Cover Image
close this bookSoils, Crops and Fertilizer Use: A Field Manual for Development Workers (Peace Corps, 1986, 338 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbout this manual
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderChapter 1: Down to earth - Some Important Soil Basics
View the documentWhat is soil, anyway?
View the documentWhy do soils vary so much?
View the documentTopsoil vs. subsoil
View the documentThe mineral side of soil: sand, silt, and clay
View the documentDistinguishing ''tropical'' soils from ''temperate'' soils
View the documentOrganic matter - a soil's best friend
View the documentThe role of soil microorganisms
close this folderChapter 2: Trouble-shooting soil physical problems
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentGetting to know the soils in your area
View the documentSoil color
View the documentSoil texture
View the documentSoil tilth
View the documentSoil water-holding capacity
View the documentSoil drainage
View the documentSoil depth
View the documentSoil slope
close this folderChapter 3: Basic soil conservation practices
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentRainfall erosion
View the documentWind erosion
close this folderChapter 4: Seedbed preparation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe what and why of tillage
View the documentCommon tillage equipment
View the documentThe abuses of tillage and how to avoid them
View the documentMaking the right seedbed for the crop, soil, and climate
View the documentHow deep should land be tilled?
View the documentHow fine a seedbed?
View the documentSome handy seedbed skills for intensive vegetable production
close this folderChapter 5: Watering vegetables: When? How Often? How Much?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIt pays to use water wisely
View the documentSome common watering mistakes and their effects
View the documentFactors influencing plant water needs
View the documentOk, so get to the point! how much water do plants need and how often?
View the documentSome methods for improving water use efficiency
close this folderChapter 6: Soil fertility and plant nutrition simplified
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentLet's Make a Deal
View the documentHow plants grow
View the documentAvailable vs. unavailable forms of mineral nutrients
View the documentSoil negative charge and nutrient holding ability
View the documentSoil pH and how it affects crops growth
View the documentImportant facts on the plant nutrients
close this folderChapter 7: Evaluating a soil's fertility
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSoil testing
View the documentPlant tissue testing
View the documentFertilizer trials
View the documentUsing visual ''hunger signs''
close this folderChapter 8: Using organic fertilizers and soil conditioners
View the documentWhat are organic fertilizers?
View the documentOrganic vs. chemical fertilizers: which are best?
View the documentSome examples of successful farming using organic fertilizers
View the documentHow to use organic fertilizers and soil conditioners
close this folderChapter 9: Using chemical fertilizers
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhat are chemical fertilizers?
View the documentAre chemical fertilizers appropriate for limited-resource farmers?
View the documentAn introduction to chemical fertilizers
View the documentCommon chemical fertilizers and their characteristics
View the documentThe effect of fertilizers on soil pH
View the documentFertilizer salt index and ''burn'' potential
View the documentBasic application principles for N, P, and K
View the documentFertilizer application methods explained and compared
View the documentTroubleshooting faulty fertilizer practices
View the documentGetting the most out of fertilizer use: crop management as an integrated system
View the documentUnderstanding fertilizer math
close this folderChapter 10: Fertilizer guidelines for specific crops
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCereals
View the documentPulses (grain legumes)
View the documentRoot crops
View the documentVegetables
View the documentTropical fruit crops
View the documentTropical pastures
close this folderChapter 11: Liming soils
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe purpose of liming
View the documentWhen is liming needed?
View the documentHow to measure soil pH
View the documentHow to calculate the actual amount of lime needed
View the documentHow and when to lime
View the documentDon't overlime!
close this folderChapter 12: Salinity and alkalinity problems
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHow salinity and alkalinity harm crop growth
View the documentLab diagnosis of salinity and alkalinity
close this folderAppendixes
View the documentAppendix A: Useful measurements and conversions
View the documentAppendix B: How to determine soil moisture content
View the documentAppendix C: Spacing guide for contour ditches and other erosion barriers*
View the documentAppendix D: Composition of common chemical fertilizers
View the documentAppendix E: Hunger signs in common crops
View the documentAppendix F: Legumes for green manuring and cover-cropping in tropical and subtropical regions
View the documentAppendix G: Some sources of technical support
View the documentAppendix H: A bibliography of useful references

Lab diagnosis of salinity and alkalinity

Soil Analysis

Soil testing labs can measure the soluble salt content of soils through electrical conductivity tests. Since salts are electrolytes, the higher the salt content, the higher the electrical conductivity (EC or Ece). The readings are expressed in millimhos or micromhos. Readings can range fro. 0 to over 16 millimhos (16,000 micromhos).

