Cover Image
close this bookAsbestos Overview and Handling Recommendations (GTZ, 1996)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgments
View the documentPreface
close this folderPart I. Introduction
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2. Structure
View the document3. Definition of terms
close this folderPart II. Asbestos
close this folder1. Introductory part: Asbestos - Deposits, uses, types, characteristics
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1.1 Types, deposits, and uses of Asbestos, chemical structure
View the document1.2 Mineralogical and mechanical properties of Asbestos
View the document1. 3 Analytical methods of determining Asbestos fibers
close this folder2. Legal regulations for the production, introduction to the market and use of Asbestos containing materials and Asbestos products
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View the document2.1 Federal Republic of Germany
View the document2.2 Directives of the European Community
View the document2.3 United States of America
View the document2.4 Standards in other countries (incl. developing countries)
View the document2. 5 International standards: International Labor Organization
close this folder3. Environmental aspects and health hazards due to Asbestos
View the document3.1 Introduction
View the document3.2 Asbestosis
View the document3.3 Mesothelioma
View the document3.4 Other health hazards
View the document3.5 Risk determination
close this folder4. Application areas of Asbestos materials and Asbestos products
View the document4. 1 Introduction
View the document4.2 The meaning of composite fibrous materials
View the document4.3 Asbestos in the building construction area
close this folder5. Occupational safety measures in handling Asbestos
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View the document5.1 Suitable fiber binding
View the document5.2 Wet operations
View the document5.3 Enclosure
View the document5.4 Vacuuming of dust near the point of origin
View the document5.5 Limiting the areas in which Asbestos dust may arise
View the document5.6 Personal respiratory protection
View the document5.7 Regular and thorough cleaning of workplaces
View the document5.8 Dust-free waste collection and landfill disposal
close this folder6 Aspects of Asbestos abatement and disposal of Asbestos containing materials
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View the document6.1 Evaluation guidelines on the urgency of abatement
View the document6.2 Asbestos abatement techniques
View the document6.3 Disposal of Asbestos containing materials
close this folderPart III. Asbestos substitutes
View the document1. Technical requirements for Asbestos substitutes
View the document2 Properties of typical Asbestos fiber substitutes - Overview
close this folder3 Fiber substitutes for Asbestos fibers in the building area
View the document(introduction...)
View the document3.1 Non-textile fibers made of glass wool rock wool and mineral wool as well as ceramic wools
View the document3.2 Wollastonite
View the document3.3 Cellulose fibers
View the document3.4 Polyacrylnitril
View the document3.5 Polyvinylalcohol (PVA)
View the document3.6 Polypropylene (PP)
View the document3. 7 Summary
close this folder4 Fiber-free substitutes in construction area
View the document4.1 Fiber-free substitutes in housing construction
View the document4.2 Fiber-free substitutes in water mains construction
close this folderPart IV Country analysis
View the document1. Introduction
View the document2 Asbestos in developing countries
View the document3 Use and effects of Asbestos cements in developing countries
close this folder4 Country profiles
View the document4.1 Australia
View the document4.2 Chile
View the document4.3 Republic of China
View the document4.4 India
View the document4.5 Israel
View the document4.6 South Africa
View the document4.7 Tunisia
View the document4.8 USA
close this folder5 Summary
View the document5.1 Economic Implication
View the document5.2 Legislation
View the document5.3 Research and Development
View the document5.4 Substitutes
View the document5.5 Risk philosophy
close this folderPart V Development of handling recommendations
View the document1. Introduction.
close this folder2 Overview of rules of other donor organizations and financial institutions on the management of Asbestos problems
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.1 World bank
View the document2.2 International Asbestos association (IAA), Paris
View the document2.3 European bank for reconstruction and development (EBRD), London
View the document2.4 European investment bank (EIB)
View the document2.5 International bank for reconstruction and development (IBRD)
View the document2.6 Asian development bank Bangkok (ADB) - no guidelines
View the document2.7 African development bank, Nairobi
View the document2.8 UNEP - United Notions Environmental Program, Washington
View the document3 Risk philosophy
View the document4 Design of a catalogue of recommendations on the management of Asbestos in plans for joint developmental/political projects
View the documentPart Vl Literature
close this folderPart VII Annexes
View the documentAnnex 1: Maps on the deposits of Asbestos, Asbestos consumption and commercial trade of raw Asbestos
View the documentAnnex 2: Health and safety data sheet for Asbestos cement in UK
View the documentAnnex 3: Asbestos fiber emissions from particular processes
View the documentAnnex 4: US Federal Regulations for Asbestos
View the documentAnnex 5: Commercial names of Asbestos containing products
View the documentAnnex 6: Advantages and disadvantages of Asbestos abatement methods
View the documentAnnex 7: Asbestos data from the environmental handbook Vol. III: Compendium of environmental standards
View the documentAnnex 8: Questionnaire on country profiles regarding Asbestos

