2.0 Energy conservation
Energy conservation means using energy efficiently without
sacrifice, discomfort, reduction in economic activity. Energy conservation is
not only cheap and clean but can also be relatively quick and easy to carry out
(Ramachandra 1992). There are three ways to conserve energy, some involves
change in attitude, others change in life style.
(a) Conservation through improved efficiency of use like,
* Use of fuel efficient cook stoves instead of traditional
Improved fuel utilization and reduced smoke emission, together
are the goals of improved stoves. ASTRA Ole (improved cook stove) designed and
disseminated at rural households in Karnataka by our Institute, has efficiency
of 32 - 33% compared to the traditional stove efficiency of 5 - 10% (Ramachandra
* Improving automobile performance by good maintenance and
driving at a lower or more economical speed.
* Using fluorescent rather than incandescent lights which
provides better illumination in addition to saving electric power.
* Use of compact fluorescent lamps saves 75% of the energy from
incandescent bulbs plus lasts 10 times longer, saving labour hours from changing
bulbs as well as saving on electric bills.
* Replacing inefficient industrial equipments: In Karnataka
industrial consumption of commercial energy constitutes 44% of the total (Teddy
1990-91 Subramanian et al 1985). A survey conducted on 60 industries reveals
that 46.55% of total load is used for heating, machineries 47.25%, welding
1.10%, lighting 1.33% and others like street lighting etc. 3.77%. Since
electrical energy is high quality energy and as it is derived form of energy, it
is desirable to use it mainly for high quality of work - movements and
electrolysis etc. Electrical energy need not be used for heating activities
substitution of lower quality energy is desirable in all the industries for
heating purposes. Such a substitution will not only match source with end-uses,
but also increase efficiency of use.
Study conducted on the energy efficiency of some end-use devices
in an Electro metallurgical industry at Bangalore city reveals great scope for
conservation by improving the maintenance, educating workers about the energy
losses and replacement of inefficient end use equipments.
(b) Conservation by alternatives: For e.g. use of unburnt
compacted dense soil blocks in place of burnt bricks. At present brick is
manufactured in kilns or traditional clamps using firewood and the efficiency is
very poor. Study conducted on utilisation of firewood for brick manufacture
shows wide disparities ranging from consumption of 167 kg firewood per 1000
bricks to 700 kg firewood. Improved kiln/clamp with improved drying process
saves fuelwood (Kishore and Bansal 1988). Compaction of soil to make blocks
saves fuel wood completely and generate employment for rural areas.
* Walking or cycling instead of driving.
inefficient industrial process.
* Incorporation of frictionless foot-valves
and HDPE piping for irrigation pumpsets.
(c) Conservation by change
* Using public transport instead of private vehicles.
of LPG instead of electricity or kerosene for cooking in urban households
Using the sun and wind to dry washing instead of tumble dryer.
of electric water heater by solar water heater at home.
There are many barriers which prevent the achievement of more
efficient pattern of energy consumption:
(a) lack of capital for financing energy efficient
(b) lack of information and technical expertise about energy
(c) cooperation of large number of consumers and