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close this bookResource Management for Upland Areas in Southeast Asia - An Information Kit (IIRR, 1995, 207 p.)
close this folder7. Appendices
View the documentGlossary terms
View the documentCommonly used species in agroforestry in Southeast Asia
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Glossary terms


acid soil A soil with a pH value < 7.0. Usually applied to surface layer or root zone, but may be used to characterize any horizon.

agrisilviculture A form of agroforestry consisting of tree (woody perennial) and crop components.

agroecosystem analysis Developed by Gordon Conway and Khon Kaen University researchers (Thailand) in the early 1980s. It is often used in the diagnostic or planning stage and utilizes tools for pattern analysis.

agroforestry The use of trees in farming systems (see Chapter 2).

agrosilvopasture A form of agroforestry consisting of tree (woody perennial), crop and pasture/animal components.

alkali soil A soil that contains sufficient alkali to interfere with the growth of most crop plants.

alley cropping/farming Growing annual crops between rows of trees or shrubs, often leguminous. Pruned material from these is used as mulch around annual crops and also as fodder and fuelwood.

alluvial soil A soil developing from recently deposited alluvium and exhibiting essentially no horizon development or modification of the recently deposited materials.

annual plant A plant that grows for only one season (or year) before dying, in contrast to a perennial, which grows for more than one season. apiculture Honeybee rearing.

arid climate Climate in regions that lack sufficient moisture for crop production without irrigation. In cool regions, annual precipitation is usually less than 25 cm. It may be as high as 50 cm in tropical regions. Natural vegetation is desert shrubs.


bench terrace An embankment constructed across sloping fields with a steep drop on the downslope side.

biennial plant A plant which completes its life cycle in two years. Plants of this type usually produce leaves and a welldeveloped root system the first year; stems, flowers and seeds the second year; and then die.

biomass The weight of material produced by a living organism or collection of organisms. The term is usually applied to plants to include the entire plant, or it may be qualified to include only certain parts of the plant, e.g., aboveground or leafy biomass. Biomass is expressed as fresh weight or dry weight. bole The main tree trunk.

browse The buds, shoots, leaves and flowers of woody plants are eaten by livestock or wild animals.

budding The practice of splicing a bud from one tree into the bark of another, usually to obtain highquality fruit on hardy, established trees.

bund A ridge of earth placed in a line to control water runoff and soil erosion, demarcate a plot boundary, or other uses.

bush A small woody plant (see shrub).


canopy The upper layer of trees in a forest or a complex of trees.

carbon/nitrogen ratio The ratio of the weight of organic carbon (C) to the weight of total nitrogen (N) in a soil or organic material.

cereal A grass that is grown primarily for its seed which is used for feed or food.

clump A close grouping of stems of trees, bushes, or grasses.

community forestry A form of social forestry, where tree planting is undertaken by a community on common or communal lands.

component species Individual species that are parts of mixed systems.

contour An imaginary line connecting points of equal elevation on the surface of the soil. A contour terrace is laid out on a slope at right angles to the direction of the slope and nearly level throughout its course. A contour ditch is sometimes constructed along the contour to store and conserve water.

coppicing Cutting certain tree species close to ground level to produce new shoots from the stump. Also occurs naturally in some species if the trees are damaged.

cover crop A close-growing crop grown primarily for the purpose of protecting and improving soil between periods of regular crop production or between trees and vines in orchards and plantations.

crop growth rate The gain in weight of a plant on a unit of area in a unit of time.

crop residue The portion of a plant or crop that is left in the field after harvest, e.g., rice straw.

cropping pattern The yearly sequence and spatial arrangement of crops or of crops and fallow on a given area.

cropping system The cropping patterns used on a farm and their interaction with farm resources, other farm enterprises and available technology which determine their makeup.

crown The canopy or top of a single tree or other woody plant.

cut-and-carry Fodder or other plant products which are harvested and carried to a different location to be used or consumed by livestock.

cutting A piece of a branch or root cut from a living plant with the objective of developing roots and growing a new plant, genetically identical to the original parent (a clone).


deciduous plant A plant that sheds all or most of its leaves every year at a certain season. The opposite of evergreen.

deforestation Disturbance, conversion, or wasteful destruction of forest lands.

denitrification The biochemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite to gaseous nitrogen, either as molecular nitrogen or as an oxide of nitrogen.

diagnosis and design Developed by ICRAF in the early 1980s as a methodology for the diagnosis of land management problems and the design of agroforestry solutions.

direct seeding Sowing seeds directly where they are to develop into mature plants.

discounting The process of determining the present worth of a future quantity of money.

drought The absence of precipitation for a period long enough to cause depletion of soil moisture and damage to plants.

drought tolerance The capacity of plants to survive drought; specifically adaptations that enhance their power to withstand drought-induced stress.


ecosystem All the plants and animals in a given area and their physical environment, including the interactions among them.

erosion (1) The wearing away of the land surface by running water, wind, ice, or other geological agents, including such processes as gravitational creep. (2) Detachment and movement of soil or rock by water, wind, ice, or gravity. The following terms are used to describe different types of water erosion:

accelerated erosion Erosion much more rapid than normal, natural, geological erosion; primarily as a result of the activities of humans or, in some cases, of animals.

gully erosion The removal of soil by water concentrated in deep, narrow channels.

natural erosion Wearing away of the earth's surface by water, ice, or other natural agents under natural environmental conditions of climate, vegetation and so on, undisturbed by humans.

rill erosion An erosion process in which numerous small channels of only several centimeters in depth are formed; occurs mainly on recently cultivated soils.

sheet erosion The removal of a fairly uniform layer of soil from the land surface by runoff water.

splash erosion The spattering of small soil and particles caused by the impact of raindrops on soils. The loosened and separate particles may or may not be subsequently removed by surface runoff.

evaporation Loss of moisture from surfaces other than plants.

evapotranspiration The combined loss of water from a given area and, during a specified period of time, by evaporation from the soil surface and by transpiration from plants.

evergreen Plants which retain their leaves and remain green throughout the year. Opposite of deciduous.

exotic A plant or animal species which has been introduced outside its natural range. Opposite of indigenous.

extensive Land use or management spread over a large area where land is plentiful (at least for those who control it). Opposite of intensive.


fallow Land resting from cropping, which may be grazed or left unused, often colonized by natural vegetation.

family A taxonomic category between order and genus. Plants or animals in the same family share some common characteristics.

farm-based agroforestry Agroforestry approach in which trees are incorporated into a farm ecosystem.

farm enterprise An individual crop or animal production function within a farming system.

farm forestry Tree planting on farms.

farming system All the elements of a farm which interact as a system, including people, crops, livestock, other vegetation, wildlife, the environment and the social, economic and ecological interactions between them.

farming systems research An applied problem-solving approach conducted by multi-disciplinary teams, with a degree of farmer participation. Evolved from cropping system research.

fertilizer Any organic or inorganic material which is added to the soil to supply one or more plant nutrients.

fodder Parts of plants which are eaten by domestic animals. These may include leaves, stems, fruit, pods, flowers, pollen, or nectar.

foliage The mass of leaves of plants, usually used for trees or bushes.

forage Vegetative material in a fresh, dried, or ensiled state which is fed to livestock (hay, pasture, silage).

