Cover Image
close this bookSoils, Crops and Fertilizer Use: A Field Manual for Development Workers (Peace Corps, 1986, 338 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbout this manual
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderChapter 1: Down to earth - Some Important Soil Basics
View the documentWhat is soil, anyway?
View the documentWhy do soils vary so much?
View the documentTopsoil vs. subsoil
View the documentThe mineral side of soil: sand, silt, and clay
View the documentDistinguishing ''tropical'' soils from ''temperate'' soils
View the documentOrganic matter - a soil's best friend
View the documentThe role of soil microorganisms
close this folderChapter 2: Trouble-shooting soil physical problems
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentGetting to know the soils in your area
View the documentSoil color
View the documentSoil texture
View the documentSoil tilth
View the documentSoil water-holding capacity
View the documentSoil drainage
View the documentSoil depth
View the documentSoil slope
close this folderChapter 3: Basic soil conservation practices
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentRainfall erosion
View the documentWind erosion
close this folderChapter 4: Seedbed preparation
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe what and why of tillage
View the documentCommon tillage equipment
View the documentThe abuses of tillage and how to avoid them
View the documentMaking the right seedbed for the crop, soil, and climate
View the documentHow deep should land be tilled?
View the documentHow fine a seedbed?
View the documentSome handy seedbed skills for intensive vegetable production
close this folderChapter 5: Watering vegetables: When? How Often? How Much?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIt pays to use water wisely
View the documentSome common watering mistakes and their effects
View the documentFactors influencing plant water needs
View the documentOk, so get to the point! how much water do plants need and how often?
View the documentSome methods for improving water use efficiency
close this folderChapter 6: Soil fertility and plant nutrition simplified
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentLet's Make a Deal
View the documentHow plants grow
View the documentAvailable vs. unavailable forms of mineral nutrients
View the documentSoil negative charge and nutrient holding ability
View the documentSoil pH and how it affects crops growth
View the documentImportant facts on the plant nutrients
close this folderChapter 7: Evaluating a soil's fertility
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentSoil testing
View the documentPlant tissue testing
View the documentFertilizer trials
View the documentUsing visual ''hunger signs''
close this folderChapter 8: Using organic fertilizers and soil conditioners
View the documentWhat are organic fertilizers?
View the documentOrganic vs. chemical fertilizers: which are best?
View the documentSome examples of successful farming using organic fertilizers
View the documentHow to use organic fertilizers and soil conditioners
close this folderChapter 9: Using chemical fertilizers
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhat are chemical fertilizers?
View the documentAre chemical fertilizers appropriate for limited-resource farmers?
View the documentAn introduction to chemical fertilizers
View the documentCommon chemical fertilizers and their characteristics
View the documentThe effect of fertilizers on soil pH
View the documentFertilizer salt index and ''burn'' potential
View the documentBasic application principles for N, P, and K
View the documentFertilizer application methods explained and compared
View the documentTroubleshooting faulty fertilizer practices
View the documentGetting the most out of fertilizer use: crop management as an integrated system
View the documentUnderstanding fertilizer math
close this folderChapter 10: Fertilizer guidelines for specific crops
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCereals
View the documentPulses (grain legumes)
View the documentRoot crops
View the documentVegetables
View the documentTropical fruit crops
View the documentTropical pastures
close this folderChapter 11: Liming soils
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe purpose of liming
View the documentWhen is liming needed?
View the documentHow to measure soil pH
View the documentHow to calculate the actual amount of lime needed
View the documentHow and when to lime
View the documentDon't overlime!
close this folderChapter 12: Salinity and alkalinity problems
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentHow salinity and alkalinity harm crop growth
View the documentLab diagnosis of salinity and alkalinity
close this folderAppendixes
View the documentAppendix A: Useful measurements and conversions
View the documentAppendix B: How to determine soil moisture content
View the documentAppendix C: Spacing guide for contour ditches and other erosion barriers*
View the documentAppendix D: Composition of common chemical fertilizers
View the documentAppendix E: Hunger signs in common crops
View the documentAppendix F: Legumes for green manuring and cover-cropping in tropical and subtropical regions
View the documentAppendix G: Some sources of technical support
View the documentAppendix H: A bibliography of useful references

Appendix H: A bibliography of useful references

NOTE: The International Research Institutes listed in Appendix G have some excellent references and troubleshooting guides available. The following catalog is a comprehensive guide to their publications and costs about $10 (U.S.) :

Publications on Internat. Agric. Research and Development, 1983, GTZ-CGIAR-IRRI, available from the Agribookstore, Winrock International, 1611 N. Kent St., Arlington, VA 22209, USA.

