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close this bookLife Skills for Young Ugandans - Primary Teachers' Training Manual (UNICEF, 190 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderSection One: The Life Skills Education Initiative
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.0 Background
View the document2.0 What are Life Skills?
View the document3.0 LIFE SKILLS AND THE PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILD
View the document4.0 Other supporting activities/strategies
View the document5.0 Problems and solutions
close this folderSection Two: Methodologies and Training Session Activities
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderPART A - General Activities
View the document1.0 INTRODUCTORY AND PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES
View the document2.0 PARTICIPATORY METHODS
close this folderPART B - Specific activities that may be used to focus upon some of the key issues of Life Skills Education
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWORKSHOP A: HOW TO IDENTIFY THE NEEDS OF A 13 YEAR OLD UGANDAN CHILD
View the documentWORKSHOP B: WHAT ARE THE PRIORITIES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN?
View the documentWORKSHOP C: INTRODUCING LIFE SKILLS CONCEPTS
View the documentWORKSHOP D: ATTITUDES TO LIFE SKILLS
View the documentWORKSHOP E: AIMS OF LIFESKILLS EDUCATION
View the documentWORKSHOP F: THE HEALTH PROMOTING SCHOOL
View the documentWORKSHOP G: PROMOTING SELF ESTEEM IN SCHOOL
close this folderSection Three: Overview of current Primary Teacher’s College Health Education Syllabus and Potential for Development of Life Skills Education
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentINTRODUCTION
close this folderSection Four: Sample Activities
View the document(introduction...)
View the document4.1 Unit One - OUR HEALTH
View the document4.2 Unit Nine - HIV/AIDS
View the document4.3 Unit Thirteen - FAMILY HEALTH AND SOCIAL PROBLEMS
close this folderSection Five: Preparing Your own Units
View the document(introduction...)
View the document5.1 INTRODUCTION
View the document5.2 WHAT DOES IT TAKE?
View the document5.3 SAMPLE LESSON PLANS FOR PRIMARY SCHOOLS
View the document5.4 SUMMARY
View the documentReferences

1.0 INTRODUCTORY AND PREPARATORY ACTIVITIES

1.1 Ice-breaking activities
1.2 Expectations and Tears
1.3 Laying ground rules
1.4 Team building
1.5 Coping with difficult group members
1.6 Energisers
1.7 Processing

1.1 ICE-BREAKING

PURPOSE

Ice breaking activities have the following purposes:

· Create a safe, warm learning environment from the outset.

· Encourage participants to mix with and get to know one another.

· Give all participants a chance to speak and be listened to in an environment where their experiences and opinions will be valued.

· Reduce individual feelings of isolation.

· Prepare all participants to become fully involved in later activities.

· Ice-breaking means breaking the ice, overcoming the cold (not warm), and tense atmosphere which may possibly exist before participants get to know each other.

At the beginning of a session, participants or first year students tend to keep to themselves or interact only with those they knew beforehand, They come from different places, have different backgrounds, experiences, qualifications etc. and often do not know how to break down the walls that exist between them. There is a need, therefore, for them to become acquainted with one another so that they are comfortable working together during the training. Thus, ice breakers should be used at the beginning of training sessions, or of a new year or term when the students do not know one another. They should not take too long, about 10-15 minutes.

EXAMPLE ONE

TOWN NAMES

Materials

Cards with half names of a town written on them. Enough cards for one per participant.

Procedure

1. Write cards with half names of towns. Each participant gets a card.

2. Participants look for the participant with the other half name of her/his town. i.e.

Card 1: MB-

Card 2: -ALE

Full name of the town; MBALE

3. Participants then sit in pairs and introduce themselves to one another using the following outline:

· Name....................................................................
· Where you live......................................................
· Where you went to school......................................
· What you have achieved.......................................
· Hobbies.................................................................
· A wish....................................................................
· Anything else..........................................................

