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close this bookResettlement of Displaced Population - 1st Edition (DHA/UNDRO - DMTP - UNDP, 1995, 60 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentIntroduction
close this folderPart 1: Displacement
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentCauses of displacement
View the documentCASE STUDY: Causes of Displacement in South Africa
View the documentDisplacement as a national concern
View the documentInternational response
View the documentWhen to intervene
View the documentUnderstanding the root causes
View the documentProtection needs
View the documentWhere assistance may be required
View the documentScope of assistance
View the documentDistinctiveness
View the documentThe effect of labeling
View the documentPLANNING CRITERIA: Planning assumptions for resettlement
close this folderPart 2: Resettlement: ''settledness''
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAssistance for recovery
View the documentSettlement and recovery
View the documentCASE STUDY: Resettlers find livelihoods in Khartoum
close this folderPart 3: Resettlement: factors that influence recovery
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPersonal factors
View the documentSocial factors
View the documentAssistance factors
View the documentCASE STUDY: Some issues for repatriation: De-mining in Afghanistan
close this folderPart 4: Options of place
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentReturn to residence or area from which displacement occurred
View the documentSpontaneous repatriation
View the documentOrganized repatriation
View the documentIntegration into the host community
View the documentRelocation
View the documentCASE STUDY: Planned Secondary Resettlement (PSR)
View the documentCASE STUDY: Land tenure issues in resettlement: Repatriation to Tigray region of Ethiopia
close this folderPart 5: Program strategies to aid resettlement & recovery
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentLand based strategies
View the documentAssistance directed to families
View the documentAssistance directed to systems and groups
View the documentCASE STUDY: Options for assistance for Cambodian returnees
View the documentCONCLUSION
View the documentSELECTED REFERENCES
View the documentAnnex: A tool for resettlement assistance planning

Assistance directed to systems and groups

Other options to assist the recovery of resettled people include community development strategies where aid is provided through strengthened local systems and groups. Four examples are noted below: directed services, area-based services, QIPS, and CIREFCA/PRODERE.

1) Directed public services means the mobilization of existing services for the benefit of displaced and resettled persons. In virtually all resettlement situations recovery is dependent upon the quality of public and private services that underpin society. Special adaptation is often necessary to ensure that displaced people are granted access and that services are tailored to needs. Adapted services can be offered by all government sectors such as social services, banking, public works, education, health, agriculture, labor, and forestry. In addition, directed services in the private sector are also important, particularly credit and commerce.

Systems can be creatively modified to more effectively address needs in unique resettlement situations. In Sri Lanka, based on a strategy of using already existing systems, a very successful housing reconstruction program was mounted by establishing special loan programs through the local banking system. Increased resources can be made available to families, for example, through grants, regular loans, soft loans with variable repayment schedules, discounted loans with low interest rates, new guarantee arrangements, lending tied to training, and infusing capital into lending organizations (Fernando, 1988).

2) The area-based services approach is actively supported by UNICEF, particularly in urban situations. Service delivery systems are developed to ensure that existing services meet the needs of the most vulnerable families. The advantage of the area-based approach is that it strengthens local health and social services to reach all people in need of the service which includes the displaced or resettled families.

3) Quick Impact Projects (QIPs) was pioneered by UNHCR in Nicaragua to aid in the reintegration of repatriates. It is increasingly used as an assistance strategy in other resettlement and recovery programs as well. Because displaced people often return or resettle to poor and underdeveloped communities, the QIPs' strategy was developed to support quick-impact, community-based, micro-projects that are rapid-to-implement and require a one-time investment. QIPs may improve transportation, health, infrastructure, education, crop and livestock production, and income generation. The QIP aims to enhance resources for the initial re-entry and re-establishment periods and to aid returned families to become "self-supporting initially and self-sufficient eventually."

The QIPs approach identifies urgent needs at the "grassroots" level through discussions with returnees, NGOs, municipal authorities, and local church and social organizations. These needs are collated as micro-project profiles, screened to ensure that they meet program criteria and government development plans, and then funded for implementation by NGO partners, municipalities, cooperatives and others.

Quick-impact projects alone are insufficient for recovery.

Experience confirms that the QIPs strategy enhances the settlement process and facilitates reintegration. The disadvantage or weakness of the QIPs approach is that quick-impact projects alone are insufficient for recovery, as discussed earlier in this paper. A renovated school, a bridge, or a new health clinic building may be an excellent contribution but they are no panacea to the long-term process of economic and social integration, particularly in communities where survival is normally hard.

Consequently, while evaluations of the QIPs strategy consistently reaffirm its usefulness, the necessity of linking initial quick-impact projects with longer term development efforts is highlighted. "Community-based reintegration projects, however well designed, cannot bridge the gap unless they are undertaken within an organization framework which will continue to function once UNHCR has phased out its activities" (UNHCR, 1993). This has lead to collaborative efforts between UNHCR, the major implementor of QIPs in repatriation/resettlement programs, and UNDP which is committed to the longer-term development process.

In Cambodia, a joint UNHCR/UNDP QIPs program also emphasized the need for assertive development efforts in post-emergency situations. QIPs was channeled through local development task-forces. It was necessary to organize provincial focal points, encourage other organizations to become involved in community development activities, and strengthen the capacity of local organizations, enterprises and official structures. It was also necessary to ensure that reintegration and reconstruction programs and long-term development efforts were linked.

4) CIREFCA/PRODERE is a regional assistance program developed by UNDP in Central America for aiding refugees, returnees and displaced persons. The CIREFCA/PRODERE strategy grew out of regional international conference on Central American Refugees (CIREFCA), and assumes that the regional approach is the most constructive. Therefore in Central America, all countries with displaced persons receive aid and act as partners in rehabilitation and recovery programs, which are based on needs and circumstances in each country and funded through PRODERE (Refugee Assistance Project).

The PRODERE strategy attempts to stimulate sustainable developmental efforts at the regional, national, and local levels. It draws no distinctions between types of displaced persons or between displaced persons and equally needy non-displaced persons, rather it supports whatever developments are perceived to be helpful, including productive systems, marketing, human rights, legal system development, credit, technical assistance and transfer of technology, basic social services, physical infrastructure, education, women's participation, environment, health, institutional strengthening, and community training and organization. It is managed as an international program in collaboration with national and local authorities but does not channel funds through the government.

Q. 1) What are some of the problems that might occur in agency planned and built settlements ?

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Q. 2) What types of assistance may be included in settlement packages?

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Q. 3) Why are longer term development projects needed to continue the work initiated by the Quick Impact Projects?

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Q. 4) What are some principles for assisting resettlement and recovery?

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ANSWERS

1) The settlements may lack employment opportunities, the land may be of poor quality, residents may be isolated from other communities, the houses may not be the type preferred by settlers, they may encourage inappropriate technology.

2) Personal items, household items, seeds and tools, food aid, cash.

3) As mentioned in Part 2, recovery may take up to ten years. Therefore, ongoing development projects are needed to support the long term process.

4) Strengthen systems; use a variety of approaches; decentralize efforts; base assistance on need rather than displacement; keys to success for resettlers' are participation in resettlement decisions and securing a livelihood.