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close this bookRelated Agroforestry Livelihood (IIRR, 1992, 30 p.)
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View the documentWorkshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)
Open this folder and view contentsList of participants
View the documentCurrent program thrusts in upland development
Open this folder and view contentsMedicinal uses of upland vegetation (including plant essences)
Open this folder and view contentsBio-intensive gardening with agroforestry
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Open this folder and view contentsSmall water-impounding technologies

(introduction...)

Agroforestry Technology Information Kit (ATIK)
November 1992

International Institute of Rural
Reconstruction (IIRR)
Silang 4118, Cavite, Philippines
Tel. No. (0969) 94-51
Fax No. (632) 522-24-94

Department of Environment
and Natural Resources (DENR)
Visayas Ave., Diliman
Quezon City, Philippines

Ford Foundation (FF)
6th Floor, Dona Narcisa Bldg.
Paseo de Roxas, Makati
Metro Manila, Philippines

ISBN: 0-942717-31-7

Message

Agroforestry, the land management system of incorporating crop production with tree and/or livestock production, evolved to become one of the most widely promoted tools for sustaining development in the uplands. To supplement the materials used by upland development extension workers in promoting agroforestry, a group of specialists, technicians and farmers from 11 government and nongovernment organizations met at the invitation of the International Institute of Rural Reconstruction in Silang, Cavite in November 1989 to develop the Agroforestry Technology Information Kit (ATIK). In November 1992, some of the specialists, together with some farmers and an additional number of specialists and technicians, met again at IIRR to revise the ATIK.

The updated kit is handy, easy-to-understand and full of illustrations. It widely uses indigenous technologies. With this kit, it is hoped that extension workers and upland dwellers develop a better understanding and appreciation of agroforestry. The success of agroforestry as a tool for sustaining upland development, however, will depend on how this tool is introduced and implemented. Sustainable agroforestry systems can only be attained if upland dwellers are involved in the planning and establishment of such systems.

I commend all those involved in the production of this useful kit.

Workshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)

The first workshop to develop the Agroforestry Technology Information Kit - now more popularly known as ATIK - was conducted by the International of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) in its Silang Campus, Cavite, Philippines, on November 4-13, 1989. There were 39 participants to this workshop who came from 11 government and nongovernment organizations (GOs and NGOs).

ATIK was produced primarily for use by DENR technicians who have been implementing the Social Forestry Program nationwide. DENR conducted a nationwide survey among its staff who were involved in the implementation of its Integrated Social Forestry Program and also primary users of ATIK. A questionnaire was formulated, focused on the actual experiences of these technicians in using the ATIK and on specific revisions they proposed to make on the kit. A Planning Committee was created to study the technicians' proposed modifications to the ATIK, as well as to plan for the workshop to revise it. The committee was composed of For. Domingo Bacalla of DENR, For. Moises Butic of DENR, Ms. Rowena Cabahug of UPLB College of Forestry, Dr. Romulo del Castillo of UPLB College of Forestry, Ms. Remedios Evangelista of DENR, Dr. Julian Gonsalves of IIRR, Mr. Scott Killough of IIRR and Mr. Jaime Ronquillo of IIRR.

The workshop to revise the ATIK took place also in IlRR's Campus in Silang, Cavite, on November 16-21, 1992, with 45 participants representing 13 agencies. These agencies included: the Department of Environment and Natural Resources; Farm and Resource Management Institute; Southern Mindanao Agricultural Programmer Mag-uugmad Foundation, Inc.; University of the Philippines at Los Banos; Upland Development Program/Sungay Upland Farmers' Golden Harvest Association; Soil and Water Conservation Foundation; Quirino Livelihood Concept and Development Resource Center, Inc.; Winrock International; Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center; Visayas State College of Agriculture; International Rice Research Institute; and, IIRR.

In the workshop, the same process for materials production was followed. Old sheets and first drafts of new topics were presented by the authors in plenary sessions. These materials then underwent continuous improvements through the critiquing of the other workshop participants. Communication experts (writers, editors, layout and design artists) were on hand to assist the authors in revising/preparing the texts, illustrations and designs of their papers. Before the materials were prepared in a camera-ready format, they were submitted to their authors for final review and revision to ensure that the additional corrections were incorporated.

The major revisions of ATIK are the following:

A. Format

1. From a set of loose-leaf single sheets in folder/binder to six, pocket-size (4" x 7") booklets, individually classified and bound according to major topics

2. Using simple, white, ordinary bookpaper, rather than the thicker, colored and more expensive bristol board

3. Using a thick binder to hold the six booklets, instead of an individual folder for each kit.

B. Content

1. Some old topics which were found not relevant/useful from the survey were dropped from the kit.

2. Other topics were revised, focusing on the specific needs of the DENR technicians.

3. Additional, new topics were included, again to respond to the expressed needs of the technicians.

4. Many old topics - which were adapted by farmers -- remained as they were.

The revised ATIK -- with its new format and content is expected to further facilitate the work of DENR's 1,200 technicians in its Integrated Social Forestry (ISF) Program nationwide. Ultimately, the kit will help enable DENR's ISF's program to give the Filipino uplanders access to forest lands for a tenure of 25 years or more.