4. Each participant presents his/her partner to the rest of the group.

Hints

· If the group is large, place pairs into small groups of about six for the last step. Otherwise the introductions tend to take a very long time.

· The facilitator can come up with a different set of cards (i.e. local foods, famous personalities etc. instead of towns) or points of introduction (e.g. like/dislike etc.)

EXAMPLE TWO

WHY I WAS NAMED...


Figure

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Invite participants to sit in a circle

2. Place a large piece of flipchart paper in the centre of the circle (and one on the wall for those who are unable to move on to the floor).

3. Ask each participant in turn, to write their name on the paper and explain briefly why they were given that name e.g. “My name is Nightingale because I was born at night”.

EXAMPLE THREE

CLUSTERING

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Facilitator tells participants that they have to find a partner according to one of the following criteria:

· likes the same kind of music.
· shares the same birthday month.
· shares the same favourite food.
· also has trouble saying “NO” to friends.
· enjoys playing football.

2. Ask participants to stand up and move around the room, identifying another person who fits one of the criteria.

3. After forming pairs in this way, each pair can be given topics to discuss for 2 minutes each e.g. An exciting/sad experience I will never forget, or things that make me laugh/sad.

Hint

· Facilitator can think of any other appropriate statements for clustering individuals and topics for discussion. S/he should not be limited to the examples given above.

EXAMPLE FOUR

REASONS WHY I CAN’T COME TO SCHOOL TODAY

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Ask participants to form a circle.

2. Each participant gives his/her name in turn and then gives a false reason why s/he can’t come to school. The reason for not attending school must begin with the same letter as the person’s name e.g. “My name is Joy and I can’t come to school today because there are no buses from Jinja”.

Hint

· The facilitator is free to think of statements beginning:

‘Reasons why I.....................................

EXAMPLE FIVE

THE NAME AND CARD GAME

Materials

A blank card for each participant, ball point pens or pencils, box or bag or basket.

Procedure

1. Give each participant a blank card.

2. Ask each participant to write the following on his/her card.

· complete name
· previous school attended
· favourite hobby

3. After all the cards are completed, collect and mix together in a container/basket. Each participant picks one card, but not his/her own.

4. After each participant has taken one card, instruct the person to find the owner of the card. Then ask each person to find out more information about the owner.

5. After 5 minutes tell everyone to be seated and ask each person to introduce the owner of the card which s/he has picked.

Hints

· Information which is too personal should be avoided.
· Allow some fun to create a more friendly atmosphere.

Feedback

At the end of each ice breaker, spend a few minutes asking the group some of the following questions. Do NOT ask all the questions every time.

· How did you feel during this activity?
· How do you feel starting a group in this way?
· How might you alter or adapt this activity?
· How have you benefitted from this activity?
· Do you have any comments about this activity?
· What other ice breakers do you know/have you used?
· Anything else?

1.2 EXPECTATIONS AND FEARS

PURPOSE

It is very useful at the beginning to allow participants to state their expectations and fears or concerns about the training. This brings into the open what people are feeling and allows the facilitator to clarify what can and cannot be done in the course of the training.

Expectations

Participants come to a training with certain expectations about what they may acquire in terms of knowledge or skills. It is important to give them an opportunity to express their feelings on what they expect to get from the training and also to say at the start what they think can or cannot be achieved.

Fears

The participants have fears about issues that may be a barrier to the attainment of the objectives. The fears should be dealt with to create a conducive learning environment.

The activity on the following page will help define the participants’ expectations and fears.

ACTIVITY

FINDING OUT THE EXPECTATIONS AND FEARS

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Pieces of paper, chalk or marker, blackboard/flip chart/large sheet of paper.

Procedure

1. Prepare sufficient pieces of paper for the number of participants attending the session.

2. Tell every participant to pick a piece of paper and write down what they expect from the training on one side of the paper and fear from the training on the other side.

3. Participants exchange papers with their friends and read out what is written. Facilitator writes replies on the flipchart or blackboard for all to be made aware of individual expectations and fears.