TABLE 12-1

Soluble Salt Content of Soils and its Effect on Crop Growth

Electrical Conductivity (EC)




Less than 2

Less than 2000

No adverse effect.



Yields of some salt sensitive crops are affected.

Below 8

Below 8000

Crop must be moderately salt tolerant.



Crop must have good salt tolerance.

Above 16

Above 16000

No profitable cropping possible.

Labs can also measure the amount of adsorbed soil sodium to determine alkali danger.

Irrigation Water Analysis

The soluble salt, sodium, and boron content of irrigation water can also analyzed.

SOLUBLE SALTS: The U.S. Salinity Lab classifies irrigation water in 4 categories according to soluble salt level:

Class 1: Low Salinity

100-250 micromhos/cm of depth (0.1-0.25 millimhos/cm). Safe to use on nearly all crops and soils. Some leaching is needed to keep salts moving downward. Salinity problems may develop on poorly drained soils.

Class 2: Medium Salinity

251-750 micromhos/cm (0.25-0.75 millimhos/cm). Can be used to irrigate relatively permeable soils. Crops need to have medium salt tolerance, and leaching will be needed.

Class 3: High Salinity

751-2250 micromhos/cm (0.75-2.25 millimhos/cm). Only for salt-tolerant crops. Adequate drainage is a must as well as ample leaching.

Class 4: Very High Salinity

Above 2250 micromohos/cm (2.25 miIlimhos/cm). Can't be used for irrigation except under certain these conditions permeable soil, good drainage, and high water application rates to obtain good leaching.

SODIUM IN WATER: The sodium content of irrigation water can be accurately measured, but the potential toxicity depends on the proportion of sodium in the water relative the combined calcium and magnesium content. This is known as the Sodium Adsorbtion Ratio (S.A.R.) and is determined by the lab. As with soil, irrigation water can be grouped into 4 categories, ranging from Class 1 (low-sodium water) to Class 4 (high-sodium water), but the actual interpretation isn't as simple as it might appear.


Reclaiming Saline Soils

Since saline soils contain only soluble salts, leaching is the cure. In many cases, however, salinity is caused by a high water table, and leaching won't be effective until artificial drainage has been installed such as underground tile drains. Deep ripping (subsoiling) may be needed to break up any hardpan that is restricting drainage.

Either periodic leaching or continuous flooding may be used. Salt-tolerant crops like beets, cotton, and barley can be grown during reclamation if flooding isn't used. The amount of water needed for leaching depends on the soluble salt content of the soil and water and the final salt level desired. As a rough guide, about 50% of the soluble salts in the root zone can be removed with 15 cm of water applied per 30 cm depth of soil (15 cm = a layer of water 15 cm deep or the equivalent of 150 liters per sq. meter). About 80% of the salts can be removed by applying 30 cm of water per 30 cm depth depth of soil (300 liters per sq. meter).

The leaching requirement is the ratio of the salt content of the irrigation water to that of the soil. For example where an EC of 8 can be tolerated in the root zone and the irrigation water has an EC of 8 the leaching requirement is 2/8 or 25%. This means that 25% more water should be applied to a crop than is used up by evaporation and plant transpiration. (To help determine crop water needs, see Chapter 5 on water management).

Reclaiming Non-Saline Alkali Soils (Sodic-Soils)

Leaching alone won't remove the adsorbed sodium and insoluble sodium carbonate and bicarbonate. You need to add a soil amendment such as gypsum (calcium sulfate) first which reacts with the soil in 2 ways:

· It converts insoluble sodium salts like sodium bicarbonate into soluble sodium sulfate which is mobile and leachable.

· It also detaches the adsorbed sodium ions adhering to the clay and humus particles and replaces them with calcium. This also results in a lowering of soil pH after leaching.

The gypsom needs to be finely ground and should be hoed oe harrowed into the surface rather than turned under with a moldboard plow. (The turning action of a moldboard ends up leaving the gypsum poorly distributed in slots.)

The soil should be kept moist to promote the reaction of the gypsum and soil. At least 5000 kg/ha (500 g/sq. meter) of gypsum is needed, but the soils lab will determine the exact amount.

On those sodic soils containing calcium carbonate (lime), sulfur can be used instead of gypsum. The soil bacteria convert it to sulfate which then reacts with the calcium carbonate in the soil to form gypsum. Much less sulfur than gypsum is needed (1000 kg of sulfur have the effect of 5380 kg of gypsum). Allow 2-3 months between sulfur application and leaching to allow the conversion to gypsum. The presence of calcium carbonate can be detected by adding several drops of sulfuric or hydrochloric acid to a small amount of soil. If fizzing occurs, this indicates calcium carbonate.