forest-based agroforestry Agroforestry approach in which annual or perennial crops are incorporated into a natural forest ecosystem.


genetic resources Plant and animal stock with distinct inheritable characteristics of potential use within an agroecosystem.

genus A taxonomic category between family and species. A genus consists of one or more closely related species and, in plants, is defined largely in terms of the characteristics of the flower and/or fruit.

grafting The practice of propagating plants by taking a small shoot from one and attaching it to another so that the cambium layers from both are in contact and the transferred shoot grows as part of the main plant. This is normally used to obtain high-quality seedlings from hardy, well-established plants (rootstock).

green manure Green, leafy material applied to the soil to improve its fertility.

groundcover Living or nonliving material which covers the soil surface.

groundwater Water which is underground. It may be pumped to the surface or reached by plant roots or wells or may feed into bodies of surface water.

gully A deep, narrow channel cut into the soil by erosion. gully erosion (see erosion)


hedgerow or hedge A closely planted line of shrubs or small trees, often forming a boundary or fence.

herbaceous A plant that is not woody and does not persist above ground beyond one season.

herbivore An animal that feeds only on plants.

homegarden Traditional cropping practice around the house, usually includes fruit and fuel wood trees, vegetables, root crops, poultry and smaller livestock and sometimes a fishpond.

humid A climate in which rainfall exceeds potential evaporation during at least 9 months a year and usually more than 1500 mm annual rainfall.


indigenous Native to a specific area; not introduced. Opposite of exotic.

indigenous knowledge Local knowledge that is unique to a given culture or society.

infiltration The downward movement of water into the soil.

infiltration rate The maximum rate at which water can enter a soil under specified conditions, including the presence of an excess of water.

in-row tillage The agronomic practice of continuous cultivation of crops in a narrow band of soil (or row).

intensive Land use or management concentrated in a small area of land. Opposite of extensive.

intercropping Growing two or more crops in the same field at the same time in a mixture.

interface The area where there is a positive or negative relationship between two entities, such as between a row of trees and a row of crops.

internal rate of return (IRR) The maximum rate of interest that a project can repay on loans while still recovering all investment and opportunity costs, or, the earning power of money invested in a particular venture.


land equivalent ratio (LER) The ratio of the area needed under monoculture to a unit area of intercropping to give an equal amount of yield.

landscape An area of land, usually between 10 and 100 square kilometers, including vegetation, built structures and natural features, seen from a particular viewpoint.

Iand-use-map sketching A method used in extension work, where farmers make sketches of their existing land and how they want to change the land.

Iand-use system The way in which land is used by a particular group of people with a specified area.

leaching The removal of soluble materials from the upper soil layer by water moving vertically down.

legume Any plant species from the family Leguminoseae (e.g., beans, peas), many of which have the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen via bacteria in or on their roots.

litter The uppermost layer of organic material on the soil surface, including leaves, twigs, and flowers freshly fallen or slightly decomposed.

lopping Cutting one or more branches of a standing tree or shrub.


manuring Application of animal dung, compost or other organic material used to fertilize the soil.

microcatchment A small earthwork used to catch and direct rainfall to a crop or to livestock.

microclimate The temperature, sunlight, humidity and other climatic conditions in a small localized area (e.g., in a field or stand of trees).

mineralization The conversion of an element from an organic form to an inorganic state as a result of microbial decomposition.

mixed farming Cropping systems which involve the raising of crops, animals and/or trees.

mixed intercropping Growing two or more crops simultaneously with no distinct row arrangement.

monoculture The repetitive growing of the same, single crop on the same land.

mulch Plant or non-living materials used to cover the soil surface with the object of protecting the soil from the impact of rainfall, controlling weeds or moisture loss and, in some cases, fertilizing the soil.

multiple cropping Growing two or more crops in the same field in one year at the same time or one after the other.

multipurpose tree species Woody perennials which are grown to provide more than one product or service.

multistoried (sometimes written as multistoreyed) Relating to a vertical arrangement of plants so that they form distinct layers, from the lower (usually herbaceous) layer to the uppermost tree canopy.


natural vegetation The vegetative cover that would exist in a given area without interference from humans.

net present value (NPV) An indicator of a project's long-term value as estimated at the time of implementation; it is calculated by summing all the annual net costs or benefits over the prescribed life span of a project, discounted at a preselected rate.

nitrogen fixation The biological conversion of elemental nitrogen (N2) to organic combinations or to forms readily utilized in biological processes.

nitrogen cycle The sequence of chemical and biological changes undergone by nitrogen as it moves from the atmosphere into water, soil and living organisms and, upon death of these organisms (plants and animals), is recycled through a part or all of the entire process.


opportunity cost The economic value of a true sacrifice incurred by the choice of a given action.

overstory (or overstorey) The highest layer of vegetation, often the tree canopy, which grows over lower shrub or plant layers.


participatory rural appraisal (PRA) A set of facilitative and participatory technologies developed in the late 1980's by researchers and NGOs, to build upon local people's capabilities and to empower local people in the process.

pasture A portion of land covered with grasses or grasslegume mixtures suitable for grazing.

perennial plant A plant that grows for more than one year, in contrast to an annual, which grows for only one year (or season) before dying.

pH The negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion activity (concentration) of a soil. A pH of 7 is neutral; a pH of less than 7 is acidic, one higher than 7 is alkaline.

pollarding Cutting back the crown of a tree in order to harvest wood and browse to produce regrowth beyond the reach of animals and/or to reduce the shade cast by the crown.

productivity, soil The capacity of a soil for producing a specified plant or sequence of plants under a specified system of management. Productivity emphasizes the capacity of soil to produce plant products and should be expressed in terms of yields.

pruning Cutting back plant growth, including side branches or roots.


rapid rural appraisal (RRA) A set of techniques developed in the early 1980s by researchers at universities and international centers to improve data gathering in natural resource management programs.

reforestation Replanting of a forest which has been chopped down or destroyed by fire. regeneration Regrowth

relative humidity The ratio expressed as percent between the quantity of water vapor present and the maximum possible at given temperature and barometric pressure.

relay cropping Growing two or more crops with their growing seasons overlapping, e.g., the second crop is planted before the first crop is harvested.

rhizobia Bacteria capable of living symbiotically with higher plants, usually in nodules on the roots of legumes, from which they receive their energy and capable of converting atmospheric nitrogen to combined organic forms.

ridging Making long parallel raised strips of earth usually on the contours, into which seeds are sown.

root sucker A shoot arising from the root of a plant.

rotation In agriculture, changing the crops grown on a particular piece of land (or crops and fallow) from season to season. In forestry, the length of time between establishment and harvesting of a plantation or tree.

runoff The portion of the precipitation on an area that is discharged from the area through stream channels. That which is lost without entering the soil is stream is "surface runoff' and that which enters the soil before reaching the stream is called "groundwater runoff' or "seepage flow" from ground water.


sapling A young tree, no longer a seedling but not yet a pole, a few meters high and about 2.5 cm in diameter at breast height.

seedling A young stage of a plant grown from a seed.

selective cutting Harvesting specific tree species or individuals in a forest and leaving the rest untouched.

semiarid Term applied to regions or climates where moisture is more plentiful than in arid regions but still definitely limits the growth of most crop plants. Natural vegetation in uncultivated areas is short grasses, shrubs and small trees.