Workshop to revise the agroforestry technology information kit (ATIK)
November 16-21, 1992
IIRR, Silang, Cavite

Authors/Resource Persons

1. Ms. Nita Abena Veterinarian, Appropriate Technology Unit
International Institute of Rural
Reconstruction (IIRR)
Silang 4118, Cavite

2. Ms. Emma Aguilar Community Development Officer DENRCENRO, Barotac Nuevo, Iloilo

3. Mr. Pio B. Apostol CDA/Project Leader Patlabawon ISF Upland Farmers Aasociation, Inc. Patlabawon, Patnongon, Antique c/o DENR Region 6, lloilo City

4. Mr. Laurito Arizala Crops Specialist IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

5. Dr. Edwin Balbarino Field Coordinator, Matalom Upland Dev't. Project Farm and Resource Management Institute (FARMI) VISCA, Baybay, Leyte

6. Mr. Carlos S. Basilio Agricultural Administration Specialist IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

7. Mr. Cristituto G. Bual Assistant Section Chief, Extension Services Division Southern Mindanao Agricultural Programme (SMAP) Bago Oshiro, Davao City

8. Mr. Agustin Calanao Farmer, NISFFAI Nazuni Dingle, lloilo

9. Mr. Jose D. Cansancio CDA Il/Forest Community Organizer DENR Upland Development Program Region Xl-4A, Digos, Davao del Sur

10. Mr. Lapu-lapu Cerna President, Mag-uugmad Foundation, Inc. (MFI) 39-2 Rodriguez Apartment, Pelaez St., Cebu City Tel. No. 220197

11. Dr. Roberto E. Coronel Associate Professor, Institute of Plant Breeding University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna

12. Mr. Ricardo El. S. Dayrit Specialist, Livestock Production IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

13. Ms. Maxima Dandasan Farmer UDP/Sungay Upland Farmers Golden Harvest Assn. Sungay, Alubijid, Misamis Oriental

14. Mr. Terrence E. Davis Extension and Training Specialist Southern Mindanao Agricultural Program (SMAP) Department of Agriculture, Davao City Tel. No. 82-79767; Fax No. 8262766

15. Dr. Reynaldo dela Cruz Professor, Department of Forest Biological Sciences
College of Forestry, UPLB, College, Laguna Tel. No. 94-2725/94-2773; Fax No. 94-2721

16. Dr. Zosimo deja Rosa Associate Professor, FARMI-VISCA Farmers' Village, VISCA, Baybay, Leyte Tel. No. 521-2027

17. Ms. Ines Fehrman Volunteer, Appropriate Technology Unit International Institute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR) Silang 4118, Cavite

18. Dr. Pam Fernandez Agronomy Department University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna

19. Mr. Rufino C. Garcia Research Associate Department of Forest Biological Science UPLB, College, Laguna

20. Mr. Bill Granert Managing Director Soil and Water Conservation Foundation P.O. Box 309, Cebu City Tel. No. 92312195528; Fax No. 922312

21. For. Nick Iscala Social Forestry Department Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Visayas Ave., Diliman, Quezon City

22. Ms. Aida B. Lapis Supervising Science Research Specialist Ecosystem Research and Development Bureau (ERDB) College, Laguna Tel. No. 2269 loc. 267; Fax No. 6394-3628

23. Dr. Rodel Lasco Assistant Professor UPLB Agroforestry Program College of Forestry UPLB, College, Laguna Tel. No. 2599/3657/2657 Fax No. (94) 32 06

24. Dr. Ulysses Lustria Director of Extension and Assistant Professor University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna Tel. No. 3358

25. Mr. Roger Magbanua International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) P.O. Box 933, Manila

26. Mr. Dominador A. Martinez Project Director Quirino Livelihood Concept and Development Resource Center, Inc. Aglipay, Quirino 3403 Tel. No. 076-692-5058

27. Ms. Ophelia a Naje Community Development Officer 11 DENRPENRO Suqui, Calapan, Oriental Mindoro

28. Mr. Armando M. Palijon Assistant Professor UPLB College of Forestry College, Laguna Tel. No. 2599

29. Dr. Ben Parker Institute of Animal Science University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna

30. Mr. Raquelito M. Pastores Assistant Director/Agroforestry Specialist IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

31. Dr. Agustin Pinol Supervising Science Research Specialist ERDB, College, Laguna Tel. No. 2229

32. Mr. Glorioso Quinones Farmer Liquicia, Caba, La Union

33. Ms. Rosalinda S. Reaviles Science Research Specialist II ERDB, College, Laguna Tel. No. 2229/2269/2481

34. Mr. Gregorio D. Reyes Chief, Science Research Specialist and Division Chief Upland Farms Ecosystem Research Division ERDB, College, Laguna Tel. No. 34811226912229 loc. 230

35. Mr. Nestor Roderno Appropriate Technology Unit IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

36. Mr. Romeo San Buenaventura Agroforestry Technician IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

37. Seed Science and Technology Division Staff Department of Agronomy University of the Philippines at Los Banos College, Laguna

38. Ms. Carol Stoney Agroforester, Winrock International c/o ARMP, P.O. Box 290, Bogor 16001, Indonesia Tel. No. 62 (251) 323-3.25 Fax No. 62 (251) 328-489/325-251

39. Mr. Henrylito D. Tacio Staff Writer Mindanao Baptist Rural Life Center (MBRLC) Kinuskusan, Bansalan, Davao del Sur

40. Dr. Frederico Villamayor Professor PRCRTC, VISCA Baybay, Leyte Tel. No. 521-2027 (Pasay Office)

Steering Committee

41. For. Domingo Bacalla Chief, Social Forestry Division DENR, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Q.C.

42. For. Moises Butic Social Forestry Division DENR, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Q.C.

43. Ms. Rowena Cabahug Research Associate UPLB Agroforestry Program College of Forestry, UPLB, College, Laguna Te. No. 2657/3657

