|Asbestos Overview and Handling Recommendations (GTZ, 1996)|
|Part I. Introduction|
|3. Definition of terms|
|Part II. Asbestos|
|1. Introductory part: Asbestos - Deposits, uses, types, characteristics|
|1.1 Types, deposits, and uses of Asbestos, chemical structure|
|1.2 Mineralogical and mechanical properties of Asbestos|
|1. 3 Analytical methods of determining Asbestos fibers|
|2. Legal regulations for the production, introduction to the market and use of Asbestos containing materials and Asbestos products|
|2.1 Federal Republic of Germany|
|2.2 Directives of the European Community|
|2.3 United States of America|
|2.4 Standards in other countries (incl. developing countries)|
|2. 5 International standards: International Labor Organization|
|3. Environmental aspects and health hazards due to Asbestos|
|3.4 Other health hazards|
|3.5 Risk determination|
|4. Application areas of Asbestos materials and Asbestos products|
|4. 1 Introduction|
|4.2 The meaning of composite fibrous materials|
|4.3 Asbestos in the building construction area|
|5. Occupational safety measures in handling Asbestos|
|5.1 Suitable fiber binding|
|5.2 Wet operations|
|5.4 Vacuuming of dust near the point of origin|
|5.5 Limiting the areas in which Asbestos dust may arise|
|5.6 Personal respiratory protection|
|5.7 Regular and thorough cleaning of workplaces|
|5.8 Dust-free waste collection and landfill disposal|
|6 Aspects of Asbestos abatement and disposal of Asbestos containing materials|
|6.1 Evaluation guidelines on the urgency of abatement|
|6.2 Asbestos abatement techniques|
|6.3 Disposal of Asbestos containing materials|
|Part III. Asbestos substitutes|
|1. Technical requirements for Asbestos substitutes|
|2 Properties of typical Asbestos fiber substitutes - Overview|
|3 Fiber substitutes for Asbestos fibers in the building area|
|3.1 Non-textile fibers made of glass wool rock wool and mineral wool as well as ceramic wools|
|3.3 Cellulose fibers|
|3.5 Polyvinylalcohol (PVA)|
|3.6 Polypropylene (PP)|
|3. 7 Summary|
|4 Fiber-free substitutes in construction area|
|4.1 Fiber-free substitutes in housing construction|
|4.2 Fiber-free substitutes in water mains construction|
|Part IV Country analysis|
|2 Asbestos in developing countries|
|3 Use and effects of Asbestos cements in developing countries|
|4 Country profiles|
|4.3 Republic of China|
|4.6 South Africa|
|5.1 Economic Implication|
|5.3 Research and Development|
|5.5 Risk philosophy|
|Part V Development of handling recommendations|
|2 Overview of rules of other donor organizations and financial institutions on the management of Asbestos problems|
|2.1 World bank|
|2.2 International Asbestos association (IAA), Paris|
|2.3 European bank for reconstruction and development (EBRD), London|
|2.4 European investment bank (EIB)|
|2.5 International bank for reconstruction and development (IBRD)|
|2.6 Asian development bank Bangkok (ADB) - no guidelines|
|2.7 African development bank, Nairobi|
|2.8 UNEP - United Notions Environmental Program, Washington|
|3 Risk philosophy|
|4 Design of a catalogue of recommendations on the management of Asbestos in plans for joint developmental/political projects|
|Part Vl Literature|
|Part VII Annexes|
|Annex 1: Maps on the deposits of Asbestos, Asbestos consumption and commercial trade of raw Asbestos|
|Annex 2: Health and safety data sheet for Asbestos cement in UK|
|Annex 3: Asbestos fiber emissions from particular processes|
|Annex 4: US Federal Regulations for Asbestos|
|Annex 5: Commercial names of Asbestos containing products|
|Annex 6: Advantages and disadvantages of Asbestos abatement methods|
|Annex 7: Asbestos data from the environmental handbook Vol. III: Compendium of environmental standards|
|Annex 8: Questionnaire on country profiles regarding Asbestos|
Information on Asbestos in Tunesia is relatively hard to obtain. This is partly because different official positions are responsible for this matter, and their cooperation with eachother is currently limited.
Another reason is that the topic of Asbestos is not given special attention. In Tunesia Asbestos is classified as every other building material, without consideration of its potential dangers.
Asbestos is not produced in Tunesia. In 1991 about 7,000 t
Asbestos were imported - primarily crocidolite and chrysotile. The imported
fibers are processed into products such as Asbestos cement, insulation material
or brake linings in 20 plants, which employ around 650 workers. The plants are
between 5 and 30 years old and generally use out-dated production methods,
compared to the western state of technology.
In Tunesia there is currently no legal regulations on the use of Asbestos.
The National Institute for Norms and Private Possession (INNOPRI) has only developed an industrial norm which refers to the health problems in handling Asbestos (NT 36.11). In 13 other industrial norms Asbestos is treated as a conventional building material (NT 21.12, NT 21.20, NT 21.47 through NT 21.49, NT 21.51 through NT 21.55). Furthermore, Tunesia has a general Occupational Protection Ordinance (Ordinance N=68.328 from 22 October, 1968), under which the Asbestos subject could perhaps be (indirectly) addressed.
One study on the health risks of handling Asbestos was recently performed in Tunesia by the uppermost health authority (Institut Superieure de Sante et Travaille, lSST) as commissioned by the Social Ministry. This study was due to be completed in January 1994, and will be published by ISST.
ISST has also initiated the founding of a "continual Asbestos committee." The members of this committee meet monthly to discuss and coordinate the research activities of ISST.
No information could be received on the private initiatives
concerning research and development in the area of Asbestos substitutes. It is
presumed that there are currently no such activities in this sector.
There are no activities in Tunesia on the direct substitution of
Asbestos products due to their health risks. Asbestos substitutes are therefore
only used, if they have corresponding cost advantages in manufacturing or
application. For example, plastic pipes or simple cement pipes for water mains
and bitumen sheets for roof coverings could be named. These substitutes can
largely be manufactured within the country.
4.7.5 Risk Philosophy
In Tunesia neither the authorities nor private industries have a special awareness of the problems related to Asbestos.
Neither Asbestosis nor mesothelioma are recognized as occupational illnesses. Correspondingly, no worker's compensation is paid.
The only exception is the intiative of the ISST. According to this institute, after the conclusion of their study study, the following measures should be instigated: an import prohibition for crocidolite; the performance of air measurements; and the ratification of ILO Guideline No. 162 by the parliament. These should also be accompanied by measures such as medical supervision programs and employee training.
How such measures are to be performed is still largely unclear. They fall under the responsibility of the Health Ministry, the Social Ministry and the Economics Ministry.
In Tunesia there are currently no laboratory capacities for Asbestos air measurements. It is expected that corresponding measuring programs will be performed by the Social Ministry.