sequential cropping Growing two or more crops in sequence on the same field per year. The succeeding crop is planted after the preceding crop has been harvested.

shifting cultivation A form of agriculture in which soil fertility is maintained by rotating fields rather than crops. New plots are usually cleared by "slash and burn" and cropped until soil exhaustion. The land is then left to regenerate naturally while cultivation is done elsewhere.

shrub A woody plant that remains less than 10 meters tall and produces shoots or stems from its base (see bush).

silvopastoral system A form of agroforestry system consisting of trees (woody perennials) and pasture/animal components.

situation-specific analysis An appraisal/diagnostic method developed by Chiangmai University in northern Thailand to examine interactions between local resource management system and dynamics of the system under a specific environment.

slope The incline or angle of the land surface, which can be measured as a percent or ratio or in degrees or grades.

small farm (small holding, farm household, small farmer) A farm that is at the same time a home and a business enterprise so that farm-management decisions are made, based on household needs as well as business interests.

social forestry The practice of using trees and/or tree planting specifically to pursue social objectives, usually betterment of the poor, through delivery of the benefits to the local people.

soil conservation A combination of all management and land-use methods that safeguard the soil against depletion or deterioration caused by nature and/or humans.

soil organic matter The organic fraction of the soil that includes plant and animal residues at various stages of decomposition, cells and tissues of soil organisms and substances synthesized by soil organisms.

sole cropping One crop variety grown alone in pure stand at normal density. Opposite of intercropping/mixed cropping.

species A taxonomic category below genus. A very closely related group of individual organisms which forms the basic unit for naming and classification according to distinguishable genetic characteristics.

staggered (planting, harvesting) Referring to activities carried out at different times or locations, instead of synchronized to occur at the same time or place.

stover The mature, cured stalks of maize or sorghum from which the grain has been removed.

stress Any factor that disturbs the normal functioning of an organism.

strip cropping Planting of alternate strips of grasses, or grains with other crops on contours in order to conserve moisture and decrease erosion.

subhumid In the tropics, a climate with average annual rainfall of 900-1500 mm.

succession An orderly process of change in a community (of plants, animals) that results from modification of the environment by organisms and culminates in a system attaining steady state, or climax.

sucker A side shoot from the roots of a plant; a side growth arising from an axillary bud.


taungya The intercropping of agricultural crops during the first years of forest plantation establishment.

tenure The right to property, granted by custom or law, which may include land, trees and other plants, animals and water.

terraces Soil and water conservation structures established on sloping lands to reduce the runoff of soil and water down the slope.

thinning An intermediate cutting aimed primarily at controlling the growth of a tree stand by adjusting stand density.

tiller An erect or semi-erect, secondary stem in grass species (such as rice).

topography The physical description of land; changes in elevation due to hills, valleys and other features.

transect walk A systematic walk with (small) farmer groups on their land to identify land uses and problems and to discuss potential improvements.

transpiration The loss of moisture from plants in the form of water vapor.


understory The lower layer of vegetation, often grasses, shrubs or crops that grow under taller vegetation.


viability The capability of living and developing in a given environment or, in the case of a technology, of being practiced in the long term.


water harvesting Collection and storage in a tank or in the soil of water (either runoff or streamflow) for securing water availability for crop growth, or animal and human consumption.

woody Plants which consist in part of wood; not herbaceous.


zero-grazing Livestock production systems in which the animals are fed in pens or other confined areas and are not permitted to graze.


Delorit, R.J., L.J. Greub, and H.L Ahlgren. (eds.) 1974. Crop production. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA.

Gardner, F.P., R.B. Pearce, and R.L Mitchell. 1985. Physiology of crop plants. Iowa State University Press, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Smith, D.M. (ed.) 1986. The practice of silviculture. 8th edition. John Wiley, New York, USA.

Soil Science Society of America. 1987. Glossary of soil science terms. Soil Sci. Soc. Am., Madison, WI, USA.

Soule, J. (ed.) 1985. Glossary of horticulture crops. John Wiley, New York, USA.

Wilson, T.C. 1978. Researcher's guide to statistics: Glossary and decision map. Univ. Press of America, Washington, D.C, USA.

Commonly used species in agroforestry in Southeast Asia

(China, Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam)








Forest trees

Acacia auriculiformis




Japanese acacia

Kruthin Napong

Keo la tram

Acacia mangium





Krathin Tepa

Keo tai tuong

Bambusa spp.







Calamus spp.







Canarium spp.







Cassia siamea

Thailand shower



Thailand shower

Kae lek

Muong xiem

Casuarina equisetifolia

Australian pine




Son Tale

Phi lao

Cinnamomum cassia







Dendrocalamus spp.






Tre. Iuong

Desmodium rezonii

Desmodium -





Dipterocarpus alatus






Dau rai

Erythrina spp.





Thong fang


Eucalyptus spp.




Red gum


Bach den

Flemingia congesta







Gliricidia septum




Madre de de cacao


Do mai

Hevea brasiliensis





Yangpara Takien

Cao su Sao

Indigofera teysmanii






Dau cham

Leucaena leucocephala






Keo dau

Mangletia glauca







Melia azedirachta

Neem tree






Pinus spp.







Pterocarpus spp.






Giang huong

Samanea saman







Sesbania grandiflora





Kae ban

So dua

Styrax tonkinensis






Bo de

Tectona grandis







Fruit trees

Anacardium occidentale



Jambu monyet


Mumuong Himmapan


Annona muricata

Custard apple


Buah none



Mang cau/ na ta

Artocarpus heterophyllus







Carica papaya






Du du

Citrus spp.






Cam,chanh quat

Citrus reticulate







Cocos nucifera






Coffea spp.







Dimocarpus longan







Diospyros kaki

Oriental persimmon






Durio zibethinus







Lansium domesticum






Bon bon

Litchi sinensis







Mangifera indica







Nephelium lappaceum






Chom chom

Persea americana







Psidium guajava







Theobroma cacao








Allium cepa



Bawang merah




Allium sativum



Bawang putih




Annonas conosus







Arachis hypogaea



Kacang tanah



Dau phong

Brassica oleracea






Bap cai


Cabbage oleracea





Bap su

Brassica pekinensis

Chinese cabbage






Cucumis sativus






Dua leo/ chust

Curcurbita spp.







Daucus carota






Ca rot

Glycine max






Dau nanh

Hibiscus esculentus






Dau bap

Lycopersicon esculenthum






Ca chua

Oryza sativa







Piper nigrum













Ca tim


Vigna radiate



Kacang hijau Munggo


Dau xanh

Zea mays







Root crops

Colocasia spp.