44. Dr. Romulo del Castillo Director, UPLB Agroforestry Program College of Forestry UPLB, College, Laguna

45. Ms. Remedios S. Evangelista Social Forestry Division DENR, Visayas Ave., Diliman, Q.C.

46. Dr. Julian Gonsalves Director Appropriate Technology Unit/Communication Department IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

47. Mr. Scott Killough Deputy Director Appropriate Technology Unit IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

48. Prof. Nestor Lawas Agronomy Department UPLB, College, Laguna

49. Mr. Jaime P. Ronquillo Assistant Director Communication Department IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

Artists

50. Mr. Albert Banez UGSAD Editorial and Visual Arts Association, Inc. Lincoln Bend, Parkwood Greens, Pasig, M.M.

51. Mr. Boy Belardo IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

52. Mr. Ric Cantada IIRR, Silang 4118, Cavite

53. Mr. Henry Cruz

54. Mr. Mitchell Doren UGSAD Editorial and Visual Arts Association, Inc. Lincoln Bend, Parkwood Greens Maybunga, Pasig, Metro Manila

55. Mr. Bernabe Remoquillo Institute of Development Communication UPLB, College, Laguna

Editors

56. Mrs. Lyn C. Doren IIRR, Silang, Cavite

57. Ms. Carmenia May Magno IIRR, Silang, Cavite

Administrative Support Staff

58. Lhai Kasala

59. Jel Montoya

60. Gigi Naval

61. Angie Poblete

62. Ariel Madlangsakay

63. Secretarial Support Services

Design and layout by Carmenia May Magno

Current program thrusts in upland development

Human greed, abuse and misuse of the country's forest resources have resulted in the sad state of our uplands today. Resource depletion, environmental degradation, inequitable access to resources, tenurial issues, upland poverty and the continuous influx of lowland migrants into the uplands are among the current issues in natural resources management.

In recent decades, the Philippines witnessed an unprecedented commercial exploitation of the timber resources leading to an annual rate of deforestation reported to have reached an average of 119,000 hectares during the declining years of the timber boom between 1969 to 1987. From a leading exporter of precious "Philippine Mahogany", the Philippines has become a timber deficit country where the cost of a board foot of lumber is beyond the means of an average wage earner. The disappearance of forests has resulted in the loss of jobs and livelihood in neighboring communities; destructive floods and drought during wet and dry seasons, respectively; and, landslide and siltation of rivers and dams. Other consequences of deforestation have become common occurrences in many parts of the country.

Through the years, landlessness and unemployment have driven hundreds of thousands of poor families in the lowlands to migrate and eke out a living in upland areas where they have become '"squatters" by operation of law. In many cases, these have resulted in the total destruction of remaining forest vegetation in the area. The land has become marginally productive as the top soil continues to be lost through erosion brought about by improper agricultural practices. The result is poverty and a degraded upland environment affecting not only the people who subsist in these areas, but even the poor farmers in the lowlands who likewise suffer from the inevitable consequences of forest destruction. Latest estimates show that as much as 8.25 million hectares are now severely eroded.

In view of these problems, the government has in recent years formulated programs directed at arresting resource depletion and environmental degradation while searching for solutions to the issues of secured access to land, poverty alleviation and increased sustainable productivity. Among the major programs being implemented by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources are the Integrated Social Forestry Program (ISFP) in noncritical areas of the public domain that are under various forms of cultivation; the National Forestation Program (NFP) in degraded areas and in residual stands that are inadequately stocked; the Forest Land Management Agreement (FLMA) in newly reforested areas under the NFP that need to be maintained and cared for; and, the Community Forestry Program (CFP) in residual forest lands occupied by farming families.

1. Integrated social forestry program (ISFP)

Initiated about a decade ago, the ISFP draws strength from the DENR Upland Development Program (UDP) started by the Bureau of Forest Development in 1980 which was aimed at distilling lessons and developing methodologies for participatory management of the uplands. The ISFP incorporates the best features of three people-oriented forestry programs implemented in the 1970's, i.e., Forest Occupancy Management, Communal Tree Farming and Family Approach to Reforestation. The major features include granting long-term tenurial arrangements to qualified applicants, technical and modest material assistance and institution building aimed at developing capability for community-based resource management.

ISFP addresses the twin problems of rural poverty and ecological stability in occupied forest lands. Through ISFP, forest land occupants are provided secure access to land as well as technical and material aid to make the land productive without depleting it. Secure land tenure comes through either the Certificate of Stewardship Contracts (CSCs) for individuals, or the Community Forest Stewardship Agreements (CFSAs) for community organizations. In both cases, farm families are granted renewable 25year leases on the public land which they occupy and cultivate. In the first years of the lease, the Farmer receives technical assistance for developing selfsufficiency and sustainable farming practices.

The program provides assistance in the areas of agroforestry, land tenure and community organizing. Community organizing is applied to mobilize groups to obtain stewardship contracts, promote agroforestry and soil/water conservation and build local institutions ISFP emphasizes improvement of existing Farmer practices, not introduction of new ones except in situations where such may be necessary. Participatory strategies are used to gather data, diagnose field situations and monitor technical problems. Farm visits and training courses develop farmers' skills in agroforestry and organization. In the process, community leaders are prepared to take responsibilities for continued development after the end of the project, tentatively set at five years.

Recently, the implementation of the Local Government Code obligated the DENR to devolve to the Local Government Units (LGUs) the management of all ISF project sites except some of the "model sites" (one model site per province) and the UDP sites. These projects will remain under the care of the DENR for use as reaming sites where new technologies and approaches are expected to be generated. These sites will also be used as training areas for LGU technicians and other development workers as part of the outreach program of the DENR.

