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close this bookThe Global Greenhouse Regime. Who Pays? (UNU, 1993, 382 p.)
close this folderPart IV Conclusion
close this folder14 Constructing a global greenhouse regime
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentConditionality and additionality
View the documentTechnology transfer
View the documentMulti-pronged approach
View the documentImplementation procedures
View the documentRegional building blocks
View the documentNorth-'South' conflicts
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes and references

Notes and references

1 See J Berreen and A Meyer ,'A Package Marked "Return to Sender," Some Problems with the Climate Convention,' Network '92, Centre for Our Common Future, Geneva, no. 4, June-July, 1992, p 7

2 Michael Grubb, 'The Greenhouse Effect: Negotiating Targets,' International Affairs, volume 66, no. 1,1990, pp 82-83

3 Ghana on behalf of the Group of 77, 'Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technology,' informal paper to Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change, 4th session, December 1991, p 5

4 Ibid, p 23

5 Ibid, p 21

6 R deLucia, Sustainable development and rural poverty alleviation: evolving perspectives on needed new thinking and approaches, report to International Federation for Agricultural Development, World Rural Poverty Study, deLucia and Associates, Cambridge, Massachusetts, September 1990, p 2-7

7 G Schramm, 'Issues and Problems in the Power Sectors of Developing Countries,' in UN Department of Technical Cooperation, Report on the Stockholm Initiative on Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development (SEED): Strategies for Implementing Power Sector Efficiency, Stockholm, November 1991, p 58

8 R deLucia and M Lesser, Natural Gas and New Power Generation/Cogeneration Technologies: Implications and Opportunities for Some Developing Countries, paper to the International Association for Energy Economists' 11th Annual International Conference, Caracas, deLucia and Associates, Cambridge, Massachusetts, June 1989, p 7

9 UN Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Energy Policy Implications of the Climatic Effects of Fossil Fuel Use in the Asia-Pacific Region, ESCAP Symposium, Paper NR/SCE/1, September 1990, Tokyo, December 12,1990, p 122

10 G Porter, 'Reaching a Consensus on Financial Resources,' Network '92, Centre for Our Common Future, Geneva, no. 4, June-July, 1992, p 1

11 O Kjorven and A Kristin Sydnes, Funding for the Global Environment: The Issue of Additionality, Report 4, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway, 1992, provide an excellent analysis of this issue

12 O Kjorven, Facing the Challenge of Change: The World Bank and the Global Environment Facility, Report 3, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway, 1992, pp 6366; A Kristin Sydnes, Developing Countries in Global Climate Negotiations, Report 4, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway, 1991, pp 9-11

13 As stated in People's Republic of China, 'China's Principled Position on Global

Environment Issues,' chapter 5, National Report of the People's Republic of China on Environment and Development, August 1991, pp 53-54

14 See UN Centre on Transnational Corporations, Climate Change and Transnational Corporations: Analysis and Trends, ST/CTC/111, United Nations, New York, 1991

15 P Adams and L Solomon, In the Name of Progress, The Underside of Foreign Aid, Earthscan, London, 1991; and P Adams, Odious Debts, Loose Lending, Corruption and the Third World's Environmental Legacy, Earthscan, London, 1991

16 P McCully, 'The Case Against Climate Aid,' The Ecologist, volume 21, no. 6, November-December 1991, pp 244-257

17 ibid, p 248

18 On the latter issue, see P Hayes, 'Social Structure and Rural Energy Technology,' in Nautilus Inc. ed, Southern Perspectives on the Rural Energy Crisis, Conference of NGOs and the Environment Liaison Centre, Nairobi, 1981, pp 37-48

19 M Bell, Continuing Industrialisation, Climate Change and International Technology Transfer, Science Policy Research Unit, Sussex University, December 1990, pp 75-80

20 N Chantramonklasri, 'The Development of Managerial and Technological Capability in the Developing Countries,' in M Chatterji, ed, Technology Transfer in the Developing Countries, MacMillan, London, 1990, pp 38,44

21 S Lall,'Transnationals and the Third World: Changing Perceptions,' in S Lall, Multinationals, Technology and Exports, St Martin's Press, New York, 1985, p 72

22 M Bell, Continuing Industrialisation, op cit. endnote 19, p 84

23 F Stewart, 'Technological Dependence,' in F Stewart, Technology and Under development, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1977, p 123

24 F Stewart, Macro Policies for Appropriate Technology in Developing Countries, Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1987

25 G Anandalingham, 'Energy Conservation in the Industrial Sector of Developing Countries,' Energy Policy, August 1985, p 338