Ipomea batatas

Sweet potato





Khoai fang

Manihot esculenta




Kamoteng kahoy


Solanum tuberosum






Khoai tay

Zingiber officinale





























































Heo, lon







Resource institutions



Program focus


Agro-ecology Institute Zhejiang Agricultural University Hangzhou, 310029, Zhejiang Province, China

farming systems, agroecology

research and development, education

Institute of Forestry Research China Academy of Forestry Beijing, China

forestry and agroforestry

basic and applied research, demonstration, networking (APAN national focal point)

Institute of Scientific and Technical Information Chinese Academy of Forestry Beijing, China.

forestry, social forestry

information generation and dissemination

Institute of Soil Science Academia Sinica Nanjing, China

soil conservation, agroforestry

agroforestry networking project

Institute of Sub-tropical Forestry Research Chinese Academy of Forestry Hangzhou, China

sub-tropical forest, bamboo-based farm forestry

research, experiment station, documentation

Institute of Tropical Forestry Research Chinese Academy of Forestry Guangzhou, China

tropical forestry and agroforestry

research, experiment station, outreach

International Farm Forestry Training Center China Academy of Forestry Beijing, China

farm forestry, agroforestry



Agricultural Polytechnic-Kupang Jl. Adisucipto, Pentui P. O. Box 1111

dryland farming and agroforestry systems, indigenous

research and development, education and training

Kupang 8501 1, Nusa Tenggara Timur Indonesia

knowledge, agroecosystems, multipurpose tree species

Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (FAO-APAN) Jl. Gunung Batu 5 P. O. Box 481 Bogor 16004, Indonesia

agroforestry systems, human resource development

networking, training, information services, field demonstration

Asia Soil Conservation Network (ASOCON) Manggala Wanabakti Blok IV Lt. S. Jl. Gatot Subroto or P. O. Box 133 JKWB Jakarta 10270, Indonesia

soil conservation


Badan Pendidikan den Latihan Pertanian(Agency for Agricultural Education and Training) Jl. Harsono No. 3, Pasarminggu Jakarta 12560, Indonesia

farming system, nature conservation, human resources development

networking, training and extension education, monitoring and evaluation methods

Balai Metodologi Informasi Pertanian(Agricultural Information Methodology Center) P. O. Box 252, Ciawi, Bogor, Indonesia

farming systems, people-based approach

instructional media training development, information services

Bogor Agricultural University Jl. Raya Pajajaran Bogor, Indonesia

forestry, farming systems, food technology

research and development, education and training

Forest and Nature Conservation Research and Development Center Jl. Gunung Batu 5 Bogor, Indonesia

agroforestry systems, nature conservation

research and development, training and extension, (APAN national focal point)

ICRAF Southeast Asia Programme Jl. Gunung Batu 5, Bogor, Indonesia


research and development

Kelompok Kerja Konservasi(Working Group for Conservation) c/o LP3ES, Jl. Mergapati 10 Mataram, Lombok, Indonesia

agroforestry, nature conservation

networking, information services

Nusa Tenggara Upland Development Consortium c/o World Neighbors Southeast Asia P. O. Box 71, Ubud 85071, Bali, Indonesia

agroforestry, nature conservation, gender, participatory approach

networking, information services

Perum Perhutani Gd. Manggala Wanabhakti Blok IV Lt 4 Jl. Gatot Subroto, Senayan Jakarta, Indonesia

agroforestry, non- wood forest product, nature conservation

research and development, training extension

PROSEA Network Office c/o Research and Development Center for Biology, LIPI Jl. Ir. H. Juanda 22 P. O. Box 234 Bogor 16122, West Java, Indonesia

fanning systems, indigenous and exogenous knowledge

research and development, networking, information services on plant resources, handbook, data bank

World Neighbors Southeast Asia Office P. O. Box 71, Ubud 85071, Bali, Indonesia

people-based approach, upland development program

networking, media development, information services

World Neighbors Southeast Asia Media Support Program Studio Driya Media, Jl. Makmur No. 16 Bandung 40161, West Java, Indonesia

people-based approach, upland development program

networking,media development, information services

Yayasan Bina Swadaya Jl. Gunung Sahari III/7, Jakarta Pusat, Indonesia

agroforestry, social forestry


Papua New Guinea

Bubia Research Station LAE, Morobe Province Papua New Guinea

farming systems

research, information services

Highlands Agricultural Experimentation Station, Aiyuva P. O. Box 384 Kainantu, EHP Papua New Guinea

agroforestry/farming systems

research, information services

Land Utilization Section Department of Agriculture and Livestock P. O. Box 1863 Baroko, Papua New Guinea

land suitability assessment, soil survey, agroclimatology, agroecological zoning, land use planning

planning, coordination, information services

Subsistence Agricultural Improvement Project Department of Morobe LAE, Morobe Province Papua New Guinea


training and extension

Wan Ecology Institute Private Bag LAE Morobe Province Papua New Guinea

indigenous knowledge, agriculture, land use, wildlife ecology

research, information services


Bureau of Agriculture Research Department of Agriculture Visayas Avenue, Diliman Quezon City, Philippines

farming systems

research and development, networking

Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau Department of Environment and Natural Resources College, Laguna 4031, Philippines

natural resources technology generation, ecosystems

research and development

International Institute of Rural Reconstruction Y.C. James Yen Center Silang, Cavite 4118 Philippines

integrated community-based rural development, environment, natural resources, agriculture, rural enterprise building

integrated approach, research, networking, media development, training and extension, information services

International Rice Research Institute Los Ba Laguna Philippines

farming systems, crop management, post- harvesting technology

research and development

Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc. 427 Durian St., Juan Subdivision Matina 8000, Davao City Philippines

agroforestry, gender, human resource, land tenure

people-centered development program, networking, training, extension

Mag-Uugmad Foundation, Inc. 39-2 Pelaez St. 6000 Cebu City PhiIippines

soil and water conservation, farming systems, farmer- centered development

people-centered development, networking, training, extension, media development, research

Mariano Marcos State University Institute of Sustainable Dryland Agriculture College of Agriculture and Forestry Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines

dryland agriculture, farming systems

research and development

Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center Kinuskusan, Bansalan Davao del Sur, Philippines

upland technology development, farming systems

training, extension, media development, research and development

Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources and Development Los Ba Laguna Philippines

forestry, agriculture, farming systems

research, technology generation, verification dissemination and development

Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement P. O. Box 10479 Broadway Centrum, Quezon City, Philippines

natural resources management

advocacy, research, information services

Southeast Asia Regional Center for Research in Agriculture Los Ba Laguna, Philippines


research and development, training

University of the Philippines at Los BaCollege, Los BaLaguna, Philippines

agronomy, human ecology, forestry, biological science, natural resources, rural development

research and development

- College of Forestry

- Institute of Biological Science

- Department of Agronomy

- College of Human Ecology


AgricuIture Department Paholyothin Road, Chajutak Bangkok 10900, Thailand

sustainable agriculture

research and development

CARE Thailand18 A Sub Soi, Aree 4 North Paholyothin 7, Bangkok 10400 Thailand

natural resource management, watershed management, community development


Faculty of Agriculture Chiangmai University Chiangmai, Thailand

natural resource conservation

research and development, training

Faculty of Forestry Khon Kaen University Khon Kaen, Thailand

nature conservation, human resource development

research and development, training

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific Maliwan Mansion39 Phra Atit Road Bangkok 10200, Thailand

rural development, food security, agroforestry, farm management, marketing, women in development, soil and water conservation

development assistance through expert consultation, training, networking, information services

Farming Systems Research and Development Office of Agricultural Economics Paholyothin Road, Chatujak 10900 Bangkok, Thailand

farm-based approach

research and development, training

Hill Areas Development Foundation P. O. Box 1 I Mae Chan District Chiangrai 57110, Thailand

natural resource management, community development, soil and water conservation

education, extension

Kasetsart University Chajutak, Bangkok 10903 Thailand

nature conservation, human resource development

research and development, training

- Faculty of Agriculture

- Faculty of Forestry

Multipurpose Tree Species Network for Asia P. O. Box 1038 Kasetsart Office Bangkok 10903, Thailand

farm forestry, integrated agricultural systems

research and development

Office of Community Forestry Royal Forest Department Paholyothin Road, Bangkhen Bangkok 10900, Thailand

agroforestry, social forestry

planning and development, training(APAN national focal point)

