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close this bookManufacture of Ceilings - Course: Timberwork techniques. Trainees' handbook of lessons (Institut für Berufliche Entwicklung, 22 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the document1. Purpose of Ceilings
View the document2. The Wooden Beam Ceiling
View the document3. The Framing
View the document4. The Attic and Collar-beam Framing
View the document5. The Pitch Size
View the document6. Load on Wooden Beams
View the document7. The List of Timber
View the document8. The Wall Plate
View the document9. Flooring Sleepers
View the document10. Special Constructional Recommendations

10. Special Constructional Recommendations

Sound and heat insulation in ceilings

- If ceilings are to be provided with sound or heat insulation or both, the hollow space between verge (gable) beam and gable wall or between passing beam and partition wall, respectively, is to be filled with moisture-resistant material.

- The gap between the jamb of flue and filling timber or beam trimming, respectively, is to be filled with non-flammable material.

- If mineral wool mats or textile fibre mats are used, they are to be fixed to the wooden beams by wooden strips.

- If insulating mats are to be joined, they must be overlapped sufficiently.

Figure 18

Wooden beam ceiling with heat insulation only

1 wooden beams, 2 dead floor (laggings), 3 heat-insulating mat, 4 wooden strip to fix the insulating mats, 5 flooring, 6 protection against trickling matter (particle board)

- If slag is used for footfall sound insulation, the slag is to be placed as high as to provide good supporting contact for the blind side of the floor battens.

- Dry material only must be used for sound and heat insulation.

- If heat insulation is required for the outside wall, heat-insulating material is to be placed at the respective crosgrained end of the wooden beam.

Figure 19

Heat insulation in the area of the beam head

1 wooden beam, 2 wall plate, 3 plaster base, 4 heat-insulating material, 5 air gap, 6 barrier layer, 7 beam head

Connection between brickwork and wood

- All wooden parts, which are fixed in the wall, must be protected against the moisture in the brickwork.

- The wall plate is fixed in the wall “dry”, i. e. the bricks are laid without mortar in a distance of 1 cm from the wall plate.

Figure 20

Wall plate fixed in the wall

1 plaster base, 2 wall plate (fixed dry), 3 wooden beam,
4 barrier layer, 5 air gap, 6 heat-insulating material

- An air gap of about 1 cm is to be left around the head of the beam.
- At the face end of the head of the beam, an air gap of 2 cm is to be left (See Fig. 19).
- On the wall plate and on the head of the beam, the bricks are to be laid without mortar (dry).
- The air gap around the head of the beam must not be filled with plaster mortar.

Tieing of the wooden beams

Ceilings must stiffen the building or room.

For this purpose the wooden beams are tied to the outer walls.

In the longitudinal walls (walls accomodating the wooden beams) every third wooden beam is provided with a beam tie.

Figure 21

Beam tie as head tie

1 beam tie, 2 cotter pin, 3 screw or forged nail, 4 cramp, 5 wooden beam

The gable walls are secured by gable ties.

Gable ties must extend over at least three wooden beams.

Figure 22

Beam tie as gable tie

1 gable tie, 2 screw or forged nail, 3 recess for gable tie, 4 cramp, 5 brickwork

Figure 23

Distribution of gable ties

1 gable tie, 2 screw, 3 recess, 4 head tie, w clear width of the room

They are arranged in the third points of the wooden beams.

The inner edge of the cotter pin should have a distance of 240 mm to the inner edge of the wall.

The gable ties should be placed in a recess in the wooden beams. Screws or forged nails are to be used for fixing the beam ties or gable ties!

Additionally they are to be secured by cramps to be placed before the upward edge-bend.