26 R Kaplinsky, 'Technology Transfer, Adaptation and Generation: A Framework of Evaluation,' in M Chatterji, ed, Technology Transfer, op cit. endnote 20, pp 2223

27 UNCTAD Secretariat, Technology Policy in the Energy Sector: Issues, Scope and Options for Oeveloping Countries, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, Geneva, June 1989, p 101

28 A Barnett, 'The Diffusion of Energy Technology in the Rural Areas of Developing Countries: A Synthesis of Recent Experience,' World Development, volume 18, no. 4, pp 539-553; and other essays on specific country or technology experiences in the same issue

29 C Freeman, Technology Policy and Economic Performance, Pinter Publishers, London, 1987, pp 64-79

30 J Granger, Technology and International Relations, W H Freeman, New York, 1979, p 62

31 M Grubb, 'Technology Transfer and the Global Environment: Motives and Mechanisms' (mimeo), Royal Institute of International Affairs, London, September 12,1991

32 A Mody, Staying in the Loop, International Alliances for Sharing Technology, World Bank Discussion Paper 61, World Bank, Washington DC, 1989, p 2

33 C Primo Braga, 'The Developing Country Case For and Against Intellectual Property Protection,' in W Siebek, ed, Strengthening Protection of Intellectual Property in Developing Countries, World Bank Discussion Paper 112, Washington DC, 1990, pp 68-87

34 L Lunde, The North/South Dimension in Global Greenhouse Politics, Conflicts, Dilemmas, Solutions, Report 9, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway, 1990, p 20

35 P Wexler, International Negotiations on Climate Change, Center for Global Change, University of Maryland, February 1992, p 18

36 Lee Jin-Ioo and .1 N Sharan, Technological Impact of the Public Procurement Policy: The Experience of the Power Plant Sector in the Republic of Korea, Geneva, July 1985, p 14

37 M Bell, Continuing Industrialisation, op cit. endnote 19, p viii

38 L Lunde, Science or Politics in the Global Greenhouse, A Study of the Development Towards Scientific consensus on Climate Change, Report 8, Fridtjof Nansen Institute, Lysaker, Norway, 1991, p 127

39 E Parson, The Transport Sector and Global Warming, Paper E-90-11, JFK School of Government, Global Environmental Policy Project, Harvard University, Cambridge 1990, pp vii-viii

40 I Mackenzie and M Walsh, Driving Forces: Motor Vehicle Trends and their Implications for Global Warming, Energy Strategies, and Transportation Planning; World Resources Institute, Washington DC, December 1990, p 38

41 UNCTAD, Policies and Mechanisms for Achieving Sustainable Development, UNCTAD TD/B/1304, Geneva, August 15, 1991, p 25 and Figure 2.1

42 S Barrett, 'Free Rider Deterrence in a Global Warming Treaty', First Draft, London Business School report to Environment Directorate OECD, Paris, May 1991

43 For a general treatment of these issues, see C Russell et al, Enforcing Pollution Control Laws, Resources for the Future, Washington DC, 1986

44 W Fischer et al, A Convention on Greenhouse Gases: Towards the Design of a Verification System, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany, October 1990. The following section draws heavily on this study

45 D Victor, 'Limits of market-based strategies for slowing global warming: The case of traceable permits,'Policy Sciences, volume 24, 1991, p 210

46 ibid, p 207

47 Using satellite data, A Setzer and M Pereira, 'Amazonia Biomass Burnings in 1987 and an Estimate of their Tropospheric Emissions,' Ambio, volume 20, no. 1, February 1991, pp 19-22, estimate Brazil's forestry related CO2 fossil fuel emissions at 1.7 gigatonnes in 1987; World Resourches Institute, World Resources, 1991, Oxford University Press, New York, 1990, p 346, estimated the emissions at 1.2 gigatonnes that year; A Agarwal and S Narain, Global Warming in an Unequal World: A Case of Environmental Colonialism; Centre for Science and Environment, New Delhi, 1991, p 4, argue that the figure should be based on a decadal average, not 1987, and should be reduced to between 0.38 gigatonnes. Thus, estimates for an important emitter range differ by a factor of five

48 J Lanchberry et al, Verification and the Framework Convention on Climate Change, Verification Technology Information Centre, London, May 1992, p 25

49 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Estimation of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sinks, final report to the IPCC from OECD Experts

