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close this bookNeeds and Characteristics of a Sample of Micro and Small Enterprises in Thailand - Working Paper N5 - Micro and Small Enterprise Development and Poverty Alleviation in Thailand - Project ILO/UNDP: THA/99/003 (ILO-ISEP - ILO - UNDP, 1999, 102 p.)
close this folder2.0 Survey of selected Thai urban-based MSEs
View the document(introduction...)
View the document2.1 Survey methodology
View the document2.2 The survey sample
View the document2.3 Results of the Bangkok survey
View the document2.4 Results of the Phetchaburi survey

2.2 The survey sample

The microenterprise in this survey is defined as having less than 5 persons, and small enterprise as 5 or more and less than 50 persons working in a normal situation. The enterprises included are in the manufacturing, trade and services sectors. The survey was conducted by interviewing a total of 104 enterprises. It includes 69 microenterprises and 35 small enterprises in Bangkok and Phetchaburi, of which 55 micro and 22 small enterprises are from Bangkok, and 14 micro and 13 small enterprises are from Phetchaburi, as shown in more detail in Table 1. The names of the enterprises surveyed are as shown in the list in Appendix II.

In Bangkok it was found that Department of Public Welfare (DPW) of the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare (MOLSW), under the Thai Help Thai programme, has supported unemployed people to set up microenterprises. The support was mainly financial to enable the target group to start up a business to earn income. In particular, the Thai Help Thai programme gives a grant of 2,000 Baht per person to be working as a group in a micro business. As of April 1999, 57 microenterprises have been set up under the programme in Bangkok. Of these 17 enterprises in 14 districts of Bangkok were randomly chosen to be interviewed in the survey.

Table 1. The MSE survey sample


Microenterprises

Small Enterprises

Total Enterprises


Supported Enterprises

Independent Enterprises




DPW

UCDO

DIP

Subtotal




Bangkok Area:

Manufacturing

17

6

-

23

4

18

45

Service

-

-

-

-

17

1

18

Trade

-

-

-

-

11

3

14

Subtotal

17

6

-

23

32

22

77

Phetchaburi Province:

Manufacturing

1

-

6

7

2

11

20

Service

-

-

-

-

2

2

4

Trade

-

-

-

-

3

-

3

Subtotal

1

-

6

7

7

13

27

Total Enterprises

18

6

6

30

39

35

104

In addition it was also found that the Urban Community Development Organization (UCDO), a foundation under the National Housing Authority, in cooperation with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA), has given financial and other support to people in Bangkok to start up microenterprises in their own communities. At the time of the survey, several microenterprises (around 80 groups) have been set up with this form of support. Many of these have just started, while a few have been inactive. From those that were active, 6 enterprises in 4 districts were also randomly chosen for interview as part of this survey. These enterprises, together with those supported by DPW, are referred to in the analysis as “supported microenterprises” in this survey. Incidentally, all of the enterprises in this group are in the manufacturing sector.

Apart from those supported enterprises, Bangkok has numerous independent individually-owned microenterprises. To narrow down the work of the survey, the districts of Yannawa, Sathorn, and Bangkholeam (formerly Yannawa and Klong Toey districts) were chosen as the main areas. Interviews were then conducted with microenterprises randomly found on the streets in these districts. The survey carried out 31 interviews from this group, and 1 interview with a trading microenterprise in Bang-Na district. Of these, 4 enterprises are in manufacturing, 11 in services, and 17 in trading businesses. These enterprises are referred to as “independent microenterprises” in the survey.

As for the small enterprises, since the manufacturing sector is seen as a higher potential creator of jobs, the Phasicharoen district outside of the inner Bangkok area was chosen for the survey, as it has a proliferation of many different types of enterprises. In this district, using the same method applied to the independent microenterprises, small enterprises were selected randomly for interview from the streets of the district. A total of 22 small enterprises in this group were interviewed. They include 18 enterprises in manufacturing, 1 in services and 3 in trading.

In Phetchaburi it was found that the work of the Department of Public Welfare (DPW) under the Thai Help Thai programme had just been started in earnest. One microenterprise which was interviewed had been successfully set up by the programme, while several others were in the process of being formed. At the same time, no enterprise under the support of UCDO has been found. However, there are 7 enterprises receiving financial support from the Provincial Industrial Office under the Department of Industrial Promotion’s (DIP) revolving fund scheme. All of these 7 microenterprises were interviewed and reported on, together with one in the DPW’s programme, as “supported microenterprises”.

Phetchaburi is a small province 120 kilometres south-west of Bangkok. It has a population of 453,391 people, and 2,528 registered enterprises, of which 669 are manufacturing enterprises. Thus the interviews with “independent microenterprises” in Phetchaburi were carried out with randomly chosen enterprises found on the streets of the city of Phetchaburi. A total of 7 interviews were drawn from this group, involving 2 manufacturing enterprises, 2 in services, and 3 trading businesses. Apart from that, 13 interviews were carried out with small enterprises in Phetchaburi. This was done in collaboration with the Phetchaburi Provincial Industrial Office (PIO) by choosing randomly from the list of 66 enterprises provided by the PIO. Of the 13 enterprises interviewed, 11 are in manufacturing and 2 are in services.