OR Divide the participants into groups, read out the answers and then merge the similar ones. The group leader presents the expectations and fears to the class and you write on blackboard or chart.

OR Each participant displays his/her written work for the whole class to read and they are later merged by the teacher.

OR Individual participants read out their expectations and fears and the teacher merges them on the blackboard or flipchart.

OR Put the cards in the middle (so that they are anonymous). Shuffle the cards and redistribute so that students read out the card they are given while you put the points on the board/large sheet of paper.

4. Discuss all the expectations and fears with the participants. Explain that you hope everyone will acknowledge that people have certain fears and will support these individuals. Explain what you hope and think can be achieved during the training, and what cannot be achieved in the time available.

5. Hang the flipchart or leave them on the blackboard.

Hints

· During the training, go through the expectations to find out those which were met and not met. Do the same with fears to find out how they were overcome.

· Expectations and fears may be introduced at the beginning of every new unit or topic to be taught and at the end of it, particularly if the issue to be discussed is a sensitive one.

· Leave the expectations and fears on the blackboard.

· Not all the expectations will be met. Explain this. Also explain that participants can discuss issues during the break.

· To cater for some of the expectations which may not be met, you can use a story or case study; or give them homework which can be done during the participants’ free time or call a resource person to give a lecture touching on those issues being reflected in the expectations.

1.3 LAYING GROUND RULES FOR LIFE SKILLS EDUCATION

PURPOSE

Life Skills education involves an individual interacting closely with other people. During such interactions, group members will want to be listened to and respected. Some of the activities may involve revealing personal experiences that one would not ordinarily tell others. Therefore, group members need an assurance that in interacting with other members, their personalities will not be betrayed. Rules of behaviour need to be established. These can be called ground rules or keys to cooperation.

The ground rules should be decided upon by the group members themselves. This can be done in different ways. One way is suggested below. Alternatively you may wish to use the ‘Group Shield’ in the Team Building’ section that follows as a method for developing some ground rules.

ACTIVITY

DEVELOPING GROUND RULES

Time: 20 minutes

Materials

Small pieces of paper, each with a number relating to the number of participants.

Procedure

1. Write numbers from one to the last number in the class on small pieces of papers.

2. Each member picks a piece of paper with a number on it.

3. Number one pairs with two, three with four, etc. If the number in the class is odd, there can be three in a group.

4. Each member of the pair introduces himself/herself to the other and reveals her/his likes/dislikes and hopes for the way in which people will work together during the sessions.

5. The pair then discuss the rules they consider important regarding the discussions they will have.

6. 3 pairs join to form one group and come up with consolidated rules.

7. Participants discuss and agree on the rules to be adopted.

8. To wrap up, participants discuss the following questions:

(i) What do we do to a member who breaks the rules?
(ii) How will these rules be useful to the group during the course?

Hints

· Only one way of group formation is described here. There are other ways that groups can be formed e.g. using strings of different lengths, using combinations of letters for naming towns, etc. The teacher can also devise his/her own way of group formation. The essential point is that groups must be formed at random, with no systematic bias so that gradually each member of the group will meet and work with several others, thereby reducing the possibility of isolation and helping the integration of individual members.

· The interactions for negotiating ground rules can also be varied according to the size of the class. In the end, the negotiated rules should be agreed upon by the whole class and then adhered to in subsequent lessons.

· Because of the nature of Life Skills education, some of the rules that may come out are:

(i) Confidentiality
(ii) Respect for one another
(iii) Honesty
(iv) Listening to each other
(v) No ridiculing or derogatory behaviour towards anyone.
(vi) No value judgements about a person’s position.
(vii) Freedom to speak
(viii) The right to pass.
(ix) Being positive and constructive to the group
(x) Punctuality

Do not list those rules for the class, but only ask whether any that they may have omitted would be important for their group.

