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close this bookSourcebook of Alternative Technologies for Freshwater Augmentation in Small Island Developing States (UNEP-IETC, 1998, 230 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentForeword
close this folderPart A - Introduction
View the document1. Background
View the document2. Purpose of the source book
View the document3. Structure of the source book
View the document4. How to use the source book
close this folder5. Methodology for the identification and classification of small islands
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View the documentHydrological characteristics
View the documentClimate
View the documentPhysiography
View the documentGeology and hydrogeology
View the documentSoils and vegetation
View the documentRelative location
View the documentHuman-induced impacts
View the documentRegion of interest
View the document6. Results of the discussions at the workshop on augmenting freshwater resouces
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close this folderPart B - Technology profiles
close this folder1. Technologies generally applicable to Island States
close this folder1.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
View the document1.1.1 Rainwater harvesting technical description
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close this folder1.2 Water quality improvement technologies
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View the document1.2.1 Rapid sand filtration
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View the document1.2.2 Slow sand filtration
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View the document1.2.3 Disinfection
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close this folder1.3. Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse
View the document1.3.1 Alternative (dry) sanitation
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close this folder1.4. Water conservation
View the document1.4.1 Water resources planning and management
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View the document1.4.2 Water conservation and protection measures
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View the document1.4.3 Groundwater assessment technologies
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View the document1.4.4 Irrigation systems
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close this folder2. Technologies applicable to very small, low coral islands
close this folder2.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
View the document2.1.1 Dug wells technical description
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View the document2.1.2 Infiltration galleries technical description
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View the document2.1.3 Pumps
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close this folder3. Technologies applicable to small high, volcanic islands
close this folder3.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
View the document3.1.1 Boreholes
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View the document3.1.2 Runoff collection using in-stream structures
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View the document3.1.3 Runoff collection using surface structures technical description
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View the document3.1.4 Spring capping
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close this folder4. Technologies applicable to small islands with specific problems or circumstances
close this folder4.1 Freshwater augmentation technologies
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View the document4.1.1 Importation using sea transport/barging technical description
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View the document4.1.2 Submarine pipelines technical description
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close this folder4.2 Water quality improvement technologies
View the document4.2.1 Desalination technical description
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close this folder4.3 Wastewater treatment technologies and reuse
View the document4.3.1 Wastewater reuse
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close this folder4.4 Water conservation
View the document4.4.1 Dual distribution systems
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close this folderPart C - Case studies
close this folder5.1 Augmenting freshwater resources in Kiribati
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentLevel of involvement
View the documentOperation and maintenance
View the documentLevel of involvement
View the documentCosts
View the documentEffectiveness of the technology
View the documentSuitability
View the documentAdvantages
View the documentDisadvantages
View the documentCultural acceptability
View the documentFurther development of the technology
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close this folder5.2 Seawater/brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis in the British Virgin Islands
View the documentTechnical description
View the documentExtent of use
View the documentOperation and maintenance
View the documentLevel of involvement
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View the documentEffectiveness of the technology
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close this folder5.3 Solar-powered pumping in the Federated States of Micronesia
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View the documentTechnical description
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View the documentCultural acceptability
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close this folder5.4 Composting toilet trial on Kiritimati, Kiribati
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View the documentTechnical description
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View the documentEffectiveness of the technology
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View the documentDisadvantages
View the documentCultural acceptability
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close this folder5.5 Sam lord's castle hotel treated wastewater reuse scheme, Barbados
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View the documentExtent of use
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close this folderPart D - Annexes
View the documentAnnex 1 - Acknowledgements
close this folderAnnex 2 - Design of infiltration galleries
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View the documentTechnical description
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close this folderAnnex 3 - Cost comparisons
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close this folderAnnex 4 - Groundwater assessment technologies
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close this folderAnnex 5 - Water legislation
View the documentIntroduction
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View the documentAnnex 6 - List of organisations and institutions
View the documentAnnex 7 - Table of conversion factors for metric and U.S. Customary Units
close this folderPart E - Institutional profiles
View the documentThe UNEP water branch
View the documentSouth Pacific applied geoscience commission (SOPAC)

Information sources

Ayers, J.F. 1984. Geologic Construction of Atolls. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Water Resources of Small Islands, Commonwealth Science Council Technical Publication Series No. 154, Part 2, 69-78.