Meeting, February 1991, Revised August 1991

50 J Lanchberry et al, Verification and the Framework Convention, op cit. endnote 48

51 A Krass, Verification, How Much is Enough?, Taylor and Francis, London, 1985, p 94

52 B Schiff, International Nuclear Technology Transfer, Dilemmas of Dissemination and Control, Rowman and Allenheld, Totowa, New Jersey, p 113

53 See J Wettestad, 'Verification of International Greenhouse Agreements: A Mismatch between Technical and Political Feasibility,' International Challenges, volume 11, no. 1, 1991, pp 41-47

54 J Ausubel and D Victor, 'Verification of International Environmental Agreements' (mimeo), November 13, 1991, forthcoming in Annual Review of Energy and Environment

55 P Lewis, 'Experiences in Verification - What Can Be Learned for a Greenhouse Gas Convention,' in J Primio and G Stein, eds, A Regime to Control Greenhouse Gases, Forschungszentrum Julich GmbH, Julich, Germany, 1992, p 54

56 M Efinger and H Breitmeier, 'Verifying a Convention on Greenhouse Gases: A Game-Theoretic Approach,' in J Primio and G Stein, eds, A Regime to Control, ibid, p 66

57 D Feldman, 'Some Lessons of the IAEA's Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime for Confidence-Building Under a Greenhouse Gas Convention,' in l Primio and G Stein, eds, A Regime to Control, op cit. endnote 55, pp 79-84

58 Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for a Framework Convention on Climate Change, Climate Change Convention, UN Document A/AC.237/18 (Part Il)/Add.1, May 15, 1992, as revised at the June 1992 UN Conference on Environment and Development

59 M Grubb, 'The Greenhouse Effect: Negotiating Targets', International Affairs, volume 66, no. 1, 1990, p 76

60 K von Moltke, 'International Trade, Technology Transfer and Climate Change,' in I Mintzer, ed, Confronting Climate Change, Risks, Implications and Responses, Cambridge University Press, 1992, p 302

61 P Sand, Lessons Learned in Global Environmental Governance, World Resources Institute, Washington DC, June 1990, pp 25-27

62 T Simmons, 'The IEA Energy Data System,,' in J Primio and G Stein, ed, A Regime to Control, op cit. endnote 55, 119-129; and discussions of IEA in annexes to Pledge and Review Processes: Possible Components of a Climate Convention, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Energy and Environment Program report, August 2, 1991, London

63 S Barrett,'Free Rider Deterrence,' op cit. endnote 42, pp 9-14

64 A Markandya, 'Global Warming, The Economics of Tradeable Permits,' in D Pearce, ed, Blueprint 2, Greening the World Economy, Earthscan, London, pp 59-61

65 Asian Development Bank, Environmental Considerations in Energy Development, ADB, Manila, May 1991, p 96

66 Ibid, p 100; see also J Topping, A Qureshi and S Sherer, Implications of Climate Changefor the Asian Pacific Region, Climate Institute, paper for the AsianPacific Seminar on Climate Change, Nagoya, Japan, January 1991

67 V V Desai, K Nyman, Industrial Energy Conservation: Notes on Three Country Studies, Energy Planning Unit, Asian Development Bank, Manila, circa 1986, pp 2-4

68 M Philips, Energy Conservation Activities in Asia, International Institute for Energy Conservation, Washington DC, September 1990, p 12-13

69 M Levine et al., Energy Efficiency, Developing Nations and Eastern Europe, A Report to the US Working Group on Global Energy Efficiency, April 1991, p 20

70 G Doyle, 'Future Coal Use in the Asia Pacific Region,' in T Siddiqi and D Streets, Responding to the Threat of Global Warming, Options for the Pacific and Asia, Argonne National Laboratory and Environment and Policy Institute, East West Center, Workshop Proceedings, ANL/EAIS/TM-17, June 21, 1989, Honolulu, p 3-21

71 World Bank, China: Socialist Economic Development, Annex E, The Energy Sector, Report 3391-CHA, June 1981, p 11

72 M Philips, Energy conservation activities, op cit. endnote 68, p 3

73 Ibid

74 International Institute for Energy Conservation, 'Factory Lost Opportunities Project,' International Institute for Energy Conservation, Asia Regional Office, Bangkok, 1990; see also A Gadgil and G Jannuzzi, Conservation Potential of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in India and Brazil, LBL-27210 Rev., Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley California, September 1990

75 R Thaman, 'Coastal Reforestation and Agro Forestry as Immediate Ameliorative Measures to Address Global Warming and to Promote Sustainable Habitation of Low Lying and Coastal Areas,' in T Siddiqi and D Streets, Responding to the Threat of Global Warming, Options for the Pacific and Asia, Argonne National Laboratory and Environment and Policy Institute, East West Center, Workshop Proceedings, ANL/EAIS/TM-17, June 21, 1989, Honolulu, pp 437-45