Population Development Association Sukhumvit Soi 12 Bangkok, Thailand

people-based approach

research and development

Regional Community Forestry Training Center c/o Faculty of Forestry Kasetsart University P. O. Box 1111 Bangkok 10903, Thailand

social forestry

training, Information services, networking

Royal Forest Management Chatujak, Bangkok Thai land

natural forest management and conservation

planning and development

- Natural Forest Land Use Management Division

- Silviculture Division

- Watershed Conservation Division

Save the Children P. O. Box 49 Nakhon Sawan 60000, Thailand

farm forestry, community forestry

development, networking, training

Sustainable Agriculture Extension Division Agriculture Extension Department Paholyothin Road, Bangkok Thailand

agroforestry and farming systems


Thai-German Highland Development Program P. O. Box 67 Chiangmai 50000, Thailand

farming and agroforestry systems, watershed, natural resource management, land use, community based

research and development


Agriculture Research Institute No. 1, 1 16 Nguyen Binh Chieu Street District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam


research and extension

CARE International in Vietnam130 A, Thung Khue Hanoi, Vietnam

community forestry, upland farming system, community development

training and extension

Center for Natural Resources Management and Natural Environmental Studies15 B Trieu Viet Vuong Hanoi, Vietnam

natural/agricultural/ rural resources, agroforestry, biodiversity

management and development (upland area)

Center for Soil and Fertilizer Research and Techno-Transfer(ISF/MAFI), 37 Ben Chuong Duong District 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

soil fertility

research and extension

College of Agriculture and Agroforestry Thuduc, Ho Chi Minh City65/5 a Nguyen Trong, Tuyen Street Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

agriculture, forestry

development and extension

Forest Science Institute Chem-Tu, Liem Hanoi, Vietnam


research (APAN national local point)

Forestry College Xuan Mai, Hatay Province Vietnam

silviculture, social forestry, wood processing

research and development, training, networking

Hanoi Agricultural University Gia Lam, Hanoi Vietnam

agriculture, agro- ecology, farming systems, food production

research and development

Langa Union of Forest Enterprise Ministry of Forestry Hanoi, Vietnam

dipterocarp forest

research and extension

Upland Farming Systems, R & D Center University of Agriculture No. 3 Bacthai Province, Vietnam

upland farming and agroforestry systems, soil and water

research and development, training and extension conservation

Participants and workshop staff


Ms. Kwanchewan Buadeng (Thailand)
Dr. Lope A. Calanog (Philippines)
Dr. Roberto V. Dalmacio (Philippines)
Alma Monica A. dela Paz (Philippines)
Dr. Narciso R. Deomampo (Thailand)
John Dixon (Thailand)
Antonius P.Y. Djogo (Indonesia)
Ines Vivian D. Domingo (Indonesia)
Patrick B. Durst (Thailand)
Riri Fithriadi (Indonesia)
Dr. James H. French (Indonesia)
Dr. Sunarya Hadiwisastra (Indonesia)
Helle Qwist-Hoffman (Thailand)
Peter Qwist-Hoffman (Thailand)
Nguyen Huu Hong (Vietnam)
Dr. Kennedy Igbokwe (Philippines)
Michael Jensen (Thailand)
Wu Jianjun (China)
Dr. Junus Kartasubrata (Indonesia)
Chun K. Lai (Indonesia)
Teunchai Lakhaviwattanakul (Thailand)
Pearmsak Makarabhirom (Thailand)
Dr. Stanley C. Malab (Philippines)
Cai Mantang (China)
Dr. Evelyn Mathias (Philippines)
Nguyen Ba Ngai (Vietnam)
Bui Ngoc Quang (Vietnam)
Dr. Hamish Richards (United Kingdom)
Dr. Walfredo Raquel Rola (Philippines)
Prem Sharma (Nepal)
Bishan Singh (Philippines)
Dr. Naik Sinukaban (Indonesia)
Mike Stainburn (Philippines)
Nguyen Van So (Vietnam)
Dr. Yoyo Sulaiman (Indonesia)
Esther Velasco (Philippines)
Tran Duc Vien (Vietnam)
Balthazar Wayi (Papua New Guinea)
Zheng Wei (China)

David Abbass
Lyn Capistrano-Doren
Scott Killough
Ray Montes
Dr. Paul Mundy (Workshop coordinator)
Jimmy Ronquillo (Scheduling)
Sheila Siar

Ric Cantada
Albert Contemprate
Arnold Gardon
Rannie Ramacula

Desktop publishing
Mamet Magno
Jel Montoya
Angie Poblete

Lhai Kasala
Angie Poblete

Thess Aquino
Carding Belenzo
Gerry Medina
Jel Montoya
Rollie Ramos

* Did not attend the workshop

Participants' profiles

Kwanchewan Buadeng

Kwanchewan "Jid" Buadeng is a Social Researcher at the Social

Thai-German Highland Development

Research Institute, Chiangmai University, Thailand. She holds a


Masters in Anthropology from the Ateneo de Manila University,

P O Box 67, Chiangmai 50000

Philippines. Jid has attended many national and international


workshops and presented papers at the Asian Farming Systems

Fax 66-53-211 808

symposium, Farming Systems Development working groups of

GTZ projects and other conferences.

Dr. Lope Calanog

Ecosystems Research and Develop-

Dr. Lope A. Calanog is a Supervising Science Research Specialist

ment Bureau

at the Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau of the

Department of Environment and

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) in the

Natural Resources

University of the Philippnes - Los Ba At present, he is the head

University of the Philippines at Los

of the Community Forestry Section of the Ecosystems Research

Ba College, Laguna 4031

and Development Bureau of the DENR. He has just completed his


Ph.D. in Community Development. Soon, he will be completing a

book tentatively titled Adaptive Traditionalism of a Swidden

based Upland Community.

Roberto Dalmacio

Dr. Roberto "Bert,, V. Dalmacio is the Instruction Division Coor

UPLB Agroforestry Program

dinator at the UPLB Agroforestry Program, Philippines, and is

College of Forestry

also an Associate Professor in Silviculture and Forest Influences.

University of the Philippines at Los

He teaches graduate courses in silviculture and agroforestry and


advises graduate students. He conducts research in the fields of

silviculture and agroforestry. He also designs and coordinates

training courses in reforestation and agroforestry and serves as a

resource person in topics dealing with silviculture and


Alma Monica de la Paz

Alma Monica A. dela Paz is the Executive Director of the Kapwa

Executive Director

Upliftment Foundation, Inc., in Matina, Davao City, Philippines.