· Ways of enforcing the rules may include showing a “yellow card” to an offending member. If 3 people in the group show the yellow card then the individual must alter his/her behaviour or stop the activity s/he was doing. This should be done with humour and fairness to emphasize the importance of the rules rather than punish. The group should see that the rules are important for their cohesion and facilitative of acquiring the skills they are learning.

2.4 TEAM BUILDING

PURPOSE

Team building is a process which gradually transforms individual participants into group workers. A team has a common objective and a common strategy to achieve the objective.

Team building develops cooperation, builds good relations and makes learners active (Participants in pretest, Bushenyi).

The success of the team depends on each member being appreciated, building on their uniqueness and difference to enrich the variety of ideas, views or contributions for the general good.

For a team to function, every member should be given the opportunity to participate fully; learning to share, discuss, agree, disagree, persuade and adjust. Being a member of a team means looking beyond oneself and reaching out to others, and realizing that one has something to offer just like others. Life skills evolve around one’s ability to cope with the situations, circumstances, challenges of day-to-day life. Ability to get along with other people is one skill promoted through Team Building. The team spirit helps one to believe in oneself, boosting one’s self-esteem.

Some Team building Activities are described below. They can run through the whole session or workshops, varying in duration according to the purpose

ACTIVITY ONE

THE GROUP SHIELD

Time: 20 to 30 minutes

Materials

Large sheets of paper, marker pens.


Figure

Procedure

1. Randomly select participants in teams of 4 - 6 people.

2. Ask each team to choose a leader, moderator, observer, recorder and reporter.

3. Ask each team to draw the group shield with four parts (see below), under different titles, depending on topic.

4. Every member writes his/her name in the first compartment and says a little about their name e.g. why they were given that name.

5. Members discuss their hobbies/interests and the recorder draws or writes some of this in the top right hand compartment.

6. Members discuss what they can offer the group e.g. experiences, listening, support and these are written up by the reporter.

7. Group members agree on ground rules and write them down.

8. Ask each group to come up with a Group Name.

9. Lastly, the group must come up with a motto.

10. In turn, each group displays their shield. The facilitator draws out or asks the reporter to draw out some of the unusual or interesting points. Finally, read out and clarify/agree on the ground rules for the whole group.

Hints

· By writing one’s name in the first box, an individual registers as a member to the team, with a right to participate.

· Explaining what you have to offer:-

· Boosts self esteem

· Promotes self - awareness, as each participant looks into himself/herself to discover what s/he has to offer.

· Enforces active listening and positive contribution.

· Ground rules offer an opportunity for one to appreciate different perspectives, desires and concerns.

· Hobbies/interests: This allows one to express a part of oneself.

· Other alternatives could be included in the shield according to the group and the context.

ACTIVITY TWO

SPEAK OR NOT TO SPEAK

The aim of this activity is to practise getting along using non-verbal communication and to appreciate its advantages and shortcomings. It improves negotiation skills, listening skills and critical thinking.

Time: 30 minutes

Materials

Objects such as children’s toy cube dismantled. One object needed for every group.

Procedure

1. Divide participants into groups of 4 - 6 members.

2. Distribute objects such as a children’s toy cube, already dismantled.

3. Ask them to put the bits together without TALKING.

4. Ask groups how they felt working without verbal communication; and how easy or difficult it was for them to accomplish or fail to accomplish a given task.

5. Ask groups to exchange objects (if they succeeded in putting the first object together) or to continue with the current object if they failed to assemble it at the first attempt.

6. After 10 minutes, allow groups to use both verbal and non-verbal communication

7. Ask groups what are the advantages and disadvantages of utilizing both verbal and non-verbal communication.

Hint

· The trainer is encouraged to create his/her own team building activities as the need arises.

2.5 COPING WITH DIFFICULT GROUP MEMBERS (BEHAVIOURS)

PURPOSE

It is always possible that some of the participants work against the smooth running of the group. It is therefore important to be able to identify the types of behaviour that hinder the work of a group and strategies to cope with such behaviours.