4.7 Tunisia

4.7.1 General Overview

Information on Asbestos in Tunesia is relatively hard to obtain. This is partly because different official positions are responsible for this matter, and their cooperation with eachother is currently limited.

Another reason is that the topic of Asbestos is not given special attention. In Tunesia Asbestos is classified as every other building material, without consideration of its potential dangers.

Asbestos is not produced in Tunesia. In 1991 about 7,000 t Asbestos were imported - primarily crocidolite and chrysotile. The imported fibers are processed into products such as Asbestos cement, insulation material or brake linings in 20 plants, which employ around 650 workers. The plants are between 5 and 30 years old and generally use out-dated production methods, compared to the western state of technology.

4.7.2 Legislation

In Tunesia there is currently no legal regulations on the use of Asbestos.

The National Institute for Norms and Private Possession (INNOPRI) has only developed an industrial norm which refers to the health problems in handling Asbestos (NT 36.11). In 13 other industrial norms Asbestos is treated as a conventional building material (NT 21.12, NT 21.20, NT 21.47 through NT 21.49, NT 21.51 through NT 21.55). Furthermore, Tunesia has a general Occupational Protection Ordinance (Ordinance N=68.328 from 22 October, 1968), under which the Asbestos subject could perhaps be (indirectly) addressed.

Due to the lack of legal norms, there are neither limits for the handling of Asbestos nor corresponding federal supervision in this area.

4.7.3 Research and Development

One study on the health risks of handling Asbestos was recently performed in Tunesia by the uppermost health authority (Institut Superieure de Sante et Travaille, lSST) as commissioned by the Social Ministry. This study was due to be completed in January 1994, and will be published by ISST.

ISST has also initiated the founding of a "continual Asbestos committee." The members of this committee meet monthly to discuss and coordinate the research activities of ISST.

No information could be received on the private initiatives concerning research and development in the area of Asbestos substitutes. It is presumed that there are currently no such activities in this sector.

4.7.4 Substitutes

There are no activities in Tunesia on the direct substitution of Asbestos products due to their health risks. Asbestos substitutes are therefore only used, if they have corresponding cost advantages in manufacturing or application. For example, plastic pipes or simple cement pipes for water mains and bitumen sheets for roof coverings could be named. These substitutes can largely be manufactured within the country.

4.7.5 Risk Philosophy

In Tunesia neither the authorities nor private industries have a special awareness of the problems related to Asbestos.

Neither Asbestosis nor mesothelioma are recognized as occupational illnesses. Correspondingly, no worker's compensation is paid.

The only exception is the intiative of the ISST. According to this institute, after the conclusion of their study study, the following measures should be instigated: an import prohibition for crocidolite; the performance of air measurements; and the ratification of ILO Guideline No. 162 by the parliament. These should also be accompanied by measures such as medical supervision programs and employee training.

How such measures are to be performed is still largely unclear. They fall under the responsibility of the Health Ministry, the Social Ministry and the Economics Ministry.

In Tunesia there are currently no laboratory capacities for Asbestos air measurements. It is expected that corresponding measuring programs will be performed by the Social Ministry.