76 S Myers et al, Energy Efficiency and Household Electric Appliances in Developing and Newly Industrialized Countries, LBL-29678 UC-350, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley California, December 1990, p 44

77 Asian Development Bank, Environmental Considerations in Energy Development, ADB, Manila, May 1991, p 77

78 B Leach, China and Global Change, Opportunities for Collaboration, US National Academy Press, Washington DC, 1992

79 See 'Development of an Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research,' workshop report, San Juan, Puerto Rico, July 15, 1992; and 'Regional Co-Operative Activities to Support Global Change Research in ASEAN Countries as a Component of START,' October 20, 1992, annex B to 'Minutes of Second Meeting of the Southeast Asian Regional Committee for START (SARCS),' Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, October 9, 1992

80 S Krasner, Structural Conflict, The Third World Against Global Liberalism, University of California Press, Berkeley, California, 1985; M Williams, Third World Cooperation, The Group of 77 in UNCTAD, St Martin's Press, New York, 1991

81 N Harris, The End of the Third World, Newly Industrializing Countries and the Decline of an Ideology, Penguin Books, London, 1986

82 A Kristin Sydnes, Developing Countries, op cit. endnote 12, pp 7-8

83 T Hyder, 'Climate Negotiations: The North/South Perspective,' in I Mintzer, ed, Confronting Climate Change, op cit. endnote 60, p 330

84 Ibid, p 8

85 L Lunde, The North/South Dimension, op cit. endnote 34, p 2

86 Ibid, p 16

87 ECO 'Last Change for Climate Treaty, US Intransigence Still Hinders Negotiations' (New York), April 24, 1992, p 1

88 P Haas, Saving the Mediterranean, The Politics of International Environmental Cooperation, Columbia University Press, New York, 1990, p xxii; and P Haas, 'Ecological Epistemic Communities and the Protection of Stratospheric Ozone' (mimeo), Political Science Department, University of Massachusetts in Amherst, January 1991, forthcoming in International Organization special issue on Knowledge, Power and International Policy Coordination

89 A Melucci, Nomads of the Present, Social Movements and Individual Needs in Contemporary Society, Hutchinson Radius, London, 1989; C Jennett and R Stewart, eds, Politics of the Future, The Role of Social Movements, MacMillan, Melbourne, 1989

90 P Ekins, A New World Order, Grassroots Movements for Global Change, Routledge, London, 1992

91 J Holmbert, Making Development Sustainable, Redefining Institutions, Policy, and Economics, Island Press, Washington DC, 1992, pp 56-7

92 See International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, Economic Policies for Sustainable Development in Nepal, report to Asian Development Bank, Khatmandu, May 1990, p 373

93 l Clark, Democratising Development, The Role of Voluntary Organisations, Earthscan, London, 1991; and G Leach and R Mearns, Beyond the Fuelwood Crisis, People. Land and Trees in Africa, Earthscan, London, 1988, pp 100-122

94 N Dubash and M Oppenheimer, 'Modifying the Mandate of Existing Institutions: NGOs, 'in I Mintzer, ed, Confronting Climate Change, op cit. endnote 60, p 275; and Climate Change Network, 'A Force for Change' (mimeo), December 1992

95 See 'Atmosphere and Climate,' chapter 24 of World Resources Institute, World Resources, 1992-1993, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992, pp 345-355; and S Subak et al, National Greenhouse Gas Accounts: Current Anthropogenic Sources and Sinks, Stockholm Environment Institute, Boston, 1992

96 Center for Building Science, 'Mexico Large-Scale Compact Fluorescent Lamp Project' (mimeo), Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, undated

97 'Alternative Non-Governmental Agreement on Climate Change,' in Alternative Treaty-Making Process from the International Non-Government Organization Forum, Rio de Janeiro, June 1-14, 1992, p D-3

98 'NGOs: Conventions Must Drive GEF,' ECO, December 1992, Geneva, p 7

99 R Buultjens, 'Years of Waste, Call for Action,' Earth Summit Times, volume 3, no. 2, August 27, 1992, p 14

100 Stockholm Environment Institute, Towards Global Energy Security: The Next Energy Transition, An Energy Scenario for a Fossil Fuel Free Energy Future, draft report to Greenpeace International, Boston, May 1992; J Parikh, 'IPCC strategies unfair to the South,' Nature, volume 260, December 10, 1992, p 507