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION AND DEVELOPMENT

Africa in Crisis, L. Timberlake, 1985, Earthscan, 1717 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20036.

Agricultural Extension, Manual M-18, PC/ICE, 1983.

Coming Full Circle: Farmers' Participation in the Development of Technology, P. Mation et. al., 1984, available from Agribookstore, Winrock International, 1611 N. Kent St., Arlington, VA 22209, USA. $12.15.

Planning Technologies Appropriate to Farmers, D. Byerlee, 1980, available from Agribookstore (same address as above). $7.60.

Two Ears of Corn, Roland Bunch, World Neighbors, 5116 N. Portland, Oklahoma City, OK 73112. 2nd ea., 1985. Cost: $7.50 plus postage ($0.50 overseas surface, $5 overseas air. Also available through PC/ICE as publication AG-49.

AGROFORESTRY (See also Windbreaks)

Agroforestry in the Sahel, Fred Weber and Marilyn Hoskins, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., 1983. Available through PC/ICE as publication FC125

Agroforestry In-Service Training, PC/ICE manure T-16, 1984.

Casuarinas: Nitrogen-Fixing Trees for Adverse Sites, 1984, National Research Council. Available from Nat. Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418, USA. Also available from PC/ICE as publication FC46.

Forestry for Food Collection, Food and Agric. Org., United Nations, 1979. Reprinted by PC/ICE as publication FC35.

Leucaena: A Promising Forage and Tree Crop for the Tropics, 2nd ea., 1984, National Academy of Sciences, available from Nat. Academy Press, 2102 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418, USA. Also available from PC/ICE as publication FC15.

Proceedings of the Kenya National Seminar on Agroforestry, International Council for Research in Agroforestry, 1981. Available from PC/ICE as publication FC86

Workshop on Agroforestry Systems in Latin America, CIAT, 1979. Reprinted by PC/ICE as publication FC87.

CROP AND FORAGE PRODUCTION Field Crops (General reference)

Guide for Field Crops in the Tropics and Subtropics, USAID, 1976. Reprinted by PC/ICE as publication R-10.

Handbook of Tropical Food Crops, ed. by F. Martin, 1984. Covers cereals, pulses, root crops, vegetables, and fruits. CRC Press, 2000 Corporate Blvd. N.W., Boca Raton, FL 33431, USA. $94.50.

Traditional Field Crops, PC/ICE Manual M-13, 1981. Covers maize, sorghum, millet, cowpeas, beans, peanuts.

Cereal Crops

A Farmer's Primer on Growing Rice, IRRI, 1979, available from UNIPUB, 345 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10010, USA.

Modern Corn Production, Aldrich and Leng, 2nd. ea., 1978. Available from Thompson Publications, Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791, USA.

Pearl Millet, Rachie and Majmudar, Penn. State Univ., 1980.

Training Manual for Rice Production, IRRI, 1976, available from UNIPUB, 345 Park Ave. S., New York, NY 10010, USA.

Legumes (for food)

Food Legumes, Crop and Product Digest #3, 1979; Tropical Products Institute, 56/62 Grays Inn Rd., London WC1X8LU, U.K. Also available from PC/ICE as publication A&85.

Modern Soybean Production, Scott and Aldrich, 1979, Thompson Publications, Box 9335, Fresno, CA 93791, USA.

Tropical Legumes: Resources for the Future, 1979, National Academy of Sciences, Printing and Pub. Ofc., 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418. Available from PC/ICE as publication AG21. Covers leguminous root, pulse, fruit, and tree crops.

