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close this bookSmall-Scale Processing of Fish (ILO - WEP, 1982, 140 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentPreface
close this folderCHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION
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View the documentI. FISH SPECIES
View the documentII. PROCESSING METHODS
close this folderIII. PREVENTION OF LOSSES AND SPOILAGE OF FISH
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View the documentIII.1. Prevention of spoilage of fish before processing
View the documentIII.2. Prevention of spoilage of fish during processing
View the documentIII.3. Prevention of spoilage of fish after processing
close this folderCHAPTER II. SALTING - DRYING - FERMENTING
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close this folderI. FISH PREPARATION
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View the documentI.1. Equipment for fish preparation
View the documentI.2. Gutting and splitting methods
close this folderII. SALTING
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View the documentII.1. Kench salting
View the documentII.2. Pickle curing
View the documentII.3. Brine salting
View the documentII.4. Salt quality
close this folderIII. DRYING
View the documentIII.1. Basic principles
View the documentIII.2. Natural drying
View the documentIII.3. Artificial drying
View the documentIII.4. Solar drying
View the documentIV. PACKAGING AND STORAGE
close this folderV. METHODS OF PREPARATION
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View the documentV.1. Dried/salted fish
View the documentV.2. Dried-unsalted fish
View the documentV.3. Dried/salted shark
View the documentVI. GENERAL PLAN FOR A FISH CURING YARD
close this folderVII. FERMENTED FISH PRODUCTS
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View the documentVII.1. Products which retain substantially the original form of the fish
View the documentVII.2. Fish paste products
View the documentVII.3. Liquid fish products
View the documentVII.4. Packaging
close this folderCHAPTER III. FISH SMOKING AND BOILING
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close this folderI. SMOKING
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View the documentI.1. Fish preparation prior to smoking
View the documentI.2. Cold smoking
View the documentI.3. Hot smoking
View the documentI.4. Fuel
View the documentI.5. Smoking kilns
View the documentI.6. Preparation of some smoked fish products
View the documentI.7. Packaging and storage of smoked fish
close this folderII. BOILED FISH PRODUCTS
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View the documentII.1. Traditional processing methods
View the documentII.2. Quality of boiled fish products
close this folderCHAPTER IV. THERMAL PROCESSING
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View the documentI. RAW MATERIALS
View the documentII. ENERGY AND MANPOWER REQUIREMENTS
close this folderIII. PROCESSING OPERATIONS
View the documentIII.1. Filling and sealing
View the documentIII.2. Sterilisation
View the documentIII.3. Cooling
View the documentIV. QUALITY CONTROL
close this folderV. POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVES TO THE USE OF METAL CANS
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View the documentV.1. Reusable container
View the documentV.2. New developments in aseptic (retortable) pouches
close this folderCHAPTER V. ALTERNATIVE TECHNOLOGIES: EVALUATION, EMPLOYMENT GENERATION AND MANPOWER TRAINING
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentI. ASSESSMENT OF COSTS
View the documentII. SALTING AND DRYING
View the documentIII. SMOKING
View the documentIV. THERMAL PROCESSING
View the documentV. EMPLOYMENT IMPACT OF ALTERNATIVE FISH PROCESSING TECHNOLOGIES
close this folderVI. ASSISTANCE TO THE SMALL-SCALE FISHERIES SECTOR: MANPOWER TRAINING AND SUPPORTING SERVICES
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View the documentVI.1. The socio-economic framework
View the documentVI.2. Infrastructural requirements
View the documentVI.3. Organisation of production and marketing of fresh and cured fish
View the documentVI.4. Extension services and training
close this folderCHAPTER VI. IMPACT OF SMALL SCALE FISH PROCESSING OPERATIONS ON THE ENVIRONMENT
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentI. FISH RESOURCES
View the documentII. WASTE DISPOSAL
View the documentIII. AIR POLLUTION
View the documentIV. CONCLUDING REMARKS ON ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
close this folderAPPENDICES
View the documentAPPENDIX I. Codex Codes and Standards issued by the Secretariat of the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, FAO, Rome.
View the documentAPPENDIX II. Bibliographical references
View the documentQUESTIONNAIRE
View the documentOTHER ILO PUBLICATIONS
View the documentBACK COVER

III.2. Natural drying

Natural or air drying uses the combined action of the sun and wind without the help of equipment. It is important to dry the fish quickly before they spoil, and that all surfaces of the fish be open to the drying action of the wind. Where only a few large fish are to be dried, this may be done by hanging the fish up. Split fish may be hung on hooks, by tying them up with string, or by tying the fish in pairs by the tail and hanging them across a pole or line.

Large quantities of fish should be dried on racks. Suitable materials for drying racks include chicken wire, old fishing nets, and thin rods or poles such as reeds or sections of bamboo. The surface of the racks should be at a height of about 1 m from the ground and should slop if split large fish are to be dried. A flat surface is preferred for drying small intact fish. Designs for fixed drying racks are shown in Figure II.2. These racks can be easily covered with plastic sheets to protect the drying fish from the rain. Where large quantities of very small fish are to be dried, a netting rack may be impractical. Suitable drying surfaces may be made instead, with raised floors of wood, concrete, bamboo strip or, where none of these materials are available, well compacted clay.

In the tropics, the air is relatively dry during the day (unless it rains) and relatively wet during the night. From sunrise until about midday, the air becomes gradually drier and, becoming wet again from midday to nightfall. The drying rate - especially in the case of salted fish - is therefore the highest from about 8 or 9 o’clock in the morning to 4 or 5 o’clock in the afternoon. Fish which have been set to dry during the day should be collected, and stored overnight to avoid them becoming wet by dew or rain. The fish in storage should be piled in a similar manner as for dry salting although no further salt should be added. Wooden boards, weighted with clean rocks or other suitable material, should be placed on the pile of fish in order to flatten them and give them a better appearance. This use of pressure will also speed up the process by which water moves from the inside of the fish to the outside so that they will dry more rapidly when set out the following morning.


Figure II.2. Fixed drying racks with flat and slanding tops