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close this bookPhotovoltaic Household Electrification Programs - Best Practices (WB)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
View the documentAcknowledgments
close this folderExecutive summary
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentOvercoming the first cost barrier
View the documentEstablishing responsive and sustainable infrastructure
View the documentProviding quality products and services
View the documentThe role of governments and donors
View the documentAbbreviations and acronyms
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderThe place for photovoltaics
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe solar home system
View the documentThe cost of solar home systems
View the documentThe solar home system niche
View the documentConsumer perceptions
close this folderThe economics of PV household electrification
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View the documentSolar home systems vs. kerosene and automotive batteries
View the documentSolar home systems vs. grid-based power supply
View the documentLoad growth impact
close this folderBarriers to affordability
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View the documentFirst cost barriers
View the documentHigh transaction costs
View the documentMarket distortions
close this folderInstitutional models
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View the documentEnergy service company (ESCO)
View the documentLeasing arrangements
View the documentConsumer financing
View the documentCash sales
View the documentThe role of governments and donor agencies
View the documentRole of the world bank and other donors
close this folderAttaining financial sustainability
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View the documentTerms and conditions
View the documentPricing strategies
View the documentGrants and subsidies
View the documentEnforcing repayments
View the documentFinancing battery replacements
close this folderTechnical requirements
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View the documentHardware design
View the documentStandards and specifications
View the documentOther technical considerations
View the documentQuality control
View the documentMaintenance services
View the documentEducating users
close this folderBest practices: conclusions and recommendations
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentOvercome the first cost barrier
View the documentEstablish a sustainable infrastructure
View the documentQuality products and services
View the documentGovernment support
View the documentDonor support
close this folderAnnex 1 : ASTAE case studies in PV household electrification
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View the documentIndonesia
View the documentSri Lanka
View the documentThe Philippines
View the documentThe Dominican Republic
View the documentConclusions
close this folderAnnex 2 : Economic and financial comparisons of rural energy alternatives
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentEnergy requirements
View the documentCriteria for village selection
View the documentRural energy alternatives
View the documentLeast-cost comparison (economic basis)
View the documentLeast-cost comparison (financial basis)
View the documentCase studies: productive loads and load growth
View the documentConclusions
View the documentReferences
View the documentDistributors of World Bank Publications
View the documentRecent World Bank technical papers

Quality control

7.29 The solar home system programs in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, the Philippines, and the Dominican Republic demonstrate the importance of quality in manufacturing of systems and their installation. The need for quality assurance extends to component purchase as well as system assembly, testing, and installation. Solar home system installation should always be entrusted to trained technicians.

7.30 Quality assurance directly impacts the profitability of the solar home system business. Experience in China and Sri Lanka clearly shows the link between significant cost savings and high-volume procurement from reputable manufacturers of quality electronic components used in manufacturing controllers, switches and lights. Due to their low volume of production, system assemblers in China and Sri Lanka currently purchase components from local retail stores, where quality is suspect. This necessitates testing every key component (transistor, capacitor, inductor, etc.) for quality before assembly, thus reducing manufacturing productivity. Lower volume procurement from sources where quality is not assured also results in a higher percentage of returns, increased cost of warranty services and general decline in consumer satisfaction.

7.31 Some suppliers provide packaged kits that include all the solar home system components, lengths of wiring, bolts' nuts, terminal strips, wire connectors, and other hardware needed for each system. This prepackaged kit ensures that the installer uses only recommended equipment and will not have to improvise in the field. The installer also needs proper tools, including multimeter, compass, spirit level, hydrometer, and templates for tilt adjustment.

7.32 How well a solar home system is installed is as important as the quality of its components and assembly. Suppliers should develop installation standards and acceptance test procedures and require that these be used. Any "checklist" should include instructions on how to:

· Install the module (orienting it correctly, avoiding shading, minimizing wire runs, ensuring that the module support is securely attached to the roof beams, tightening the connections, and sealing the junction boxes);

· Locate and fasten the controller and battery enclosure properly;

· Attach switches, outlets, fixtures, and wiring (including which wire sizes to use, how to attach components neatly and securely to walls and ceilings, and how to secure electrical connections);

· Boost the battery charge before installation;

· Check all connections and ensure that the system operates properly before it is handed over to the user;

· Teach the user to operate the system safely; and

· Provide the user with the appropriate documentation, including warranty information, and any spare parts, if supplied, such as fuses and distilled water.