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close this bookAPPEAL - Training Materials for Continuing Education Personnel (ATLP-CE) - Volume 5: Income-Generating Programmes (APEID - UNESCO, 1993, 127 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
View the documentINTRODUCTION
View the documentChapter 1: Rationale and Principles
View the documentChapter 2: Programme Framework
View the documentChapter 3: Types of Programmes
View the documentChapter 4: Organization and Delivery System
View the documentChapter 5: Resources for Income Generating Activities
View the documentChapter 6: Personnel and Their Development
View the documentChapter 7: Monitoring and Evaluation
View the documentChapter 8: Issues and Prospects
Open this folder and view contentsANNEXES
View the documentBACK COVER

Chapter 6: Personnel and Their Development

A. Introduction

As discussed in other volumes of ATLP-CE, all types of continuing education, including IGPs, need to be supported by specially trained continuing educators. Trained personnel are he fact integral to the success of IGPs.

Personnel are already available in existing organisations in a country, in the education, economic and service sectors. These persons need to be identified and their skills utilised at appropriate levels for IGPs. Additional personnel need to be identified and trained for areas where existing personnel are not available or are not available in requisite numbers.

A broad classification of the personnel required for a successful IGP is detailed below:

Level A
(Nation level)

Level B
(Provincial & State)

Level C
(local level)

1. Senior educational managers

2. Educational planners

3. Socio-economic planners

4. Human resources planners

5. Senior managers in non-government agencies

6. Evaluators

1. Trainers of trainers

2. Resource developers

3. Field consultants

4. Counsellors and guidance officers

5. Members of provincial CE management committees

6. Monitors

1. Field consultants

2. Local counsellors and guidance officers

3. All type of providers, especially lay teachers and volunteers

4. Tutors

5. Facilitors

7. Instructors

8. Motivators

9. Change agents

B. Levels of Personnel

As shown above IGP personnel are required at three levels:

(a) Level A - Senior administrators and policy makers.

Level A personnel are individuals at national level in charge of making policy and planning and implementing the Income Generating Continuing Education Programmes in their country. As a country achieves higher rates of literacy, and the emphasis on IGPs increases, their roles need redefinition and reorientation may be required. As the emphasis on literacy programmes decreases, the altered roles would become more significant and increasingly focus on promotion and implementation of IGPs.

(b) Level B - Provincial/district supervisors and trainers of trainers.

It is assumed that a cadre of high level professional supervisors and trainers will emerge to operate in key locations throughout the country. A percentage of the cadre of supervisors and trainers for the non-formal programmes of basic literacy could be reoriented to the goals of IGPs. This implies that there should be some immediate retraining of personnel already involved in non-formal literacy programmes. There will thus be Level B personnel involved with the programmes of basic literacy and those involved with the dual responsibility of basic literacy and IGP. Individuals from various sectors with which the IGPs are to link together such as Agriculture, Industry, Cottage Industry, and various other occupations would also require orientation training. In addition teacher trainers and teachers from formal education, in particular from the vocational technical education sub-system, should be given orientation training. Thus there would be a scenario where a category of Level B personnel concerned only with IGP would emerge.

(c) Level C - Teachers and field consultants in Continuing Education.

There is need for two types of level C personnel. The first would provide extensive training for neo-literates to foster continuing development towards autonomous learning. Others would be providers of special education programmes like the IGP. The second category would have a broader community role, functioning as field consultants throughout the community to help the community identify its needs and later provide linkages with programmes to address these needs. Both types of Level C personnel would need to be trained by Level B trainers following the national guidelines developed at Level ‘A’.

C. Sources of Personnel

Level B and C field consultants and lead persons (change agents in Level C) could be drawn from occupational sectors such as the following:


- Workers from the following areas: agronomy, dairy, poultry, fisheries, bee keeping, sericulture, horticulture, food preservation and processing, marketing, beef fattening.


- Estimators, draftsmen, supervisors, masons, carpenters, plumbers, painters and interior decorators.


- Linesmen, repair and maintenance personnel for radio, T.V., other appliances, telephone and switch board mechanics, lift mechanics, motor rewinders, operators and maintenance repairers of electromedical equipment.

Metal Work

- Fitters, turners, welders, grinders, blacksmiths, tinsmiths, millwrights, tool makers, moulders, pattern makers.


- Operators and mechanics for motor vehicles, tractors, motor cycles, hysters, all earth moving machinery, and agricultural implements.

Marine personnel

- Speedboat, motor launch and other boat maintenance

Printing trades

- Book binders, camera operators, graphic designers, printing machine operators.

