|GATE - 3/91 - Impact - A Neglected Dimension of AT (GTZ GATE, 1991, 52 p.)|
Unconventional Water Detection
"Unconventional Water Detection-Field Test of the Dowsing Technique in Dry Zones with Cristalline Rock Basement" is the title of a book to be published by GTZ in German language at the end of this year. GATE intends to elaborate an English edition if your demands show an important interest in the dowsing technique. In this case please write to GATE.
The report presents new insight into an unconventional variant of locating water reserves which relies on utilization of water dowsing. It is for good reasons that the effectiveness of this working method is disputed; in the mean time, however, extensive field examinations have shown - in line with reliable historic accounts - that a few, carefully selected dowsers may well be able to detect with surprising accuracy of aim both faults, fissures and fractures in areas with, say, crystalline or limestone bed-rock.
Based on this technique a number of GTZ projects in dry zones could be carried out with unexpectedly high rates of success. In particular, in thinly populated areas it was possible to locate a large number of relatively small underground aquifers and to drill wells right at the places of demand, whereby yields were low but sufficient for hand-pump operation throughout the year. Without excessive efforts conventional techniques would not have allowed to find a sufficient number of the existing, relatively small fracture zones.
The significance of the exploited method was tested under various aspects. On the one hand, project areas with different geological characteristics were chosen, on the other hand the relevant circumstances and project results were carefully examined by geology experts. Up to date, highly critical considerations of all possible objections and ways of counter-argumentation did not yield a conventional explanation for the persistent success of the dowsing technique - an outcome which was corroborated by a number of well designed control experiments and comparative tests. The trend of the reported findings is in accordance with evidence gathered from recent scientific research which has been carried out, for example, by a Swedish geological institution and by a university cooperation in Munich.
Provided that certain conditions are met, collected evidence leads to the conclusion that the dowsing technique is a variant of ground water prospection which should be taken serious. Present experience confirms that the effectiveness to locate subsurface water for certain hydrogeological situations can be raised significantly when conventionally operating teams make additional use of appropriately tested and selected dowsers in order to pinpoint drilling spots. Along these lines a model of integration is discussed and proposed for future use which has already been tentatively tested in some of the presented GTZ projects.
The described and partially remarkable success rates allow to design specific future tests which may contribute to a scientific clarification of the dowsing phenomenon. Simultaneously, useful transfer of practical knowledge in water resources development becomes feasible. Finally, the problem might be of importance to bionics; continued handling of these matters may lead to the development of powerful new or improved technical devices which represent a simulation of the demonstrated performance of dowsers, whatever explanation lies behind. M
Micro Pelton Turbine Project
Under its micro-hydropower project GATE has financed the compilation of a manuscript for a manual on the layout, design, manufacture and installation of very small, locally built Pelton turbine installations. The author of the book is Marcus Eisenring, a well-known small hydropower engineer. SKAT, the Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology, a member of the MiniHydroPowerGroup (MHPG), is responsible for the layout, printing and publication of the book. The book will be available from SKAT and GATE towards the end of 1991.
In a second phase of the project, it is proposed to install three to four pilot plants. SKAT would like to contact organizations, workshops or other institutions or individuals planning to install small Pelton turbine plants. They should produce the equipment themselves and should be prepared to collaborate closely with SKAT on a pilot installation in 1992 or later.
For further information please contact:
CH-9000 St. Gallen
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Institutional Development in Environment (IDE)
From 18 to 20. 3. 91, GATE/GTZ held an international seminar in New Delhi on the topic of Institutional Development in Environment (IDE). Experts were invited from developing countries - decision-makers and practitioners from international governmental and non-governmental institutions - to discuss the topic as seen by the "South". Special emphasis was placed on debating the following questions:
· What are the chief problem areas of and constraints to the development of environmental institutions?
· What can and should donors do to promote IDE in developing countries?
· Which actors are involved in the IDE process?
Conclusions reached by the seminar include the following:
· IDE requires an open attitude and an awareness of the need for comprehensive environmental protection at all levels of society.
· The practical realization of IDE necessitates a change in the existing relationships between donors and recipients. In this context, donors should concentrate primarily on the initiation of the process and on the provision of periodic support to assist the process.
· IDE requires the participation of a number of institutions and actors; the processes of coordination must involve national and local NGOs, private-sector organizations and informal groups.
· IDE is a culture-specific process, for which there are no generally applicable solutions or models.
Proceedings in English will be available from GATE as of October 1991.