2. National forestation program (NFP)

In 1988, the DENR implemented the NFP which consists of three major components, namely: reforestation, watershed rehabilitation and timber stand improvement. The reforestation component is concerned with the replanting of denuded forest lands with indigenous and exotic forest species, including fruit trees, bamboos and minor forest species. One of the reforestation strategies used is assisted natural regeneration (ANR) where augmentation planting of climax species is done to improve future yield at minimum cost. The timber stand improvement (TSI) involves the removal of over-mature and inferior trees to improve growth in logged-over areas. Reforestation, ANR and TSI are approaches used in rehabilitation of identified critical watersheds and catchment areas.

DENR enters into contract with upland settler families, community and civic/religious organizations, entrepreneurs, local and other government offices and other NGOs for any of the above NFP activities in areas identified by DENR. The contract may be for survey, mapping, planning, community organizing/training, monitoring and evaluation or actual comprehensive site development of a given area.

3. Forest land management agreement (FLMA)

FLMA provides a long-term tenure to the people who plant and care for trees in newly reforested areas by granting farmers access to these areas for purposes consistent with sound ecological principles. When the reforestation contract terminates after three years, the contractor may apply for an FLMA if at least 80 percent of the trees planted are surviving and properly maintained. Family contractors must organize into associations or cooperatives covering a total of at least 100 hectares. DENR employs local NGOs to help organize communities and train them in forest management.

Like stewardship contracts under ISFP, FLMAs are for 25 years, renewable for another 25 years. The contractor may use the area to grow and harvest minor forest products or interplant cash crops, fruit trees and other agricultural crops using sound agroforestry practices. The contractor may also harvest, process and sell timber when the trees mature, following the principles of sustained yield forest management. In return, the contractor provides DENR 30 percent of the total proceeds until the whole cost of reforesting the area has been recovered. The proceeds will be deposited into a "trust fund" for expanding reforestation activities.

4. Community forestry program (CFP)

The need to democratize access in the use of the forests and allow organized upland communities to benefit from the resource compelled the government to adopt policies that would enable communities to protect, manage and rehabilitate fragmented residual and old growth forests. CFP is emerging as a community-based approach in managing certain portions of abandoned, canceled and expired areas of Timber License Agreements (TLAs).

CFP makes upland dwellers stewards of residual forest areas. Communities are awarded 25-year Community Forestry Management Agreement (CFMA). Again, these agreements are renewable for another 25 years if mutually agreeable to DENR and the community. The community organization can harvest, process and sell forest products from the area according to a management plan submitted to DENR beforehand. The plan must comply with prescribed rules and follow principles of sustained yield management.

Under the CFP, DENR assists the holder organization to set up and strengthen the community organization. This includes on-the-job training in resource inventory, preparation of forest management and conservation plans and developing livelihood opportunities. For this assistance, DENR employs qualified NGOs.

Role of NGOs

Through the years, the NGOs have been doing a proactive role in upland development through advocacy, training and technical assistance. However, the latter part of the 1980s offered greater opportunities for their direct involvement in the implementation of government programs such as reforestation, social forestry and community forestry. In addition to their traditional roles, the NGOs are now involved in technical work such as survey and mapping; resource appraisal and planning; community organizing; reforestation; resource management; and, harvesting, processing and sale of forest products.

A tool in upland development

Agroforestry is an important tool in the development of the uplands. If practiced properly, it helps promote soil and water conservation while increasing productivity and sustainability of upland farms to the benefit of the people.

There are traditional astute agroforestry practices being employed mostly by indigenous people in the uplands. The great majority of the population, however, remains in need of improving their system of farming the uplands to increase income and protect the environment.

Meanwhile, the number of people being engaged in promoting appropriate agroforestry technologies has dramatically increased in recent years. They come from national government agencies, various nongovernment organizations and, more recently, technicians of local government units to whom the upland development functions have been devolved.

This Agroforestry Technology Information Kit (ATIK) has been developed for use by these types of development workers as a quick reference. It consists of simple, illustrated technologies being used in various parts of the country. It is a product of a week-long materials production workshop among agroforestry practitioners in the government and nongovernment organizations, farmer groups and the academe.

Tabel 1. Summary profile of DENR’s people-oriented upland development programs.

Particulars

ISFP

NFP

FLMA

CFP

Target areas

Occupied forest lands except national parks and critical watersheds

Denuded and understocked areas

NFP contracted areas

Fragmented residual and old growth forest areas

Target participants

Upland farmers and communities

POs, NGOs, LGUs and families

Community contractors with at best 80% survival after 3 years

Upland resident POs

Stewardship contract

25 years

3 years

25 years

25 years

Funding source

DENR and CARP

ADB

ADB

ADB and USAID-NRMP

DENR office concerned

National ISF Secretariat/Social Forestry Division

NPCO

NPCO

CFP Secretariat

Project implementor

DENR, NGOs and LGUs

Contractors

FLMA awardees

Communities

Implementing strategies

CO-driven agroforestry intervention

Reforestation contract

Management contract

Management contract/agreement

Introduction

The need for medicinal plants for the country's health care delivery system has become more evident in recent years, especially in remote areas where lack of medicines and medical attention is critically felt. High cost of medicines and increasing poverty further compound the problem. Medicinal plants, hand in hand with proper nutrition, disease prevention and control measures help provide adequate health care to the population and contribute to the improvement of the quality of life.

Included here are medicinal species found throughout the Philippines which have been the subject of scientific research, clinical testing and product development and are now being used in primary health care. The plants are arranged alphabetically according to their popularly-known Tagalog name, together with information such as scientific name, family to which the plant belongs, available local names in as many dialects, English and Spanish names, plant part used, method of preparation and administration, with illustrations of the plants. Dosage indicated here are for adults; dosage for children is half of the adult dose. The amounts are for fresh plant materials. In cases wherein only dried plant drug is available, use half of the indicated amount and always follow the recommended instructions.

