT. Cali, Colombia. pp. 95.

Brokensha, David, D.M. Warreb and Oswald Werner. 1980. Indigenous Knowledge Systems and Development. University Press of America.

Budd, W.W., I. Duchbart, 1. Hardesty and E Stenier. (eds.) 1990. Planning for Agroforestry, Developments in Landscape Management and Urban Planning. 6C. ISOMUL, ELSEVIER, Amsterdam.

Castillo, Gelia T. 1993. Where Food and Population Meet: The Filipino Household Among Other Households. UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies, Philippines.

Chambers, R. 1992. Participatory Rural Appraisals: Past, Present and Future. Forest, Trees and People Newsletter, No. 15116 Feb. 1992. FAO, Rome and the International Rural Development Centre (IRDC). Uppsala, Sweden. p. 4-8.

Chambers, R. 1992. Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory Discussion Paper 311. Institute of Development Studies, United Kingdom.

Chambers. R., A. Pacey and L. Thrupp. (eds.). 1989. Farmer First. Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research. Intermediate Technology Publications, UK.

Conway G.R., J.A. McCracken and J.N. Pretty. 1987. Training Notes for Agroecosystems Analysis and Rapid Rural Appraisal. IIED, London.

Dent, F.J. 1978. Data Requirements for Land Use Planning with Emphasis on Equipment for Land Evaluation Studies. In Seminar on Forest Resource Appraisal in Forestry and Land Use Planning. New Delhi, India. pp. 1-55.

FAO. 1989. Guidelines for Land Use Planning. Interdepartmental Working Group on Land Use Planning. FAO, Rome.

FAO. 1991. Land Use Planning Applications. Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation, Rome 1014 December, 1990. World Soil Resources Report 68. Interdepartmental Working group on Land Use Planning. FAO, Rome.

Farrington, J. and A. Martin. 1988. Farmer Participation in Agricultural Research: A Review of Concepts and Practices. Agricultural Administration Unit, Occasional Paper 9. Overseas Development Institute, London.

Fujisaka, S., E. Jayson and A. Dapsula. 1993. Recommendations Domain and a Farmers' Upland Rice Technology. Indigenous Knowledge and Development Monitor 1(3): 8-10

Grandstaff, T. 1987. Proceedings of the 1985 International Conference on Rapid Rural Appraisal. Khon Kaen University, Thailand.

Hock, A.J. van den. 1992. Planning as a Learning Process—A Strategy for Planning Land Use Programmes at Local Level with Special Reference to the Uplands of Java. Van den Hoek, Oosterbeek, the Netherlands.

IRRI. Training Resource Book for Farming Systems Diagnosis.

Jiggins, J. and H. de Zeeuw. Participatory Technology Development in Practice: Process and Methods. pp. 135162.

Lai, C.K. 1993. Overview of Participatory Methods and Techniques for Agroforestry Training and Research. Paper presented at the Regional Training Workshop for Technical and Extension Level Agroforestry Trainers in Asia-Pacific, 14-27 November 1993. Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Mathias, Evelyn. 1994. Indigenous Knowledge and Sustainable Development. IIRR Working Paper No. 53. International Institute of Rural Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite, Philippines.

McCorkle, Constance M. 1989. Toward a Knowledge of a Local Knowledge and I's Importance for Agricultural R&D. Agriculture and Human Values 6(3):4-12.

Molnar, A. 1989. Community Forestry: Rapid Appraisal. Community Forestry Note 3. FAO, Rome.

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Paris, Thelma. 1992. Integrating the Gender Variable in Farming Systems Research. RAPE Regional Expert Consultation Data Base for Women in Agriculture and Rural Development.

Philippine National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women and the National Economic and Development Authority. 1993. Guidelines for Developing and Implementing Gender-responsive Projects and Programs.

Raintree, J.B. 1987. D & D User's Manual—An Introduction to Agroforestry Diagnosis and Design. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya.

Stephens, Alexandra and Kees Putman. 1990. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation: A Handbook for Training Field Workers. Bangkok. FAO-RAPA. pp 49.