The Winged Bean: A High-Protein Crop for the Tropics, 1981 Nat. Academy of Sciences; available from Nat. Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418, USA.

Mixed Gardening and Fruit Trees

Handbook of Tropical Fruits and Spices, H. Bittenbender, 1984, Dept. of Horticulture, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI 48824, USA..

The Propagation of Tropical Fruit Trees, R. Garner, 1976, Commonwealth Agric. Bureau, Central Sales, Farnham Royal, Slough, SL2 3BN, UK. Cost: $32.75 + $12 overseas airmail. Available free from PC/ICE as publication FC111 only on a single-copy basis to PC offices/resource centers.

Techniques and Plants for the Tropical Subsistence Farm, 1980, Mayaguez Instit. of Tropical Agric., P.O. Box 70, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708. Available from PC/ICE as publication AG40.

Tropical Horticulture for Secondary Schools, Book Two, PATS Educational Foundation of Mirconesia, P.O. Box 39, Ponape, Caroline Islands 96941. Has sections on banana, breadfruit, and coconut.

The UNICEF Home Gardening Handbook, P. Sommers, 1981, UNICEF, United Nations. Available from PC/ICE as publication AG 66.

Pastures

A Guide to Better Pastures for the Tropics and Sub-tropics, 4th ea., L.R. Humphreys, 1980. Available for about $5 from Public Sales Officer, Tropical Grassland Society of Australia, 306 Carmody Rd., St. Lucia, Queensland 4067, Australia. Covers pasture management and specific pasture grasses and legumes.

Better Pastures for the Tropics, 1975, Arthur Yates and Co., P.O. Box 72, Revesby, NSW 2212, Australia. $5. Covers pasture management and specific pasture grasses and legumes.

Root Crops

Cassava Cultural Practices, 1980, Internat. Devel. Research Center, P.O. Box 8500, Ottawa, Canada K1G 3H9.

Tropical Horticulture for Secondary Schools, Book Two, PATS Educational Foundation of Micronesia, P.O. Box 39, Ponape, Caroline Islands 96941. Has section on sweetpotatoes, taro, yam, and cassava.

Tropical Root Crops: Production and Uses in Africa, 2nd Symposium of the Internat. Soc. for Tropical Root Crops, available from Agribookstore, Winrock International, 1611 N. Kent St., Arlington, VA 22209, USA. $15.00.

Vegetables

All about Tomatoes, Ortho Books, 1981, Chevron Chemical Co., 575 Market St., San Francisco, CA 94105, USA.

Amaranth: Modern Prospects for an Ancient Crop, 1984, Nat. Research Council; available from Nat. Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave., Washington, DC 20418, USA.

Gardening for Better Nutrition, A. Pacey, 1978, Intermediate Technology Publications, 9 King St., London WC2E 8HN, UK. Available through PC/ICE as publication AG74

Getting the Most from Your Garden, 1980, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 18049, USA.. Available from PC/ICE as publication AG 75 only to PC offices/resource centers.

Growing Vegetables in Fiji, Kirk Dahlgren, 1982, 120 pp. Available as a reprint from ECHO, RK #2, Box 852, North Ft. Meyers, FL 33903, USA. $4.00 per copy plus postage ($1.00 overseas surface, $3.50 overseas air).

Guide to Vegetables and Fruits, 1982, Rodale Press, Emmaus, PA 18049, USA.

Handbook of Tropical Vegetables, H. Bittenbender, 1983, Dept. of Horticulture, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI, 48824, USA.

Knott's Handbook for Vegetable Growers, Lorenz and Maynard, 2nd ea., 1980, John Wiley and Sons, New York. Available from PC/ICE.

Tomatoes in the Tropics, R. Villareal, 1980, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. Also available fro. the Agribookstore, Winrock International, 1611 N. Kent St., Arlington, VA 22209.

Tropical Horticulture for Secondary Schools, Book One, 2nd. ea., 1975, P.E.A.C.E. Foundation, 40 E. 49th St., New York, NY 10017. Available through PC/ICE as publication AG86.