Caution and moderation must always be observed in the use of medicinal plants. Use only one plant drug at a time and take only the prescribed dose. It will be easier to pinpoint the cause of desirable reaction than if many plants are used together. Discontinue treatment and consult a knowledgeable medical person when there are no signs of improvement after 24 hours.

Akapulko Cassia alata L.

· Leguminosae

· Bayabasin, bikasbikas, gamot sa bunt, kapurko, katanda, pakagonkon, sonting (Tagalog), Andadasi (llokano), Kalsitas (Bicolano), Palochina, stinting (Bisaya), Ringworm bush

· Juice, poultice, ointment from leaves for fungal skin infections, applied twice a day.


Cassia alata L:.

Alagaw Premma odorata Blco.

· Verbenaceae

· Adiyo (Tagalog) Anobran (llocano) Adgaw (Bicolano) Abgaw, argaw, agbaw (Bisaya), Pumuhat tangli (Kapampangan)

· Poultice for headache, colic and chest pains: infusion of leaves (1 palm-sized leaf in 2 glasses of water) for fever and cough; 1/4 cup every 44 hours. Decoction of leaves sponge bath for fever.


Premma odorata Blco.

Ampalaya Momordica charantia L.

· Cucurbitaceae

· Ampalaya (Tagalog) Paria (Bicolano) Palya (Bisaya) Amargoso (Spanish) Balsam pear, bigger gourd, balsam apple

· Young leaves cooked as vegetable for diabetes; leaf juice for skin diseases.


Momordica charantia L.

Banaba Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.

· Lythraceae

· Banaba (Tagalog and other dialects)

· Decoction of leaves and bark for diabetes, as diuretic; 4 tablespoons chopped leaves in 2 glassfuls of water; 1/4 cup in the morning, after breakfast.


Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.) Pers.

Bayabas Psidium guajava L.

· Myrtaceae

· Bayabas (Tagalog), Guyabas, bayabas (llocano), Bayawas (Bicolano), Bayabas (Bisaya), Guava

· Decoction of leaves (6 8 tablespoons of chopped leaves in 2 glassfuls of water) for stomachache, diarrhea: 114 cup every 3 hours for cleansing wounds, swollen gums, as needed. Crushed leaves stops bleeding of shallow cuts, for fainting and dizziness.


Psidium guajava L.

Damong maria Artemisia vulgaris L.

· Compositae

· Damong maria, kamaria, maria, tinisas (Tagalog) Arbaaka (llocano) Hilbas (Bisaya) Cintura de San Jose, Cordon de San Jose, Sta. Mesa (Spanish)

· Pounded leaves as poultice for colic and headaches; decoction of leaves for cleansing wounds.


Artemisia vulgaris L.

Oregano Coleus amboinicus Lour.

· Labiatae

· Suganda (most dialects), Bildu (Sulu) Oregano, torongil de limon (Spanish)

· Poultice of leaves for headache, colic, burns; juice for insect bites; syrup or infusion for cough and asthma.


Coleus amboinicus Lour.

Pandakaki Ervatamia pandacaqui

· Apocynaceae

· Pandakaki, kampupot (Tagalog), Busbusilak, kurbetbet (llocano), Alibotbot, halibutbut, pandaya, pandakaking-puti, sakang-manuk (Bicolano) Alibutbut, salibukbuk, salimbabaya, tungkal (Bisaya)

· Milky sap is for healing cuts and wounds.


Ervatamia pandacaqui

Papaya Carica papaya L.

· Caricaceae

· Papaya (Tagalog) Apayas (llocano) Tapayas (Bicolano) Kapaya (Bisaya) Pawpaw

· Ripe fruit for constipation; poultice of leaves for rheumatism; sap from fruit peelings for freckles and other complexion problems.


Carica papaya L.

Sambong Blumea balmasifera

· Compositae

· Sambong (Tagalog) Sob-sob, subusub (llocano), Lakadbulan, alibum, alimon, ayoban, bakadkad, hamlibon, lalakdan, lakdanbulan (Bisaya)

· Ngai camphor, blumea camphor

· Leaf decoction as sponge bath for fever; infusion for high blood pressure as diuretic; poultice for headache, boils and abscesses


Blumea balmasifera

Tangan-tangan Ricinus communis L.

· Euphorbiaceae
· Tangan-tangan (Tagalog), Tawa-tawa (llocano), Katana (Ivatan), Gatlawa (Ifugao)
· Castor oil plant
· Leaf poultice for headache, skin ulcers boils, rheumatism; oil from seeds is purgative.


Ricinus communis L.

Tsaang-gubat Carmona retusa L.

· Boraginaceae

· Tsaang-gubat (Tagalog), maragawed (llocano), Putputay (Bicolano), Alibungog, maramara (Bisaya), Willd tea

· Leaf infusion (2-3 tablespoons of chopped leaves in 1 glassful of water) for stomachache.

· Leaf decoction (6-8 tablespoons of chopped leaves in 2 glassfuls of water) for diarrhea. Take 1/4 of the resulting decoction every 3 hours.


Carmona retusa L.

Dilaw Curcuma longa L.

· Zingiberaceae

· Luyang-dilaw Tagaiogj, Kulyaw (llocano), Dulaw (Bisaya), Angay (Kapampangan), Turmeric

· Juice, tincture, poultice, ointment from rhizomes for scratches, shallow cuts, sprains and bruises, rheumatism, stomachache, scabies.