Garments & Textiles

- Cutters, tailors, printers, sewing machine textiles operators, wool knitting personnel, weavers, carpet weavers.


- Cooks, bakers, waiters, housekeepers, hotel front lobby personnel.


- Typists, stenographers, computer programmers, personal secretaries, word processors, clerks, accountants and book keepers, office machine operators, interpreters and translators, telephone/fax/telex operators.

Cottage industry and Micro businesses

- Workers involved in pottery, weaving, cane work, bamboo work, pulse husking, oil making, soap manufacturing, rice trading, grocery shops, leather products, handmade paper, jewelry work, gem cutting, and fish hatcheries.

Other miscellaneous occupations

- Beauticians, tourist guides and travel agents, sales and distributive personnel, watch and ward service personnel, gardeners, laundry operators, club assistants, compounders, real estate brokers, and health, nutrition and family planning workers, midwives and housewives.

The above list is representative and not exhaustive. Selection of occupations would depend on a series of criteria including the levels of development in a country, the area where the programme is to be implemented and multi-sectoral interfaces.

Once lead personnel (change agents) have been identified they would be brought to local learning centres for consultation with field consultants in Level C and Level B (experts in the trade or subject). Consultations would be based on specific short duration courses.

Training courses should be based to the maximum extent possible on field and practical work.

D. Duties, Tasks and Competencies

(a) Level A Personnel

The duties and tasks of Level A Personnel would include:

i) Integration of IGCE programmes with national development plans/policies;

ii) Advocating acceptance of IGCE by developing agencies at all levels, politicians, mass organizations, mass media etc.;

iii) Planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluating IGPs programme;

iv) Mobilizing resources - financial technical and human;

v) Anticipating challenges for socio-economic and technological change;

vi) Undertaking comparative studies.

To perform the above duties and tasks level A personnel would require the following specific competencies:

· Understanding the concept, principles and benefits of IGPs

· Assessing present status of IGP;

· Advocating acceptance of IGPs by agencies at the central level;

· Assessing and strengthening coordination for IGPs;

· Developing planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation guidelines;

· Mobilizing financial, technical and human resources;

· Undertaking policy analyses;

· Initiating action - oriented research;

· Initiating impact studies.

(b) Level B. Personnel

Duties and tasks of Level B Personnel would include:

i) Promoting IGP

ii) Liaising with development departments at the national/provincial/district/sub-district levels.

iii) Mobilizing support for the programme at various levels.

iv) Organizing and coordinating Income-Generating and other continuing education programmes at the state/provincial, district and sub-district levels.

v) Setting up mechanisms for monitoring and organizing the programme.

vi) Participating in national, regional and local committees and sub-committees.

vii) Training level C personnel

In respect of Level B duties and tasks, specific competencies required would include:

· Undertaking a needs analysis of Level ‘C’ personnel - i.e. analyzing the labour market, designing curriculum.

· Developing materials and designing learning activities. (This would include developing guidelines for production and marketing products.)

· Developing guidance and counselling services.

· Fostering links between agencies.

· Eliciting support from media agencies.

· Mobilizing support and resources from agencies/individuals

· Organizing and coordinating IGPs.

· Setting up mechanisms for monitoring and evaluating IGP and undertaking action research, including impact studies.

In order to acquire the above competencies personnel at level B would have to be engaged in continuous updating of their educational and trade skills.

(c) Level C Personnel

Duties and tasks of Level C Personnel would include:

i) Undertaking, conducting and promoting IGP

ii) Acquainting themselves with the community and identifying groups for IGPs.

iii) Assessing needs of specific groups for IGP activities.

iv) Assisting the community to asses their needs and priorities and formulating their plans and methods of intervention. (This would include identifying local resources - physical human and technical required for the IGP.)

v) Mobilizing support for IGPs from different sections.

vi) Developing simple materials and where necessary select and adapt existing materials to suit local needs.

vii) Helping organizing and coordinating IGPs.

viii) Helping set up a simple monitoring system and system for evaluating the IGPs.

ix) Participating in national, regional and local committees and sub-committees.

Level C would require to develop specific competencies to:

· understand the community and identify groups/occupations for whom IGPs are necessary;

· undertake vocational guidance and counselling;

· undertake labour market studies;

· adapt IGP activities/programmes to local conditions

· identify local resource and also mobilize them;

· promote an understanding of IGPs in the community;

· link IGPs with local private enterprise and marketing;

· promote small scale industry;

· develop and/or adapt materials;

· assess local development against national indicators;

· undertake action research, individually or in association with level B personnel; and

· set up a system for monitoring and evaluating the programme.

E. Training of IGP Personnel

Training is one of the vital inputs, which if successfully conducted will ensure the success of the programme.