Beran, M.A. Rodier 1985. Hydrological Aspects of Drought: A Contribution to the International Hydrological Programme, Studies and Reports in Hydrology No. 39, UNESCO, Paris.

Buddemeier, R.W., and J.A. Oberdorfer 1986. Internal Hydrology and Geochemistry of Coral Reefs and Atoll Islands: Key to Diagenetic Variations. In: J.H. Schroeder and B.H. Purser (Eds), Reef Diagenesis, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 91-111.

Dale, W.R. (Ed.) 1985. A Bibliography of Hydro geology of Small Islands: A List of Some Recent Publications With Particular Reference to Coral Reef Islands of the Pacific. Commonwealth Science Council Technical Publication Series 183, CSC, London.

Dale, W.R. and B.C. Waterhouse 1985. Pacific Islands' Hydrogeology and Water Quality. In: Environment and Resources in the Pacific. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies 69, Nairobi, pp. 57-67.

Dijon, R.E. 1984. General Review of Water Resources Development in the Region With Emphasis on Small Islands. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Water Resources of Small Islands, Commonwealth Science Council Technical Publication Series No. 154, Part 2, 25-44.

Gale, I.N. and S.K. Booth 1991. Hydrogeology of Fiji. British Geological Survey Technical Report WD/91/36, Keyworth.

Hay, J.E. (Ed.) 1991. Proceedings of the Conference on South Pacific Environments, Interactions with Weather and Climate. University of Auckland Press. 237 pp.

Hehanussa, P.E. 1993. Morphogenetic Classification of Small Islands as a Basis for Water Resources Planning in Indonesia. In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Small Island Hydrology, UNESCO, Paris.

Lloyd, J.W. 1985. A Review of Some of the More Important Difficulties Encountered in Small Island Hydrogeological Investigations. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Water Resources of Small Islands, Commonwealth Science Council Technical Publication Series No. 154, Part 2, 180-210.

Morrison, R.J., R.A. Prasad, and J.E. Brodie 1985. Chemical Hydrology of Small Tropical Islands. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Water Resources of Small Islands, Commonwealth Science Council Technical Publication Series No. 154, Part 2, 211-223.

Peterson, F.L. 1985. Hydrogeology Of High Oceanic Islands. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Water Resources of Small Islands, Commonwealth Science Council Technical Publication Series No. 154, Part 2, 431-435.

Prasad, R. and J.D. Coulter 1985. Climatology and Small Islands. In: Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Water Resources of Small Islands, Commonwealth Science Council Technical Publication Series No. 154, Part 2, 224-238.

UNESCO [United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization] 1991. Hydrology and Water Resources of Small Islands, A Practical Guide. Studies and Reports on Hydrology No. 49. UNESCO, Paris. 435 pp.

UNESCO [United Nations Education Scientific and Cultural Organization] 1992. Small Tropical Islands - Water Resources of Paradises Lost. IHP Humid Tropics Programme Series No.2, UNESCO, Paris.

Wheatcraft, S.W. and R.W. Buddemeier 1981. Atoll Island Hydrology. Ground Water, 19:311-320.

Wright, E.P. 1989a. Chapter 12. Small High Islands. In: M. Falkenmark and T. Chapman (Eds), Comparative Hydrology: An Ecological Approach to Land and Water Resources. UNESCO, Paris, pp. 295-322.

Wright, E.P. 1989b. Chapter 18. Small Low Islands. In: M. Falkenmark and T. Chapman (Eds), Comparative Hydrology: An Ecological Approach to Land and Water Resources. UNESCO, Paris, pp. 393-404.

Yang, Q., X. Qian, and J. Li 1988. Natural Circumstance and Classification of Small Islands in China. In: Proceedings of the Southeast Asia and the Pacific Regional Workshop on Hydrology and Water Balance of Small Islands. UNESCO-ROSTSEA, Nanjing, China.