Kapwa Upliftment Foundation, Inc

Alma is currently a member of the board of directors of

427 Durian St., Juan Subdivision

PHILDHRRA, a national coalition of NGOs. She is one of 18

Matina 8000, Davao City, Philippines

private-sector representatives to the Regional Development Coun

cil of Region XI as well as serving as a member of the Economic

Development Committee of the Council. She also represents

Kapwa in the Regional Upland Development Committee of the


Dr. Narciso Deomampo

FAO Regional for Asia and the

Dr. Narciso R. Deomampo is the FAO Regional Farm Manage

Pacific (RAPA)

ment Economist based at the FAO Regional Office in Bangkok,

Maliwan Mansion

Thailand. Before joining RAPA, Dr. Deomampo worked as an

39 Phra Atit Road

FAO Project Manager in Sri Lanka on Agricultural Marketing

Bangkok 10200, Thailand

Extension from 1985-1986. He was assigned as FAO Marketing

Fax 66-2-280 0445

Economist in the Northern Areas of Pakistan from 1987-1989. In 1990, Dr. Deomampo was the Chief Technical Adviser of FAOTCP Project in Chiangmai, Thailand, on Group Marketing and Extension. In 1991, he was appointed as Chief Technical Adviser of FAO/UNDP Marketing Project - Lesotho, Southern Africa for two years.

John Dixon

Programme Coordinator

John Dixon is a farmer from Queensland, Australia. He holds

FARM Programme

degrees in Rural Science, Agricultural Economics, Natural Re

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the

source Management and Sustainable Agriculture. He has worked


for FAO in Africa, the Near East, Asia and its headquarters. He

Maliwan Mansion

now serves as coordinator of the UNDP/FAO/UNIDO Farmer

39 Phra Atit Road

centred Agricultural Resource Management Programme.

Bangkok .0200, Thailand

Fax 66-2-280 0445

Antonius P. Y. Djogo


Antonius "Tony', P.Y. Djogo is the Director of Agricultural Poly

Agricultural Polytechnic-Kupang

technic, Kupang, Indonesia. He graduated from Bogor Agricul

Jl. Adisucipto, Pentui

tural University Indonesia in 1980 (from the Department of Soil

P O BOX 1111

Sciences] Faculty of Agriculture). He has attended several

Kupang 85011

trainings in-country and overseas. The research and development

Nusa Tenggara Timur

areas in which he specializes include: agroecosystem analysis,

Fax 62-391-31001

agroforestry and social forestry; dryland farming systems; and

farmer-based dryland farming systems development.

Ines Vivian Domingo

Ines Vivian "IV,, D. Domingo is the Coordinator of the World

Southeast Asia Media Support

Neighbors - Southeast Asia Media Support Program. She is based


in Bandung Indonesia. She coordinates the production of low-cost

Studio Driya Media

media in a variety of topics, including sustainable upland agriculture.

JI. Makmur No. 16

Bandung 40161

West Java, Indonesia

Patrick Durst

Patrick B. Durst is a Regional Forestry Officer for Asia and the

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the

Pacific at FAO, Bangkok, Thailand. Before joining FAO, he

Pacific (RAPA)

worked for nearly eight years with the Office of International

Maliwan Mansion

Forestry, USDA Forest Service—first as Special Projects Coordi

39 Phra Atit Road

nator for the Forestry Support Program, then as Coordinator for

Bangkok 10200, Thailand

Asia and Near East Programs and finally as Asia-Pacific Branch

Fax 66-2-280 0445


Riri Fithriadi

Riri Fithriadi is the Agroforestry Extension Specialist of the FAO

Agroforestry Extension Specialist

Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (FAO-APAN). He joined

FAO Asia-Pacific Agroforestry

APAN in 1993 and was responsible for information and technology


exchange, training, field activities and networking in Indonesia. In

JI. Gunung Batu 481

1990-1993, he worked with the Studio Driya Media in Bandung,

P O Box 481, Bogor 16004

Indonesia, as Associate Director for Research and Development


and was responsible for media development management and some field activities.

Dr. James H. French

Dr. James "Jim,, French is the Information and Training Specialist

Information Specialist

of the FAO Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (FAO-APAN).

FAO Asia-Pacific Agroforestry

Home is shared between New Hampshire, Bangkok and Bogor.

JI. Gunung Batu 481

Jim has lived in Thailand for 14 years and in Indonesia for 5 years.

P O Box 481, Bogor 16004

Most of this time was with UNDP working on rural development,

Indonesia watershed management and rubber replanting programs. In Indo nesia, he worked with Winrock International on researchextension linkages and the Upland Agriculture and Conservation Project. His doctorate is in extension education and his masters is in communication.

Dr. O. Sunarya

Dr. Sunarya "Ooy" Hadiwisastra is an Agriculture Extension


Specialist at the Agency for Agricultural Education and Training of

Balai Diklat Pertanian

the Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture. He holds a Ph.D. in Devel

Proyek P4K Pusat

opment Communications from UPLB, Philippines. At the Agency,

JI. Harsono RM 3

Ooy serves as the project secretary of PHK (Income-generating

Jakarta 12560

activities for small farmers and landless).


Fax 62-21 -780 5209

Nguyen Huu Hong

Nguyen Huu Hong is a lecturer and researcher in upland rice,

Deputy Director

upland farming systems and agroforestry at the University of

Upland Farming Systems (R & D Center)

Agriculture, No. 3, Bacthai, Vietnam. He holds an MSc degree on

University of Agriculture No. 3

agronomy from Migazaki University in Japan. He is the deputy

Bacthai Province, Vietnam

director of agroforestry, research and development center for the

northern mountains in Vietnam.

Dr. Kennedy Igbokwe

Water Resources Management

Dr. Kennedy Igbokwe is the Water Resources Management Spe


cialist at the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction,

International Institute of Rural

Philippines. He graduated from Central Philippines University with


a BSc degree in Agricultural Engineering and holds MSc and

Silang, Cavite, Philippines

Doctoral degrees in Agricultural Engineering with specialization in

Fax 63-96-402 0891

soil and water management from Central Luzon State University,

Philippines. He is presently involved in conceptualizing and devel

oping water resources/watershed management projects and participatory technology development for rainfed agriculture improvement in the semi-arid areas of India.

Michael Jensen

Michael Jensen is an Associate Professional Officer/Agroforestry

FAO Regional Office for Asia and the

of FAO-RAPA. He holds an M.Sc. degree on Agroforestry and

Pacific (RAPA)

Forest Ecology from Copenhagen University and the Royal Veteri

39 Phra Atit Road

narian and Agricultural University. Since 1992, he has been work

Bangkok 10200, Thailand

ing with FAO—first in the Regional Wood Energy Development

Fax 66-2-280 0445

Programme and then at the Forestry Section of RAPA, both

located in Bangkok, with agroforestry as his main responsibility. He has previous working experience in ecological research in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

Wu Jianjun

Associate Professor and Deputy

Wu Jianjun is the Deputy Director of the Agro-ecology Institute,


Zhejiang Agricultural University, China. He has worked in the

Agro-ecology Institute

Institute since 1987 as an instructor, researcher and associate

Zhejiang Agricultural University

professor. In addition to teaching (crop production, groecology,

Hangzhou, 310029

specific topics on agroecosystems and integrated farming systems),

Zhejiang Province

he conducts research on Chinese ecological agriculture, farming

People's Republic of China

systems development on red soil hilly areas (uplands) and the

Fax 86-571 -604 9815

structure and mechanisms for integration of agricultural education,

demonstration, training and extension.