Tan-Kim-Yong, U. (unpublished). A Diversity-sensitive Method: Situation-specific Analysis (SSA). Lecture notes for training course. (personal communication)

Tangtham, N. 1990 Environmental Land Use Planning: A Special Reference to Land Use Planning for Erosion/Sedimentation and Flash Flood Hazard Prevention. Paper prepared for Training Course on Control of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation and Flash Flood Hazard at Agricultural Development Research Center in Northeast, Khon Kaen Thailand. 19 June - 6 July, 1 990.

Theis, J. and H. Grady. 1991. Participatory Rapid Appraisal for Community Development: A Training Manual Based on Experiences in the Middle East and North Africa. LED, Save the Children Federation.

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UPLB Agroforestsy Program and Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc. 1994. Agroforestry Project Planning and Management. Philippines.

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5 Extension and linkage strategies

ETC. 1991. Learning for Peoplecentered Technology Development: A Training Guide.

ETC. 1993. Food and Agricultural Marketing Extension: Concept, Approaches and Methods AFMA General Assembly Meeting, Beijing, P.R. China.

Article by I.V. Domingo and is largely based on the following materials: Trip Report to a Farmer Quarterly Meeting in Sumba by Stefan Wodicka (16-06-94) and Farmer-to-Farmer Extension: Some Experiences of Yayasan Tananua by Patris da Gomez and Ilya Moeliono.

Ban, A.W. Van Den and H.S. Hawkins. 1988. Agricultural Extension. Longman Scientific and Technical and John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York, U.S.A. p.9.

Baguinon, Nestor. 1989. Neglected Species with Potential for Agroforestry. In Agroforestry Technology Information Kit. Philippines.

Bochnert, Joachim. 1988. Agroforestry in Agricultural Education with a Focus on the Practical Implementation. Germany: Verlag Josef Margraf. 182p.

Bonifacio, M. 1994. Images of Agriculture: Problems, Issues and Trends in Technology Transfer.

Bunch, Roland. 1985. Two Ears of Corn: A Guide to People-centered Agricultural Improvement. 2nd ed. Oklahoma City: World Neighbors.

Chambers, Robert, A. Pacey and L.A. Thrupp. (eds.) 1989. Farmer First: Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research. ITP, London.

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Dixon J. and M. Boestrom. 1993. Farming Systems Approaches to Improving Agricultural Extension. Farrn Management Notes for Asia and the Far East. Regular Issue No. 17, December 1993.

Dyogo, A.P.Y. 1994. Indonesian Experiences of Sustainable Development: Working with the Participants of the Poor Population. Paper presented to International Meeting: Poverty and Environment Alternatives Against Destruction. POEMAUFPA. Belen Para Bonzil 5-10 June, 1994.

Djogo, A.P.Y. The Possibilities of Using Local Drought-resistant and Multipurpose Tree and Shrub Species for Agroforestry and Social Forestry in West Timor. Working Paper 32. EAP1. EastWest Center, Hawaii, U.S.A.

Djogo, A.P.Y., Y. Asa and V Nural. Promoting Agroforestry Techniques. Experiences with Participatory Development Process and Farmer-based Extension Strategies of NGO for Nusa Tenggara Tiung, Indonesia. Paper presented to Regional Expert Consultation on Farmer-toFarmer Adaptive Agroforestry Research. 4-10 October, 1992. Cebu City, Philippines.

Farrington, J. and A. Martin. 1988. Farmer Participation in Agricultural Research: A Review of Concepts and Practices. Agricultural Administration Unit. Occasional Paper 4. London: ODI.

Fisher, Larry. June 1992. Issues in Planning Natural Resource Management Interventions. World Neighbors. In Resource Book on Sustainable Agriculture for the Lowlands. SEASAN. Edited by Janet Durno, Ilya Moelyono, Ravadee Prasertcharoensuk.

Fisher, Lucy. Preserving Biodiversity in the Uplands of Sumba, Indonesia. Concept paper. World Neighbors.