(a) Since Level A personnel are senior policy makers at top levels of management, their training would be of short duration. One or two national level training organizations could have the overall responsibility for preparing the curriculum and materials for organizing training programmes for this level. The training strategy could include organization of national level orientation workshops possibly for one day, small group interactions, learning from case study materials, field visits, and use of audio-visual materials. The training should be specially designed to facilitate coordination and cooperation of all agencies involved.

(b) Training for Level B personnel should be organized by state or provincial level training organizations. These would draw resources - technical and human - from various agencies and organisations at national, provincial and local levels.

The following aspects should be stressed:-

· A network of institutions and individuals could strengthen the training capability of the local training centres.

· NGOs could play an important role in providing training support.

· A variety of training materials would be required to train the personnel.

· Materials in existence could be suitably adapted for use.

(c) Training of Level C personnel needs to be organized by local level training agencies.

The following points are important:

· Teams of personnel could be identified to carry out training programmes.

· The training strategy would have to be field based and practice oriented and supplemented with suitable print and A/V materials; demonstrations in pilot projects, model farms and the like.

F. Training Curriculum for IGP Personnel

This section briefly reviews curriculum required for ‘Training the Trainers’ for IGPs in general terms and then comments on the training curriculum for specific occupation groups.

(a) Training the Trainers

For the purpose of delivery of an IGP trainers need to be identified from among the teachers of technical-vocational education and training systems, and from among field personnel working in different occupations.

For the trainers of IGP a comprehensive training programme should cover the following:-

- Principles of learning
- Communication and Interpersonal skill
- Developing a Training Manual
- Planning, Preparation and Delivery
- Exposure to available resources/presentation
- Questions and Answers
- Feedback
- Handling Anxiety
- Individual Presentation
- Practice Sessions (as applicable)

A Training trainers curriculum should follow a practical approach including demonstration, participatory learning, and learning by doing, rather than a theoretical approach.

At all stages the trainers should be given to understand that they are all important.

Since the trainers are likely to be already engaged in some activity, the strength of their previous experiences should be taken into account, weaknesses addressed by way of imparting new skills and techniques and information made available to increase their knowledge base.

A carefully prepared time schedule should be followed and sessions designed to be brief and to the point with a focus on field application. Participants would be encouraged to take part actively. Time slots should be allocated for group activity and for personalized attention.

(b) Training Curriculum for the Specific Target Groups:

Training trainers for specific occupations requires careful attention to specific skills.

Trainers also need a back up on the several processes of curriculum development since they may not always find a ready made curriculum for a particular trade or occupation.

The logical steps to which the trainers should be exposed are as follows:

· Occupational Analysis - market analysis
· Identification of specific occupation/trade/duty or task
· Conducting a task analysis
· Identifying knowledge/skills needed
· Setting up aims and objectives
· Determining duration of a course
· Establishing evaluation criteria
· Selecting instructional methods
· Listing facilities, tools and equipment

After the trade or occupation for which a new curriculum is to be developed has been decided, the task of curriculum development could be taken up by a team of experts with persons from Level B and C. The various components of the curriculum would be as follows:

· Name of Trade or Course

· Job opportunities

- self-employment
- wage employment

· Objective of the course with level

- General objectives
- Specific objectives

· Activities to be performed or content to be covered

- Theory or knowledge based
- Practice or skill based

· Criteria for evaluation
· Course duration
· Instructional methods
· Facilities, tools and equipment
· Instructional materials
· Number of trainees/groups
· Resource staff available
· Entry level requirements.

G. Career Development and Incentive Programme for IGP Personnel

As stated earlier, in the operation of IGPs in a national setting, three levels of personnel will be involved, in addition to persons in the target groups (direct beneficiaries). Since people in the target groups would be involved in income generating activities leading to a better quality of life for themselves and their families motivation is built in. Other personnel involved in the IGP may need to be given specific incentives and career development opportunities.

Persons at Level A should play a key role in setting examples. Persons at Level B are crucial to the success of IGPs. Their level of motivation must be maintained with systematically administered incentives. Within this group, at least for those from Government agencies, there should be promotional opportunities and incentive plans. For some special benefits (monetary and others) should be extended, especially for those who are on secondment from GOs to NGOs or from one organization to another.

National competitions for district and sub-district level activities may be initiated and administered based on specially selected criteria and thorough scrutiny. Lead farmers and farms, model villages, accident free record production centres and so on should be given special recognition.

Persons who show demonstrable success after having attended an IGP activity should be recognized and rewarded and used as role models. This would encourage various target groups to utilize their newly acquired knowledge and skills.