Dr. Junus Kartasubrata

Dr. Junus Kartasubrata heads the Network Office of the Plant

Acting Head

Resources of South East Asia (PROSEA) Foundation in Bogor,

PROSEA Network Office

Indonesia. He holds a doctorate in Forestry from Bogor Agricul

c/o Research and Development

tural University.

Centre for Biology

LIPI, Jl. Ir. H. Juanda No. 22

P.O. Box 234

Bogor 16122, West Java, Indonesia

Fax 62-251 -336 425

Scott Killough

Scott Killough is the Director of the Environment, Natural Re


sources and Agriculture program at the International Institute of

Environment, Natural Resources and

Rural Reconstruction. He has been involved in management of


research and training activities in upland farm management in the

Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite

Philippines, India, Guatemala and Ethiopia. Before joining IIRR,


he worked with the Peace Corps in Guatemala and in the U.S.A.

Fax (632) 522 2494

Chun K. Lai

Chun Lai, Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network (APAN) Regional


Coordinator, was born in Hongkong and raised and educated in the

FAO Asia-Pacific Agroforestry

U.S. He holds forestry/international forestry degrees from the

Jl. Gunung Batu 481

University of Maine at Oroneo and from Yale University. His

P O Box 481, Bogor 16004

professional experience includes assignments in the Northwestern


U.S. (U.S. Forest Service), West Africa (Peace Corps, Fulbright

Program and USAID), Bangladesh (Winrock International) and Asia-Pacific Agroforestry Network—FAO network based in Bogor, Indonesia. His total experience exceeds 1 5 years in the field working on forestry and agroforestry.


Teunchai "Jai" Lakhaviwattanakul is a Professional Forest Officer


at the Royal Forest Department, Thailand. She is also the current

Chief, Agroforestry Branch

APAN National Coordinator in Thailand.

Office of Community Forestry

Forest Department

Pa halyoth in Road, Bangkhen

Bangkok 10900, Thailand

Fax 66-2-579 1718

Pearmsak Makarabhirom

Pearmsak Makarabhirom is a Technical Forestry Officer of the

Agroforestry Branch

Royal Forest Department, Bangkok, Thailand. He is also a Pro

Office of Community of Forestry

gram Officer of the Regional Community Forestry Outreach

Forest Department

Program of the Regional Community, Forestry Training Center for

Pahalyothin Road, Bangkhen

Asia-Pacific. He is experienced in agroforestry research and

Bangkok 10900

extension, community forestry and forestry extension.


Fax 66-2-579 5416

Dr. Stanley Malab

Assistant Professor

Dr. Stanley "Stan,, C. Malab is a Professor and Director for Re

Institute of Sustainable Dryland

search at the Mariano Marcos State University, Batac, Ilocos

Agriculture, College of Agriculture

Norte, Philippines. His present assignments include: Professor of

and Forestry, Mariano Marcos State

Forest Science, Director for Research and Development; and


Concurrent Director of the Institute of Sustainable Dryland Agri

Batac, Ilocos Norte, Philippines

culture. He has conducted research on nitrogen dynamics on

Fax 63-77-792 3131

agroforestry systems, bamboo technology, sand dune utilization

and computer modelling for agroforestry systems.

Dr. Evelyn Mathias

Dr. Evelyn Mathias is the Coordinator of the Regional Program for

IlRR, Silang, Cavite

the Promotion of Indigenous Knowledge in Asia (REPPIKA) at


the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. Her major

Fax (632) 522 2494

interests are in ethnoveterinary medicine, the use of indigenous

knowledge in development, livestock development and the delivery of animal health care services. Before joining IIRR, she was a visiting lecturer at the Bogor Agricultural University in Indonesia. Dr. Mathias holds a Dr. Med. Vet. degree (equivalent to Ph.D.) in veterinary medicine and a DVM degree, both from Justus- Liebig University in Giessen, Germany. She has a Master's in International Development from Iowa State University, USA.

Dr. Paul Mundy

Dr. Paul Mundy is the Director of the Communication Division at

Director, Communication Division

the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction. A British

IlRR, Silang, Cavite

national, he worked as an editor in the Central Research Institute


for Food Crops in Indonesia and in Egypt before joining IIRR. He

has a Ph.D. in Mass Communication from the University of Wisconsin.

Nguyen Ba Ngai

Nguyen Ba Ngai is a Lecturer in Social Forestry at the Forestry

Lecturer in Social Forestry

College of Vietnam. He teaches forest management and social

Forestry College, Xuan Mai


Hatay Province, Vietnam

Fax 84-4-250 000

Bui Ngoc Quang

Bui Ngoc Quang is a Project Officer of CARE International in

Project Officer

Vietnam. He has experiences in community forestry in the northern

CARE international in Vietnam

mountainous provinces of Vietnam; agroforestry systems in the

130 A, Thuy khue

uplands; participatory rapid appraisal; and working with ethnic

Hanoi Vietnam

minorities at the community level.

Fax 84-4-2337 14

Dr. Hamish Richards

Dr. Hamish Richards is an executive committee member of the UK

Development Consultancy Services,

Freedom From Hunger Campaign. He has undertaken


consultancies for the UN Population Programme (project evalua

Heath, Cardiff CF4 4HG

tion); UNESCO (nonformal education); Pacific Commissioner

Wales, United Kingdom

(population/human resource development); ILO (population

Fax 44-1222-750 621

programme management and child care facilities); and European

Community (plight of street children).

Dr. Walfredo Raquel Rola

Dr. Walfredo "Wally" Raquel Rola is an Assistant Professor at the

Department of Community and

Department of Community and Environmental Resource Planning

Environmental Resource Planning

at the University of the Philippines at Los Ba He has been

University of the Philippines

engaged by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) several times as

at Los Ba

an agricultural economist or financial analyst in reformulating and

College, Laguna, Philippines

evaluating projects in the Philippines, Nepal and Indonesia. Cur

rently, he is serving as a management system and logistic specialist for an ADB

funded Vegetable Integrated Pest Management Project in the Philippines.

Prem Sharma

Prem Sharma is the Regional Coordinator/Chief Technical Advisor


with FAO. He is also the Regional/Senior Scientist (Land-use) of

CTA, Watershed Management

CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica. He has authored over 40 publica

FAO office in Nepal

tions in watershed management, agroforestry, soil conservation,

P. O. Box 25, Kathmandu

irrigation, natural resources management for uplands in Asia and


Latin America.

Fax 977-1-526358

Bishan Singh

Bishan Singh is the executive president of the Management Insti

PCSD Programme Manager

tute for Social Change. He has more than 30 years of experience in

Asian NGO Coalition

the NGO movement. He is the President of the Pahang Association

PO Box 3107

of Consumers, a post he has held for the last 20 years. He was the

Quezon City

past president of the Federation of Malaysian Consumers' Associa

Metro Manila, Philippines

tions and co-chair of the Education Committee of the International

Organization of Consumers' Unions. Bishan was the first awardee

of the "Consumer Advocate Award" of the Government of


Prof. Dr. Naik Sinukaban

Dr. Naik Sinukaban is the Head of the Soil and Water Conserva

Department of Soil Science

tion Laboratory at Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia.

Bogor Agricultural University

Jl Raya Pajajaran



Fax 62-251-312708

Nguyen Van So

Nguyen Van So is a lecturer of the University of Agriculture and

College of Agriculture and Forestry

Forestry, Thu Duc Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. He holds an M.S.

