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close this bookRadio and Electronics (DED Philippinen, 66 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
close this folder1. INTRODUCTION
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View the document1.1. A TRIAL TO STATE A DEFINITION OF ELECTRONICS
View the document1.2. A SHORT HISTORY OF ELECTRONICS
View the document1.3. CLASSIFICATION OF ELECTRONIC DEVICES
close this folder2. PRINCIPLES OF RADIO COMMUNICATION UNICATION
View the document2.1. BASICAL IDEAS ABOUT COMMUNICATION
View the document2.2. DEVELOPMENT OF LONG DISTANCE COMMUNICATION
View the document2.3. FIDELITY AND DISTORTION
close this folder3. TRANSDUCERS
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View the document3.1. MICROPHONES
View the document3.2. LOUDSPEAKERS
View the document3.3. THE TELEPHON SYSTEM
View the document3.4. PROBLEM OF FREQUENCY RANGES
View the document3.5. BANDWIDTH
close this folder4. RADIOWAVES
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View the document4.1. ORIGIN OF RADIOWAVES
View the document4.2. PARAMETERS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES
View the document4.3. PROPAGATION OF RADIOWAVES
View the document4.4. SPECTRUM OF RADIOWAVES AND BANDS OF RADIOWAVES
close this folder5. MODULATION OF RADIOWAVES
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View the document5.1. THE AMPLITUDE MODULATION (AM)
View the document5.2. FREQUENCY MODULATION (FM)
View the document5.3. SIDEBANDS
View the document5.4. TRANSMISSION OF RADIOSIGNALS
close this folder6. RECEPTION OF RADIOSIGNALS (AM - TYPE)
View the document6.1. AERIAL
View the document6.2. THE TUNED CIRCUIT
View the document6.3. INCIDENTAL REMARK ON BLOCK DIAGRAMS
View the document6.4. DETECTOR OR DEMODULATOR
View the document6.5. POWER SUPPLY
View the document6.6. AMPLIFIER
View the document6.7. SUPERHET RECEIVER (the SUPER)
View the document6.8 INCIDENTAL REMARK ON MIXING FREQUENCIES
View the document6.9. CONSTRUCTION OF A SUPERHETRADIO
close this folder7. COMPONENTS OF MODERN RADIO RECEIVERS
View the document7.1.1. HANDLING OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS
View the document7.1.2. HANDLING OF PRINTED CIRCUITS
View the document7.1.3. DIFFERENTIATION OF COMPONENTS
close this folder8. PASSIVE COMPONENTS
View the document8.1. RESISTORS ELECTRICAL CHARACTERISTICS
View the document8.2. CAPACITORS
View the document8.3. INDUCTORS
close this folder8.4. COMBINATION OF PASSIVE COMPONENTS
View the document8.4.1. SERIES CONNECTION OF R AND C, OR R AND L
View the document8.4.2. COMBINATION OF L AND C, RESONANT (TUNED) CIRCUITS
close this folder8.4.3. TUNED CIRCUIT CONNECTED TO AN AC-VOLTAGE
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View the document8.4.4.1. QUALITY OF TUNED CIRCUITS
View the document8.4.4.2. BANDWIDTH
close this folder9. ACTIVE COMPONENTS -1- DIODES
View the document9.1. CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMICONDUCTORS
close this folder9.2. THE PN-JUNCTION OR DIODE
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View the document9.2.1. PN-JUNCTION CONNECTED TO VOLTAGE
View the document9.2.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF A PN-JUNCTION OR DIODE
View the document9.2.3. ZENERDIODE
close this folder10. BLOCKS OF RADIOS / -1- / POWER SUPPLIES
View the document10.1. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
View the document10.2. TRANSFORMER
View the document10.3. THE RECTIFIERS.
close this folder10.4. SMOOTHING AND FILTER CIRCUITS
View the document10.4.1. THE RESERVOIR CAPACITOR
View the document10.4.2. FILTER CIRCUITS
close this folder10.5. STABILIZATION
close this folder10.5.1. GENERAL REMARKS
View the document10.5.1.1. LOAD VARIATIONS
View the document10.5.1.2. INTERNAL RESISTANCE OF VOLTAGESOURCES
View the document10.5.1.3. PROBLEMS CAUSED BY THE SMOOTHING CIRCUIT
close this folder10.5.5. METHODS OF STABILIZATION
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View the document10.5.5.1. PARALLEL-STABILIZATION
View the document10.5.2.2. SERIES STABILIZATION
close this folder11. ACTIVE COMPONENTS -2- / TRANSISTORS
View the document11.1. CONSTRUCTION OF A TRANSISTOR
close this folder11.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSISTORS
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close this folder11.2.1 HANDLING OF CHARACTERISTICS OF TRANSISTORS
View the document11.2.1.1. CONSTRUCTION OF THE STATIC-MUTUAL-CHARACTERISTICS
View the document11.2.1.2. CONSTRUCTION OF THE DYNAMIC MUTUAL CHARACTERISTICS
View the document11.2.1.3. CONSTRUCTION OF THE MAXIMUM-POWER-LINE
close this folder12. AMPLIFIERS
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View the document12.1. STRUCTURE OF A CLASS A AMPLIFIER
View the document12.2. FUNCTION OF A SIMPLE CLASS A AMPLIFIER
View the document12.3. ADVANCED CLASS A AMPLIFIER
View the document12.4. STABILIZATION OF THE QUIESCENT VOLTAGE
close this folder13. CLASS B AMPLIFIERS
View the document13.1. LIMITS OF CLASS A AMPLIFIERS
View the document13.2. CLASS B AMPLIFIERS WITH TRANSFORMERS
View the document13.3. CLASS B AMPLIFIERS WITHOUT TRANSFORMERS
View the document13.4. POWER AMPLIFIER WITH COMPLIMENTARY TRANSISTORS.
View the document14. DETECTOR OR DEMODULATOR
View the document15. AGC-AUTOMATIC GAIN CONTROL
View the document16. IF-AMPLIFIERS
View the document17. FEEDBACK
View the document18. OSCILLATORS
View the document19. FREQUENCY CHANGERS MIXERSTAGE
View the document20. DECOUPLING CIRCUITS
View the document21. MATCHING OF AMPLIFIERSTAGES
View the document22. COUPLING OF AMPLIFIERSTAGES
close this folder23. RADIO SERVICING
View the document23.1. IMPORTANCE AND SUBJECT OF FAULT FINDING
View the document23.2. FAULTS AND FAULT FINDING
View the document23.3. FAULT FINDING METHODS
View the document24. THE USE OF THE OSCILLOSCOPE

11.2.1.1. CONSTRUCTION OF THE STATIC-MUTUAL-CHARACTERISTICS

Even if you find in a given four-quadrant-characteristics a so called mutual-characteristics this is very often not fitting, because this characteristics is changing when collecter-emitter-voltage is changing. For this reason it is necessary to know how this characteristics can be found for each voltage you want it.


fig. 131a

A) draw a vertical line into the 1. quadrant at the collector-emitter-voltage for which you want the mutual-characteristics.


fig. 131b

B) draw horizontal lines through the points at which this vertical line is crossed over by the lines of the output-characteristics.


fig. 131c

C) Find out the values of the base current represented by the crossed over lines in the output-characteristics and mark the horizontal lines at those values of the base-current in the 2. quadrant.


fig. 131d

D) Connect all the points which you have found to get a new graph - this is the mutual characteristics for the desired collector-emitter-voltage.


fig. 131e