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close this bookInitial Environmental Assessment: Plant Protection - Series no 13 (NORAD, 1995)
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View the documentIntroduction
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View the documentWill the project
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Will the project

1. Lead to unintended spreading of pesticides by air? (cf. Chapter 3.1)

· Will spraying methods which can cause considerable unintended spraying of pesticides by air be used? If yes: What will be done to reduce the risks?

· Will the environmental conditions (climate, wind conditions, humidity) increase the risk of spreading by air?

· Will environmental conditions, spraying methods and the choice of pesticide lead to unintended spreading of pesticides by evaporation after the pesticide has reached the ground?

· Will environmental conditions and the choice of pesticide lead to unintended spraying by its binding to soil particles which can be transported by wind?

· Will there be spraying upwind of housing areas, with the risk of spreading by air to that area?

2. Lead to unintended spraying of pesticides on or through the soil? (cf. Chapter 3.21

· Is there a risk of spreading of pesticides on the surface of the soil by the surface water flow, the topographical conditions or by other environmental conditions? How?

· To what extent will soil preparation and/or soil erosion in the area affect the risk of spreading on the soil surface?

· Has the risk of accidents during the transport, storage and use of pesticides been considered, and the pollution of soil and water it may cause (see Chapter 1.5)? What will be done to reduce the risk of accidents?

· Will the chemical composition, drainage and structure of the soil affect the risk of spreading through the soil to for example ground water?

· What mitigative measures will be taken to avoid the risk of spreading?

3. Lead to pollution of water sources? (cf. Chapter 3.3)

· What is the risk of pesticide pollution of important surface sources and ground water sources? See questions under 1 and 2 above.

· What are the criteria for water quality in relation to pesticide residues in the drinking water? Are they safe?

4. Involve pesticides with slow degradation in the soil? (cf. Chapter 3.4)

· Will the climactic conditions (temperature, humidity), the micro-organisms in the soil and the nutrient source which can affect the degradation of pesticides be taken into consideration when selecting a pesticide?

· Should the pesticide he degraded to harmless materials by the time the intended effect of them has been achieved?

5. Affect flora, fauna and vulnerable ecosystems? (cf. Chapter 3.5)

· Is there a risk that pesticides can accumulate in food chains, resulting in poisonous material being spread from species to species and across great distances?

· Will the pesticides have a negative effect on soil organisms?

· Will the pesticides alter the composition of plant species in the area?

· Will the pesticides alter the composition of insect species in the area, with indirect impacts on flora and the function of the ecosystem?

· Will the pesticides affect the fishing resources in nearby watercourses?

· Will the pesticides be spread by local and migratory birds?

· How many non-target animals and plants may be affected by spraying over large areas?

· Is there a risk that biological control agents (insects etc.) which are being used in non-chemical plant protection in the area may be affected by pesticide projects?

· Will the project consider tile use of reduced pesticide doses while still achieving the desired effect?

6. Lead to health problems? (cf. Chapter 3.6)

· To what extent will the transport, storage and use of pesticides lead to a health risk for persons involved in the project?

· What measures will be taken to reduce the risk of hazardous contact with pesticides? Training, protective equipment etc.?

· Has it been certified that the drinking water will not be polluted by pesticides? (see questions 1, 2 and 3).

· Will the pesticides be stored safely so that intruders cannot gain access to them and be harmed or poisoned by them (children etc.)?

· Will all pesticide residues be handled properly to ensure that children have no access to packaging materials, cans etc.? (see additional questions under 8.)

· Will the pesticides be used securely so that there is no pesticide residues in food and fodder?

7. Have impacts on local communities, traditional ways of life, and utilisation of natural resources? (cf. Chapter 3.7)

· Will pesticides be an expensive investment for poor farmers so that they risk debt problems in the event of crop failure?

· Will the use of pesticides alter traditional manual jobs, such as weeding, resulting in higher local unemployment?

· Will men and women be affected differently with regard to the employment situation by the introduction of pesticides?

· Will the local population's definitions of weeds and useful plants come into conflict with the views of the pesticide project?

8. Other conditions.

· Have alternative plant protection methods been thoroughly considered, such as integrated pest management and mechanical control methods? (See Chapters 1.3.2 and 1.6.)

· Has the safe handling of pesticide wastes (residue, cans, etc.) been ensured? (Cf. booklet no. 11, "Waste management".)

· Have local institutions with information about local environmental conditions been contacted? How is this kind of information acquired in cases where there are no such institutions in existence?

· Are the local, national and international environmental requirements (such as the regulations and recommendations made by FAO and WHO) known?

Table 1: Common fungicides. (Cf. chapter 1.4

Name

Classification

Benomyl

B

Bitertanol

C

Bupirimate

C

Captan

A

Captafol

C

Carbendazim

A

Carboxin

B

Chlorthalonil

B

Copper-oxychloride

C

Copper-oxide

C

Dichlofluanid

C

Dinocap

C

Dodemorph

C

Dodine

B

Fenpronimorph

C

Fuberidazol

B

Guazatin

B

Imazalil

B

Iprodione

C

Maneb

B

Mancozeb

B

Metalaxyl

B

Oxadixyl

B

Prochloraz

B

Propamocarb

C

Propiconazole

C

Propineb

B

Pyrazophos

B

Sulphur

C

Tebuconazol

B

Thiabendazol

C

Thipohanat-methyl

B

Tolcophos-methyl

C

Tolylfluanid

C

Triforine

B

Vinclozolin

C

Zineb

B

Table 2: Common insecticides (Cf. chapter 1.4)

Name

Classlfication

Aldicarb

X

Azinphos-methyl

A

Chlorfenvinphos

A

CyDermethrin

B

Deltamethrin

B

Demeton-S-methyl

A

Diazinon

B

Dichorvos

A

Dimethoate

B

Dodin

B

Endosulfan

A

Ethiofencarb

B

Fenitrothion

B

Fenthion

B

Fenvalerate

C

Isofenphos

A

Malathion

B

Mevinphos

X

Parathion

X

Permethrin

C

Pirimicarb

B

Pyrethrins

C

Sulfatep

X

Table 3: Common herbicides. (Cf. chapter 1.4)

Name

Classification

2,4-D

B

Atrazine

C

Bentazone

C

Bromfenoxim

B

Chlorpropham

B

Cyanazine

B

Desmetryn

C

Difenzoquat

B

Dichlobenil

C

Dichlorprop

B

Diquat

B

EPTC

C

Glutosinate-ammonium

C

Glyphosate

C

Imazapyr

C

loxynil

A

Isoproturon

C

Linuron

C

MCPA

B

Mecoprop

B

Metoxuron

C

Metribuzin

C

Propachlor

C

Simazine

C

Terbuthylazine

B

Trifluralin

C


Table 4: The toxicity of insecticides, including the various main groups, acaricides, herbicides, and fungicides to the natural enemies of pests. Data from an American data base (from Croft 1990).