Thuduc, Ho Chi Minh City

degree in silviculture and forest influences at the University of the

65/5a Nguyen Trong, Tuyen Street

Philippines at Los Bawith a minor in social forestry. His area

Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

of specialization includes plantation forestry, water and soil con

Fax 84-8-960 713

servation measures and social forestry.

Esther Velasco

Esther Velasco is IlRR's Gender and Development Specialist. She

Research Division

develops research and development programs and provides train

Internationai institute of Rural

ing aimed at improving gender equity in developing countries.

Reconstruction, Silang, Cavite

Before joining IIRR, she served as the Program Coordinator of the


University of the Philippines at Los Ba Gender Program for

Rural Development. Ms. Velasco has a master's degree in Sociol

ogy, from Ateneo de Manila University.

Mr Tran Duc Vien

Tran Duc Men is a Lecturer and Researcher at the Center for

Centre for Natural Resources

Natural Resources Management and Environmental Studies,

Management and

University of Hanoi Vietnam

Environmental Studies

University of Hanoi

15 B Trieu Viet Vuong



Fax 844-2-66618

Balthazar Wayi

Balthazar Wayi is a Chief Land-use Officer at the Department of

Chief Land-use Officer

Agriculture and Livestock in Boroko, Papua New Guinea. He

Land-use Section

graduated from the University of Papua New Guinea in 1977, with

Department of Agriculture and

a Bachelor of Agricultural Science. In 1983, he obtained a post

PO Box 1863

graduate diploma in Agricultural Science from Massey University


in New Zealand. In 1985, he was awarded an MSc in Soil Science

Papua New Guinea

at the State University of Ghent in Belgium. His field of expertise

Fax 675 - 214354

is soil survey, soil classification, level land suitability evaluation

and land-use planning.

Zheng Wei

Ms. Zheng Wei is an Editor at the Chinese Academy Forestry in

Institute of Scientific and Technical

Beijing, China. She graduated from the Northeast Forestry Univer


sity and specialized in forestry botany. She now works at the

Chinese Academy of Forestry

Institute of Scientific and Technology Information on the

Beijing, China

agroforestry program.

Fax 86-1-258 2317


General references

Achmad, H., A. Martadihardja, Suharto, Wawan Gunawan and Handyana. 1978. Sociocultural Aspects of Homegarden (Ind.). Seminar on Ecology of the Homegarden II, 2526 October, 1978. Institute of Ecology, Pajajaran University, Bandung, Indonesia.

ANGOC. 1977. Soil Conservation Handbook. Joint Commission on Rural Reconstruction and Maintain Agriculture Resources Development Bureau. Tai Sowing the Seeds for future, Report of the Second Asian Development Forum, Sustainable Agriculture Towards Food Security and Enhanced Quality of Life, 2226 February, 1993. Cagayan de Oro, Philippines.

Asdak, C. and T.P. Sandjaja. 1989. Traditional Agroforestry Systems: A Potential Role for Rehabilitating Degraded Watershed Areas. Proceedings of International Seminar on Agricultural Change and Development in Southeast Asia, 20-23 November, 1989. Jakarta, Indonesia.

Avila, M. and S. Minae. 1992. Diagnosis and Design for Technology Development. Lecture note for ICRAF-DSO training course. ICRAF, Nairobi, Kenya.

Axinn, G. 1988. In Education for Agriculture. IRRI, Philippines.

Balangue, T.O. 1988. Interactive Land Use Planning Algorithm. Ph.D. Dissertation (Forestry). Graduate School, University of the Philippines at Los Ba Laguna, Philippines.

Banilodu, L. and N.T. Saka. 1993. Descriptive Analysis of Sumba Forest: Research Results. Widya Mandiri Catholic University, Kupang, Indonesia.

Carlson, Les E. and Keith R. Shea. 1986. Increasing Productivity of Multipurpose Lands: IUFRO Research Planning Workshop for Africa: Sahelian and North Sudanian Zones, Nairobi, Kenya, 9-15 January, 1986. International Union of Forestry Research Organization. Canada.

Celestino. A.F. and F.P. Elliot. Hilly Land Farming Systems in the Philippines: An Assessment. Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute.

Chambers, R. 1992. Rural Appraisal: Rapid, Relaxed and Participatory. Discussion Paper 311. Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, Great Britain.

Chambers, R. and B. Ghildyal. 1985. Agricultural Research for ResourcePoor Farmers: The Farmer-Firstand-Last model. Agricultural Administration and Extension, 20. in Chambers et al. 1989.

Chambers, R. and J. Jiggins. 1986. Agricultural Research for Resourcepoor Farmers: A Parsimonious Paradigm. IDS Discussion Paper 220, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, Brighton, Great Britain.

Chambers, Robert, Arnold Pacey and Lori Ann Thrupp. (eds.) 1991. Farmer First: Farmer Innovation and Agricultural Research. Immediate Technology Publications: Great Britain.

Chandrasekharan, C. 1984. Opening statement delivered at the Regional Workshop on Community Forestry. UNDP (Thailand), EPI-East-West Center (Hawaii) and FAO (Bangkok, Thailand).

Combe, J. and G. Budwoski. Classification of Agroforestry Techniques. Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Costa Rica, Latin America

Conway, G.R. 1985. Agroecosystems Analysis. Agricultural Administration, 20. pp 31-55.

Cook, Cynthia and Mikael Grut. 1989. Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Farmer's Perspective. World Bank Technical Paper, 112. The World Bank. Washington, D.C. 95p.

CVPED. 1992. Forestry for People and Nature. Field Research and Theory on Environment and Development in the Cagayan Valley, Philippines. Cagayan Valley Programme on Environment and Development.

Danusastro, H. 1980. The Role of Homegarden as a Source of Additional Family Income. Seminar on the Ecology of Homegardens III. Institute of Ecology, Pajajaran University, Bandung, Indonesia.

Davison, D.A. 1980. Soils and Land Use Planning. Longman, New York.

Denholm, Jeanette and Min Bahadur Ryachhetry. 1990. Major Agroforestry Activities of Nongovernmental Organizations in Nepal: A Survey. Research Report Series, 10. HMG Ministry of Agriculture, Nepal. Winrock International.

Deomampo, N.R. 1990. Guidelines in Adjusting Production to the Market. (unpublished).

Devendra, C. (ed.) 1990: Shrubs and Tree Fodders for Farm Animals: Proceedings of a Workshop in Denpasar, Indonesia, 24-29 July, 1989. International Development Research Centre, Canada.

Djogo, A.P.Y. March 1994. Proses Perkembaw, Pekewang dar Tartaw Konsortium Pengembangan Datao Timgi usa Tenggara (Nusa Tangan Upland Development Consortium). Paper presented to NTUDS Annual. Matara. 10-21 April, 1994.

Fabos, J.G. 1979. Planning the Total Landscape: A Guide to Intelligent Land Use. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, U.S.A.

Fabos, J.G. 1985. Land Use Planning: From Global to Local Challenge. Chapman and Hall, New York.

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Personal interview with Umbu Hilu, Yayasan Tananua Sumba FarmerLeader by l.V. Domingo.

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2 Integrated upland systems management and

3 Soil and water conservation approaches

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4 Diagnostic methods and tools

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5 Extension and linkage strategies

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