The natural resource base in our world today is exposed to
constantly increasing pressures. Environmental problems are on the increase in
developing countries as well as in developed countries. In developing countries,
ecological stress strikes large and vulnerable population groups, and hinders
social and economic development in many areas.
In 1987 the World Commission on Environment and Development, in
their report "Our Common Future", described the problems we are facing, and the
measures which must be taken to solve them.
Environmental problems in the developing countries makes demand
on Norwegian development aid. Four Norwegian White Paper Nos. 36 (1985-85),34
(1986-87) and 51 (1991-92) on major questions concerning Norwegian aid to
developing countries, and No. 46 (1988-89) on Norway's follow-up of the
recommendations of the World Commission, have stressed the importance of taking
environmental issues into account in Norwegian assisted development aid
projects. In 1990 this was further articulated in the NORAD strategy paper
"NORAD in the nineties". In the NORAD strategy document Part II "Strategies for
bilateral aid" (1992) it is determined that all ongoing and planned development
aid projects must be assessed with regard to environmental impacts.
This booklet has been compiled to help NORAD desk officers and
planners to integrate environmental considerations into projects within water
supply, wastewater management, and irrigation at an early stage in the planning
process. It is one of a series of booklets presenting guidelines for
environmental impact assessment (EIA) of various types of development projects.
Experience and ideas from corresponding material compiled by other countries
(OECD, the World Bank) have been integrated in this