Curcuma longa L.

Lagundi Vitex negundo L.

· Verbenaceae

· Dangla (llocano) Dabtan (Ifugao) Tugas (Bisaya) Fiveleaved chaste tree

· Poultice of leaves for headache; decoction, infusion syrup (4-6 tablespoonfuls of chopped leaves in 2 glassfuls of water) for fever, cough and colds, asthma, take 1/4 cup 3 times a day; decoction of leaves as sponge bath for fever and for cleansing wounds.


Vitex negundo L.

Luya Zingiber officinale Rosc.

· Zingiberaceae

· Luy-a (Bisaya), Gengibre (Spanish) Ginger

· Decoction of rhizome for cough, sore throat, stomachache, colic (1-2 teaspoonfuls of chopped rhizome in one CUD of water)

· Poultice, liniment for rheumatism

Tincture for cuts and scratches


Zingiber officinale Rosc.

Makabuhay Tinospora rumphii Boerl.

· Menispermaceae

· Makabuhay (Tagalog, llocano, Bisaya), Panyawan, panawan, taganagtagwa, palyaban (Bisaya)

· Poultice of pounded stem and leaves for stomachache and rheumatism; decoction as sponge bath for fever and malaria.


Tinospora rumphii Boerl.

Malunggay Moringa oleifera Lam.

· Moringaceae

· Kalungay (Bicolano) Kamunggay (Bisaya) Dool (Kapampangan) Horseradish tree

· Decoction of leaves/cooked leaves for lactation and constipation and cleansing scabies; poultice for scabies and stopping bleeding of sha!!ow cuts.


Moringa oleifera Lam.

Niyog-niyogan Quisqualis indica L.

· Combretaceae

· Tagaraw, tataraok, tagulo (Tagalog) Tartaraw, tartarauk (llocano), Tanglon, tangulo, kasumbal (Bicolano), Balitadham, pinyon, bonor (Bisaya), Chinese honeysuckle; Rangoon creeper; Yesterday, today and tomorrow

· To expel intestinal worms: 8-10 nuts hours after supper followed with several glasses of water, every 6 months.


Quisqalis indica L.

Collection/harvesting medicinal plants

The time and method of harvesting medicinal plants are very important. Plants contain numerous active constituents, chemical compounds responsible for the therapeutic activity, which are affected by environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, light and manner of handling during harvest.

In general, it is best to harvest in the morning on a warm, sunny day.

Different plant parts require different methods of collection. As much as possible, leaves and flowering tops should be hand-picked. If the plant pan to be used is the seed, the fruit must be fully ripe before harvest. If the whole fruit is to be used, it must be harvested before reaching maturity. Underground parts are collected before the stage of flowering.

Use only the recommended parts. The relative distribution of constituents within the plant body varies. Sometimes, the roots or the seeds may contain more of the active constitutent than the leaves and stem or viceversa.

Primary processing of medicinal plants

Proper drying and storage of medicinal plants for future use are important since moisture encourages the growth of molds and other microorganisms, leading to the destruction of the active principles and the deterioration of the plant drug.

Air-drying and sun-drying are the methods employed in the absence of temperature-controlled ovens. Properly dried leaves crumble easily.

Small amounts of material may be dried in a large transparent container in a sunny window, such as an uncapped large jar.

Large amounts may be hung in bundles, baskets, mesh bags, outdoors or spread on a clean mat in warm, dry place indoors.

Avoid drying on top of concrete pavements or roof-tops; extreme heat could destroy some of the plant constituents.

Prevent growth of molds and other microorganisms, infestation by insects and rodents by keeping the dried plant drugs inside air-tight containers in a cool, dry place away from direct light.

Stored medicinal plants must be labeled inside and outside the container; include the date of collection in the label.

Glossary of terms

Decoction -- The plant materials are boiled in water for 1520 minutes or until the water is reduced to half its original volume. Allow to cool, strain and drink as recommended.

Infusion -- Boiling water is poured over the plant material in a container, covered and allowed to stand for 15 minutes, strained and used immediately upon cooling. Brown sugar or honey may be added for pleasant taste.

In preparing medicinal plants, use containers made of inert materials, such as clay pots, enamel-lined, pyrex, etc., not metalic utensils.

Infusions and decoctions should be freshly-prepared; a day's dose may be prepared and kept fresh in a thermos bottle or in a refrigerator, if available.

Syrups -- The plant material is prepared as a decoction first and, after straining, honey or syrup made by boiling brown sugar in water (1:1) is added. Allow to simmer further until syrup is of the desired consistency. Syrups keep longer than decoctions and infusions.

Juices -- These are extracted from fresh plant parts, taken internally or applied locally on the affected parts of the body, as the case may be.

Poultice -- Soften, pound or crush fresh plant material. Mix with a little warm oil, apply externally and hold in place with a piece of clean cloth. Sometimes, mashed broiled rice or gawgaw is mixed with the plant material instead of oil This dressing should be changed daily.

Liniments - Plant material is crushed and macerated in basi or tuba, strained and used internally or externally.

Ointments - Juices extracted from plant material with the aid of a little basi, tuba or lambanog, then blended into a sufficient amount of Vaselina blanca or lard. This is for external application.

Procedure

First planting season


Bio-intensive gardening

1. Select a relatively flat and sunny area of the farm. 2. Sow tree seeds in double rows to provide the required quantity of green-leaf fertilizers.

3. Dig the plots at least 12 inches deep and shape them into raised beds.

4. Apply the necessary soil supplements: 1-2 Ibs wood ash, 1-2 Ibs eggshells and 1-2 Ibs crushed bones (where there are available). The rates mentioned are for a 100 sq ft bed area.

