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close this bookWater and Sanitation in Emergencies - Good Practice Review 1 (ODI, 1994, 120 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Objectives and Intended Audience
close this folder2. Water and Sanitation in the Context of Environmental Health
View the document2.1 Environmental Health
close this folder3. The Operating Environment: General Considerations
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 The political context
View the document3.2 Conflict areas
View the document3.3 Technological considerations
View the document3.4 Climatic considerations
View the document3.5 Common characteristics of displaced and resident populations
View the document3.6 Social and economic considerations
View the document3.7 Management considerations
close this folder4. The Operating Environment: Needs Assessment, Co-ordination and Contingency Planning
View the document4.1 Assessment of needs
View the document4.2 The importance of co-ordination
View the document4.3 The need for contingency planning within an emergency programme
close this folder5. Water: General Principles
View the document5.1 Quantity and quality considerations
View the document5.2 Options for providing increasing water supply
close this folder6. Sanitation: General Principles
View the document(introduction...)
View the document6.1 Latrines
View the document6.2 Other sanitation considerations
View the document6.3 Hygiene awareness
close this folder7. Typical Scenarios
View the document7.1 Introduction
View the document7.2 Population displacement into arid areas
View the document7.3 Population displacement into hilly and mountainous areas
View the document7.4 Population displacement into areas of abundant surface water
View the document7.5 Population displacement into existing settlements
View the document7.6 Resident population affected by drought
View the document7.7 Resident population affected by sudden-onset disasters
View the document7.8 Emergency water and sanitation programmes in urban areas
View the documentAnnex 1 - Further Resources
View the documentAnnex 2 - Useful Contacts and Addresses
View the documentAnnex 3 - Technical Guidelines
View the documentAnnex 4 - Checklist for Environmental Health Needs Assessment
View the documentAnnex 5 - Practical Ways to Prevent the Spread of Cholera
View the documentAnnex 6 - A Gender Checklist for Environmental Health Actions
View the documentAnnex 7 - Chlorine as a Water Disinfectant
View the documentGood practice RRN review
View the documentHow to order
View the documentRRN

3.4 Climatic considerations

Climate will have a major impact upon a water supply system. From an emergency point of view, constructing systems during the summer months in countries that experience winter and summer extremes can prove extremely challenging. The issue of freezing is the most obvious one to address and plan for.

The Tajik refugees came into Northern Afghanistan during December 1992. Temperatures were below freezing and the wind chill made it excruciatingly cold. Burying the pipes was possible and so they were not the main concern. It was the exposed parts of the distribution network, such as the small-diameter pipes to tapstands, gate valves and pumps that were most vulnerable. Large bodies of stored water are less of a problem than smaller quantities. Ways can be explored for burying storage tanks, or providing some form of insulated cover. Roofs over storage tanks need to be designed to withstand snow. Chlorine becomes far less effective with reduced temperatures and contact times therefore need to be significantly increased (see Annex 7). Consideration should also be given to how far people have to walk to collect water. Will this exposure time be a risk to them? What about snow and ice on the paths? This is particularly relevant in hilly areas.

Emergency programmes in the former Soviet Union and the former Yugoslavia have also had to deal with these problems.