|Ecologically Sound Energy Planning Strategies for Sustainable Development (Indian Institute of Sciences)|
From the discussion above it is clear that for sustainable development, it is necessary to increase the magnitude of energy inputs through increased supplies from renewable sources like solar water heaters, biogas, gasifier, mini-micro hydro electric plants, energy plantations (on wastelands) etc and conservation through improved efficiencies of the end use devices like cook stoves (thus saving of fuel wood), irrigation pumpsets etc.
About 27.72% energy could be saved in Industries sector. Which means about 1541 million units of electricity could be saved ( as per electricity statistics Industries sector in Karnataka has consumed about 5560 million units during 1991-92). This saved electricity is equivalent to electricity output of 300 MW installed capacity of generating stations. Environmental problems associated with mega projects, the increasing demand of states/ country and resource depletion make it increasingly imperative that our planners divert their attention towards improving efficiency in all sectors. This research illustrates that, there is ample scope to conserve energy in industries sector.
Cooking is the dominant end use activity. Use of highly efficient improved cook stoves and biogas would save fuelwood of the order of 20-30%. Water heating for bathing could be done through solar heaters. This reduces pressure on electrical energy in urban areas (all electric homes) and fuel wood in rural areas.
Decentralised renewable energy generation systems like community biogas plant, wood gasifier would provide employment, assured electricity supply, good drinking water (water pumping), good illumination at home and streets, revenue to the village and lead to the self reliance of the rural communities. Involvement of village community in the implementation and management, technical feasibility, economic viability of the decentralised system makes the system self sustaining. Renewable resources utilization would help in preserving the environment, reduces import of non-renewable resources like coal, oil etc., improves balance of payment and provides better protection of consumers.