Tropical Leaf Vegetables in Human Nutrition, Oomen & Grubben, 1977, Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Available from PC/ICE as publication AG88.

Vegetable Growing Handbook, W. Splittstoesser, 1979, AVI Publishing Co., Westport, Connecticut, USA.

Vegetables for the Hot-Humid Tropics, Martin, 1978, Mayaguez Tropical Agric. Research Service, P.O. Box 70, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00708, USA. Available from PC/ICE as publication AG 140. Covers amaranth, chaya, eggplant, pepper, okra, winged bean.

Vegetables in the Tropics, H. Tindall, 1983, AVI Pub. Co., 1983. Available free from PC/ICE as publication AG29 only to PC offices/resource centers.

IRRIGATION

Drip Irigation, Publication 2740, Univ. of Cal. Agr. Expt. Station, available from ANH Publications, Univ. of California, 6701 San Pablo Ave., Oakland, CA 94608-1239. $1.00.

Drip Irrigation Management, Publication 21259, Univ. of Cal. Agr. Expt. Station, same address as above. $3.75.

Improving Irrigated Agriculture, World Bank Staff Working Paper #531, World Bank, 1818 H St. N.W., Washington, DC 20433, USA.

Irrigation Principles and Practices, PC/ICE Manual R-5, 1969.

Small Scale Irrigation, Peter Stern, International Technology Publications Ltd., address unknown.

The following 4 publications are available from the Water Management Synthesis Project, University Services Center, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, USA:

Land Levelling Planning Guide #1, D. Lattimore, 1981.

Small Farm, Self-Help Irrigation Projects, Planning Guide #5, Embry and Adams, 1983.

Water Management on Small Farms: A Training Manual for Farmers in Hill Areas, L.J. Salazar, 1983.

Water Management on Small Farms: A Training Manual for Farmers in Hill Areas: Instructor's Guide, L. Salazar, 1983.

SOIL CONSERVATION, WINDBREAKS General Soil Conservation

A Manual on Conservation of Soil and Water, USDA, 1954. Available as reprint R-38 from PC/ICE.

Conservation in Arid and Semi-arid Zones, F.A.O. Conservation Guide #3, 1976. Available through PC/ICE as publication FC02.

Manual of Reforestation and Erosion Control for the Philippines, published by the German Agency for Technical Cooperation, 1976 but available from PC/ICE as a reprint.

Windbreaks (See also Agroforestry)

Agroforestry in the Sahel, Fred Weber and Marilyn Hoskins, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., 1983. Available through PC/ICE as publication FC125.

Conservation in Arid and Semi-arid Zones, listed under Soil Conservation.

Environmentally Sound Small-scale Forestry Projects, CODEL/VITA, 1983. Available from PC/ICE as publication FC123.

Eucalypts for Planting, Forestry Series No. 11, Food and Agric. Org., United Nations, 1979. Available free through PC/ICE as publication FC122 only to PC offices/resource centers.

Firewood Crops, Vols. I and II, National Acad. of Sciences, 1980. Available through PC/ICE as publications FC42, FC46.

Reforestation in Arid Lands, Peace Corps/ICE Manual M-$, 1976. Available in English or French.

SOIL MANAGEMENT AND FERTILIZER USE

Hunger Signs in Crops, H. Sprague, 1979, David McKay Co., New York, USA.

The Nature and Properties of Soils, N. Brady, 8th ea., 1974, Macmillan Pub. Co., New York, USA.

Organic Farming: Current Technology and its Role in a Sustainable Agriculture, Amer. Soc. of Agronomy Special Pub.

#46, 1984, Amer. Soc. of Agronomy, 677 S. Segoe Rd., Madison, Wisconsin 53711, USA.

Southern Gardener's Soil Handbook, W. Peavy, 1979, Pacesetter Press, Box 2608, Houston, TX 77001, USA.

Western Fertilizer Handbook, 1982, Interstate Printers & Publishers, Danville, IL 61832. Available from PC/ICE as publication AG44.