Figure

Time: 45 minutes

Materials

Large sheets of paper, markers.

Procedure

1. Whole group brainstorms on types of behaviour which hinder group work.

2. List the behaviours on a large sheet of paper

3. Divide participants into groups of six or seven.

4. Allocate an equal number of behaviours listed to each group and ask them to devise strategies/life skills for coping with the behaviours they have been assigned.

5. Each group summarises on a large sheet of paper and presents to the plenary for discussion.

Hints

· To start brainstorming, ask participants to describe actual example/incidents

· Difficult group member behaviour can include:

· People who talk too much
· People who challenge everything
· People who never contribute
· People who never stick to the point
· People who are critical of everyone and everything.

· There is no one strategy to cope with certain types of behaviour though there are certain suggested strategies.

· The actual behaviours, and the strategies to deal with them could take the form of a role play.

· Hopefully the team building activities, and in particular the introduction of ground rules, will avert many of the more difficult behaviours that certain individuals may display.

2.6 ENERGISERS

PURPOSE

Communication experts observe that concentration span in a learning situation is initially high then gradually drops. To keep learners’ attention it is imperative that they are kept interested. Energizers help achieve this by breaking the monotony and stress of a learning session. They may be used to allow the participants a chance to stretch and move about. They are usually brief (3-5 minutes)


Figure

Hints

· Choose energizers that are conducive to your specific environment and situation; i.e. consider your age group, classroom size, how well you know the group and how well they know one other.

· Develop your own energizers for your group.

· Other energizers have been developed, look around for references that contain energizers.

EXAMPLE ONE

THE BUYIKWE POLICEPERSON

Materials

Basket, baton, (stick).

Procedure

1. Ask everybody to sit around in a circle.

2. Get a volunteer who shall start off as the policeperson.

3. The volunteer stands in the middle near the room, taps a person seated and runs and places the baton in the basket.

4. Policeperson should then run and occupy the place of the person that was tapped - referred to as a culprit.

5. The person who was tapped should aim at picking up the ‘baton’ from the basket and chase the policeperson and try to tap him/her before s/he sits down in the culprit’s chair.

6. If the policeperson sits down in the culprit’s place before the culprit taps him/her, then the culprit becomes the new policeperson and the game continues.

Hints

· The game is better if the circle is large so that there is a fair distance to run (3 to 4 metres).

· The ‘baton’ or stick should NOT be thrown in the basket but rather placed there.

EXAMPLE TWO

THE SOCIAL MAP

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Explain to the group that the floor area is really a map of Uganda, which direction is North etc. Agree with them where one or two towns/landmarks would be on the map.

2. Every participant should move to stand where their village/district is located.

3. The facilitator gives out the following instructions to the group who must respond appropriately in accordance with the perceived level of problem in their area.

· not a problem or issue - sit down,
· a small problem - kneel down
· rampant - stand up
· very serious problem - stand on tiptoe or jump

4. Facilitator reads out/presents a number of issues, problems:

· malaria
· Aids
· happy homes
· defilement/rape
· abstinence
· farming
· democracy
· good marriages
· drug abuse
· faithfulness
· equal rights for girls
· pre marital sex
· wife beating
· oppression of women
· condom use

5. The objective is to read the issues out quickly so that people have to move equally quickly.

Hint

· You may choose to stop the activity from time to time to foster discussion on a particular issue.

EXAMPLE THREE

NAFUNA SAYS (NAME GAME)

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants stand up and space themselves evenly around the room in such a manner that will not collide or hit each other.

2. The facilitator does a trial to ensure the participants have understood the instructions. For example, the facilitator gives out the following key:

You should only follow the instructions if they start with ‘Nafuna says’. For example ‘Nafuna says, hop on one leg’. ‘Nafuna says turn round’ etc. If the instruction is just called out on its own, for example, ‘turn around’, ‘raise your right arm’ etc., participants should not follow the instruction.