5. Shape the bed and plant.

Succeeding planting seasons

1. When the trees are about 12 months old, trim the hedgerows. Subsequent trimming is done whenever leaves are needed or the trees begin to shade the garden plots. Flemingia congesta and Desmodium rensonil are excellent hedgerows for gardens since they can be cut low (0.25 meters).

2. Place cut branches (with leaves) over the vegetable beds. Leave them in place for 2 days. This will allow the leaves to wilt and hasten defoliation. Shake branches or use hand to remove remaining leaves. There should be at least 2 inches of leaves covering the entire bed.

3. Incorporate leaves into the soil to a depth of 6 inches. Allow them to decompose for 10-14 days before planting.

Note: In sloping areas, the beds and hedgerows must be aligned along the contour.

Mini-pond for water-limited areas


Mini-pond for water-limited areas

· Supplies fish as a cheap source of protein for the family
· Provides supplementary income, if there is a surplus of fish
· Provides opportunities for the family to raise fish food right in their backyard or in the farm
· Saves space
· Utilizes kitchen leftovers and animal manure


Karpa Cyprinus carpio


Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

· Provides readily available food, free from red tide.
· Provides recreation for the family by watching while feeding and catching with hook and line

Pond construction

1. Mark the area. The ideal shape is rectangular (5 m x 12 m long).


Mark the area

2. Dig the area to a depth of 0.5 to 1. Use the dug soil to build the high dikes.


Dig the area

3. Compact the bottom of the pond by pounding the soil using wood. If a carabao is available, let it roam and wallow in the mud.


Compact the bottom of the pond

4. Install inlet/outlet/overflow pipes


Install inlet/outlet/overflow pipes

Pond fertilization for the production of plankton

· Basal application is done before stocking the pond with fingerlings.

1. Broadcast 1 kg/sq m of chicken hog manure or compost. Carabao or cow manure can also be used at the rate of 2 kg/sq m.

2. Allow the water to enter the pond and maintain depth at 2530 cm. Increase the water level at 1 m slowly.


Pond fertilization

· Top dressing is done whenever the water is no longer greenish, indicating lack of plankton.

1. Dump 1 kg cow or carabao manure and 1/2 kg chicken manure in one corner of the pond.

2. If inorganic fertilizer is to be applied, place it in a sack and submerge 1520 cm below the water below the water surface. (Urea 16-20-0; 14-14-14; at 5-10 g/sq m)

Stocking rate

· 1 m water depth = 10 fingerlings/sq m
· 0.5 m water depth = 3-5 fingerlings/sq m
· Tilapia/carp combination = 10-15% Carp: 8590% Tilapia


Stick fence and fertilizer

Feeding

· 3 parts boiled cassava, gabi or sweet potato peelings: 1 part ipil-ipil leaf meal
· 3 parts rice bran or corn bran: ipil-ipil leaf meal

For a more efficient feeding, mash the feeds, place in a feeding tray made of fine fish nets and submerge about 15-20 cm below the water surface. Other supplementary feeds include green kangkong leaves, sweet potato, kitchen left-overs, crushed golden snails and white ants (termites).

Population control

· From the dikes, scoop out the fries early in the morning and late in the afternoon. Fries linger in the edgewaters at these times.

· Raise the collected fries in the nursery pond until they grow into fingerlings and stock for the next rainy season crop.

Harvesting

· After 3 or 4 months, harvest all the fish that weigh about 50 9 and over, using a sweep net.
· Harvest only the amount of fish that the family will eat for the day.

(introduction...)

Small water-impounding refers to structures using readily available materials for the storage and/or diversion of surface water (running water from springs, creeks, streams or rivers) either for the purpose of irrigation or for domestic use. These structures are generally characterized as simple, easy-to-build and maintain, inexpensive and using readily available materials. However, they are less efficient and need to be maintained frequently compared to more permanent structures.

Structures for diverting surface water for irrigation purposes

1. Tambak I is a series of interconnected tripod structures, usually made up of wooden poles or piles and/or bamboos arranged in a slightly diagonal position across a stream or river with moderately running surface water. It usually covers 3/4 of the width of a stream or river with the main function of raising the water level and directing it into a drainage canal located immediately upstream of the structure.

Procedures

(a) Site selection. Select a portion of a stream or river that is higher in elevation than the area to be irrigated. The site should have a moderately running surface water, with normal water level of from knee up to waist deep and with more or less even stream or river bed and the area is free of flash flood. It is also necessary that the selected site can be connected by a diversion canal to the proposed area to be irrigated.


Tambak I

(b) Preparation of Materials. Materials needed for the structure are: for each tripod structure, three pcs of 1.5-2 meter wooden poles or piles or bamboo, three pcs of 1 meter bamboo poles; for connecting the tripod structures, bamboo poles sufficient to cover 3/4 of the width of the stream or river; sufficient quantity of split bamboos with one inch width; and tying materials.

(c) Construction of Tambak I. Mark the location of the tripod at approximately two-meter interval, slightly diagonal across the stream or river and covering 3/4 of its width. On these sites, construct the tripod structure with two legs in the upstream and the other in the downstream at approximately one meter distance. Bury the legs at 0.25 meter in the river bed, strengthen the legs of the tripod by forming a small triangle using bamboo poles at the base of the tripod at 0.25 meter from the bed. Add rocks and boulders at the legs and at the small triangle to weigh down and strengthen the tripod structure. Interconnect the top of the tripods with bamboo poles and with the use of bamboo splits line the upstream portion of the tripod with one inch interspaces from the base up to the top of the tripod.