An alternative to soil amendments: Recent research by the USDA has shown that sorghum-sudangrass hybrids can be effective in freeing adsorbed sodium on sodic soils containing calcium carbonate. Sorghum-sudangrass (often called sordan) roots release unusually high amounts of carbon dioxide; the CO2 dissolves soil calcium which can then displace the adsorbed sodium ions. Heavy irrigation is needed to flush away the freed sodium. Where suited, the use of sordan is much cheaper than gypsum and reclaims a greater depth of soil; it is also a nutritious cattle feed. However, plants less than 45 cm tall or those that have been drought-stricken or frosted contain toxic levels of hydrocyanic acid (prussic acid).

Reclaiming Saline-Alkali Soils (Saline-Sodic Soils)

As with sodic soils, leaching alone isn't effective on saline-sodic soils, because it removes only the soluble salts, leaving behind the adsorbed sodium. Free fro. the buffering effect of the soluble salts, the sodium can now exert its full effect in raising the pH and deteriorating soil physical condition. In other words, leaching, by itself, converts a salinesodic soil into a sodic soil! In a few cases, leaching without using gypsum or sulfur may be effective when the soil contains a large amount of soluble calcium or magnesium which can displace the adsorbed sodium.

Controlling the Buildup of Salinity and Alkalinity

It's seldom possible to permanently rid an affected soil of salinity and alkalinity, especially if the irrigation water is one of the causes. The beat strategy is to use management practices that favor crop growth on these soils and help keep salt content at tolerable levels. Here are some guidelines:

· Treatment of irrigation water: There's no economically feasible way to reduce the soluble salt content of irrigation water, but the sodium hazard can be virtually eliminated by adding gypsum to the water. Automatic gypsum metering devices can be bought or built, or a sack of gypsum placed in the irrigation ditch.

· Use of soil amendments: Gypsum or sulfur may need to be periodically applied where conditions are favorable for the development of sodic or saline-sodic conditions.

· Crop selection: Choose crops that are tolerant to saline and alkali conditions. Boron tolerance may be an important consideration too. Tables at the end of this chapter list co on crops and their tolerances.

· Improving soil drainage: Deep ripping of the soil or double-digging by hand (see Chapter 4) may be needed to break up hardpans or compacted layers to facilitate downward water movement.

· Improving soil physical condition: Organic fertilizers and soil conditioners (see Chapter 8) have an especially beneficial effect.

· Land leveling: This will smooth out depressions and rises to give more even distribution of irrigation water which will help prevent the development of pockets with high salt contents,

· Watering management: There are several watering practices that are vital in controlling salinity buildup in susceptible soils:

·· Water frequently to maintain a good soil moisture content to facilitate plant water uptake, which is hampered by the osmotic "pull" of the salts.

·· When watering, apply about 10-20% more water than needed in order to produce enough leaching for salt removal. Leaching assures that the soil salt content will never be higher than that of the irrigation water. Without leaching, soil salt content will gradually increase well above that of the water as salts accumulate instead of being flushed out.

·· Where furrow irrigation is used, increasing the water level in the furrows will aid in seed germination. Placing the seed or transplants just above the water line will help lessen salt buildup around them. (See Figure 12-1.)

·· Some sources recommend drip irrigation as a way to efficiently maintain good soil moisture and leaching of salts in the immediate plant area. Others caution that drip irrigation can produce salt buildup just as other methods do, especially at the borders between the wetted area and dry soil.

· Seedbed design: Furrow irrigation will cause salts to accumulate near the germinating seeds or the plants unless special attention is given to seedbed design. Figure 12-1 shows how bed design and irrigation techniques determine where salts accumulate and where seeds and plants should be situated.

FIGURE 12-1: Seedbed design and irrigation technique influence where salts accumulate. Single-row beds (A) with every furrow irrigated cause salt accumulation around plants. Conventional, multiple-row beds (B) or slanted, multiple-row beds (C) provide crop space in areas of lower salt concentration. Alternate furrow irrigation (D) concentrates salts in the unirrigated furrow away from crop roots.

TABLE 12-2 Relative Tolerance of Crops to Salinity' (Listed in order of decreasing salt tolerance within each "high", "medium", and "low" grouping)

TABLE 12-3 Relative Tolerance of Some Crops to Boron
(Listed in order of decreasing tolerance to boron within each group)