French, J.H. and R.H. Gecolea. 1986. A Forester's Guide for Community Involvement in Upland Conservation with Special Reference to the Asia and Pacific Region. FAO, Rome, Italy.

Gorrez, David. 1992. Handbook on Rural-based Enterprise Development Training Modules and Their Applications. Philippine Council for Agriculture and Natural Resources Research and Development. Los Ba Laguna, Philippines. March, 1992.

Jiggins, J. and H. de Zeeuw. Participatory Technology Development in Practice: Process and Methods. pp. 135-162

Malik, W. 1994. Country Report on Strengthening the Agricultural Extension Systems for Sustainable Agriculture and Rural Development.

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Pretty, Jules N. and Rupert Howes. 1993. Sustainable Agriculture in Britain: Recent Achievements and blew Policy Challenges. IIED Research Series Volume 2, No. 1. London, United Kingdom.

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Raintree, John B. and Herminia A. Francisco. (eds). 1994. Marketing of Multipurpose Tree Products in Asia. Proceedings of an International Workshop held in Baguio City, Philippines. 6-9 December 1993. Thailand: Winrock International. 358 pp.

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International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. 1990. Resource Book on Sustainable Agriculture in the Uplands. Philippines.

Rhoades, R.E. and R.H. Booth. 1982. Farmer Back to Farmer: A Model for Generating Acceptable Agricultural Technology. Agricultural Administration. Vol 11, No. 4.

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Stephen, A. Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation. FAO Publication.

Stoney, Carol. 1992. Agroforestry Development in Nusa Tenggara.

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UPLB Agroforestry Program and Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc. 1994. Agroforestry Production and Postproduction Systems. Philippines .

Van den Ban, A.W. and H.S. Hawkins. 1988. Agricultural Extension. Longman Scientific and Technical. Longman House, London.

Werner, Jurgen. 1993. Participatory Development of Agriculture Innovations: Procedures and Methods of On-farm Research. Typo-DruckRobdorf Federal Republic of Germany.

World Neighbors. Small-scale Tree Planting. World Neighbors In Action. A Newsletter for Project Personnel.

6 Evaluation strategies

Ashby, Jacqueline A. 1990. Evaluating Technology with Farmers: A Handbook. CIAT. Cali, Colombia. pp. 95.

Asian Development Bank. 1978. Guidelines for Economic Analysis of Projects.

Cruz, Ma. C. J., A.J. Alcantara, W.D. Cruz, F.P. Lansigan, R.B. Mendoza and PK. Sajise. 1985. Philippine Upland Production Systems: An Integrative Analysis of Three Sites. IESAM, University of the Philippines at Los Ba College, Laguna, Philippines.

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Maligalig, Bienvenido and Carmelita Villamor. 1993. Sustainability Assessment of Livelihood Project. Paper presented during the CARP-ISF R&D Program Yearend Assessment and Planning Workshop. Patio Acerado, Barangay Pansol, Calamba, Laguna, Philippines. January 13-14, 1994.

Nijkamp, P. 1977. Theory and Application of Environmental Economics. Elsevier NorthHolland, Inc. 52, Vanderbuilt Avenue, New York, NY 110017, U.S.A.

Ortolano, L. 1984. Environmental Planning and Decision-making. John Wiley and Sons, New York, U.S.A.

Raab, R.T., B.E. Swanson, T.L. Wentling and C.D. Clark. 1987. A Trainer's Guide to Evaluation. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Via delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

Raintree, J.B. 1981. Bioeconomic Considerations in the Design of Agroforestry Intercropping Systems. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya.

Raintree, J.B. 1991. Socioeconomic Attributes of Tree Planting Practices. Community Forestry Note No. 9. I vest, Trees and People Programme. FAO, Rome, Italy.

RAPA. 1989111. Guidelines for Farming Systems Program.

Suler, Pretty and Rupert Hower. (eds). 1993. Sustainable Agriculture in Britain: Recent Achievement and New Policy Challenge. IIED Research Service. Vol. 2 No. 1. London, United Kingdom.