(d) Construction of the Diversion Canal. Immediately upstream of the tripod structure, construct a diversion canal with at least 0.26 meter width and depth and connect K to the area to be irrigated.

(e) Operation and Maintenance. Cover the interspaces between the bamboo splits with leaves, sacks and other materials starting from the bottom up to the top, to raise the water level to reach the level of the diversion canal. When not in use, remove the leaves and other materials to allow free flow of water between the interspaces. All large debris, such as logs and drift wood, should be guided to pass through the opening of the structure to minimize damage to it. Regularly check and repair the structure and the diversion canal.

2. Tambak II is a heap structure, composed of rocks boulders and river sands covering the entire width of the stream or river with a height of up to 0.5 meter. Its function is to store water, slightly raise the water level and divert K to a diversion canal located at its side.


Tambak II

Procedures

(a) Site Selection. a portion of a stream or river that is higher in elevation than the area to be irrigated. The site should have slow to moderately running surface water with normal water level up to knee deep and preferably with even river or stream bed. It should also be free from flash flood. It is necessary that the selected site can be connected by a diversion canal to the proposed area to be irrigated.

(b) Preparation of Materials. Materials needed for the construction are those available in the site, such as boulders, rocks and river sands. The amount of materials depends on the width of the stream or river and the height of the heap to be constructed.

(c) Construction of Tambak II. With the use of bare hands, shovel and crowbar, construct the heap in a linear fashion at least half a meter wide and up to half a meter high. Rocks and boulders should be placed at the core with river sands used to cover and fill up interspaces between them as well as the outside cover of the heap. Diversion canal should also be constructed at the side of the heap.

(d) Operation and Maintenance. Unlike Tambak 1, the structure will automatically raise the water level, store and divert it to the diversion canal. Leakages can be minimized by additional boulders, rocks and sands. Constantly check and repair the structures for leakages. When not to be used, allow a portion of the heap to open or close the diversion canal and allow the water to overflow the heap structure.

Structures for storing surface water, for watering and other similar uses

Earth or mixed-material dam -- a structure composed of readily available materials (such as rocks, boulders, logs and earth) and is used to store water for watering and other similar purposes. The structure is usually applied in live or intermittent creeks or streams with up to three meters width and not prone to flash flooding.


Earth or mixed-material dam
1. Earth dam - a structure composed mainly of compacted soil with a base of at least one meter thickness arranged in a pyramidal fashion. It usually has an opening near the base (through a bamboo tube) and at the top (small opening lower in height than the dam) to control the water flow.

To make reservoir area more impermeable to minimize seepage of water, the following should be conducted: a) scrape the bed of rocks until reaching the clay surface; b) line the bed with at least 20 cm thick of fresh leaves, grasses and fine organic matters; c) cover the organic materials with soil of at least 20 cm thick and compact it eliminating air spaces; and, d) allow the organic matter to rot, thus forming a sticky and impermeable layer.


Earth dam

2. Earth and stone dam - a structure composed of compacted earth (soil) and a core of boulders and rocks. The dimension is more or less similar with the earth dam.


Earth and stone dam

3. Earth, Rock, Log Dam - a structure composed of compacted soil rocks and log (wooden) materials. The core is mainly composed of boulders and rocks with interspaces filled up with clay materials. Compacted earth materials cover the core and the logs are arranged either in horizontal or vertical fashion with clay materials as the outer covering.

4. Bamboo and earth dam - a structure mainly composed of bamboo poles and crushed bamboo and earth materials. Two lines of bamboo poles and crushed bamboo culms are constructed at 0.25 m distance between lines. The distance between bamboo poles in a line is approximately one meter. The interspaces between the lines are filled up with rocks mixed with clay. The outer covering is composed of compacted earth.


Bamboo and earth dam

For further storage efficiency of the above mentioned dams, the surface of the structure should be lined with two inches of clay materials. Planting of grasses, such as bermuda grass, can also be done to strengthen the outer surface of the dam.


Bamboo and earth dam lined with two inches of clay materials

Structure for storing surface water, for drinking and domestic consumption purposes

Box spring - a structure that encloses a live spring for storing water and or storing and diverting water through a pipe for drinking and other domestic consumption purposes. The structure can be made up of rocks and mud lined with clean river sand or hollow blocks and cement, covered by wooden planks.


Box spring

Procedures

1. Site Selection. Locate a live spring which is accessible and preferably 50 meters from the residence. A live spring located higher in elevation than the site of the residence can be tapped through a series of pipes (PVC or bamboo poles) while those located at the same level or lower than the house can be tapped by using water pails or other containers.

2. Preparation of Materials. Prepare sufficient amount of clean river sands, clean clay, polished stones/rocks and wooden planks or sufficient amount of hollow blocks, cement and sands. Piping materials should also be prepared whenever necessary either of bamboo poles or PVC.

3. Construction of Box Spring. Clean the area around the spring at least with a dimension of 0.5 x 0.5 m. Provide a temporary outlet for the water to pass through while the box spring is still under construction. Line the area with clean clay with at least two inches thickness and enclosed it with stones/rocks mixed with clay forming a box structure with a dimension of at least 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 m. Line the base of the box with clean river sand and cover the top of the structure with wooden planks. Allow an opening near the top for piping or to allow the flow of excess water.

4. Operation and Maintenance. The box spring is allowed to store water a day or two after construction by plugging the temporary water outlet. Check and repair leakages. Conduct regular maintenance of the box spring by cleaning it of insects, leaves and other materials that get into the box spring.

Note: For health safety, water from this structure should be passed through a clean cloth screener and boiled before drinking. A water purifier tablet is also recommended.