3. People who carry out the instructions when they do not start with ‘Nafuna says’ should sit down.

Hints

· This activity may/could be made more interesting if one of the participants is asked to call out the actions.

· Pick a name that is easy to pronounce, fun and not the name of one of the participants

EXAMPLE FOUR

SONGS (SINGING ‘O’ MCDONALD) - OLD MUKISA*

(Choose your own name)


Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Choose a popular song and select an energetic song leader.

2. Sing-a-long

3. In between the song/verses the choir/song leader may chant.

“ARE WE TOGETHER?”

“ARE WE TOGETHER?”

Participants should echo back with a loud clear answer “YES”

Suggestions for good songs

· Patriotic “Chaka muchaka songs”
· Football team slogans
· Nursery rhymes i.e. Old McDonald had a Farm.

Hint

· Actions could be added to it.

EXAMPLE FIVE

‘FISHERS OF MEN’ (A well known song)

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants start off seated

2. Song leader starts the song

3 While the song is sung, males stand up at each word that starts with ‘M’ and females stand up at each word that starts with ‘F’.

4. Song gets faster and faster (in Tempo).

Hint

· Only use the song if you know and/or the participants know it.

EXAMPLE SIX

ONE CHAIR LESS

Materials

Chairs/benches.

Procedure

1. Place enough chairs/benches in a circle for each participant to sit on

2. Facilitator stands in the middle, with no chair.

3. Facilitator calls out a task that gets people moving and swapping places. Nobody should return to the same chair/position. Examples of such statements could be:

· “all people putting on black shoes, change places”.
· “all people wearing T-shirts, change places”.
· “all people whose names start with the letter A, change places”.

4. As they move, the person in the middle also runs for a chair

5. The person who fails to get a chair stands in the middle and calls out the next instruction.

Hints

· To end the game the facilitator may consider ‘failing’ to get a chair so that s/he is deliberately left standing.

· This is a way of getting people into different pairs or small groups.

EXAMPLE SEVEN

SHOES

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Facilitator explains that s/he wants people to demonstrate the activity called out. Participants stand up and walk slowly around the room. When the facilitator calls out “running shoes”, participants must imagine that they are running.

2. Examples of other statements to use with participants:

· walking shoes (participants demonstrate walking)
· slippery shoes (participants demonstrate slipping around)
· quiet shoes
· dancing shoes
· army boots

EXAMPLE EIGHT

RAIN

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Participants stand in a circle facing into the circle

2. Participants pat their knees to make the sound of the type of rain mentioned.

Examples of statements - actions...

· a drizzle - (gently pat)
· a storm - (heavy patting)
· thunder - (a big clap etc.).

Hint

· This activity can be modified by you to be something else i.e. a dog and related statements; cow, horse etc.

EXAMPLE NINE

LEADING BY FINGER

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Ask participants to pair up.
2. Ask one to volunteer to be a leader and the other a follower.
3. The follower should close his/her eyes and stretch out her/his hand and offer 1 finger.
4. The leader puts out his/her finger and places it on the follower’s finger.
5. Leader then takes the follower around the room without any collisions.
6. The follower should keep eyes closed at all time.
7. After 2 minutes ask each pair people to exchange roles.

Hints

· This activity can be used more than once in different sessions and include questions on how people felt as they moved around the room. Consider both perspectives, leader and follower.

· This activity should only be used after the participants have become familiar with each other since it can sometimes be quite threatening.

EXAMPLE TEN

BRING ME... AN OBJECT

Materials

None.

Procedure

1. Divide the class into teams (two or three).

2. (Explain that the objective of the game is for them to bring objects to you. The quickest team gets marks.

3. Facilitator then calls for objects.

· bring me......... an ear ring
· bring me......... a belt
· bring me......... a leaf
· bring me......... etc.

Hint

· Make sure there is no physical damage to any individuals, or embarrassment at having to remove certain items of clothing!