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close this bookTeacher Training: a Reference Manual (Peace Corps, 1986, 176 p.)
close this folderChapter 1 what a teacher trainer needs to know
close this folderSupervision
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentClinical supervision
View the documentObservation
View the documentObservation techniques
View the documentData collection

Data collection

If the supervisor has access to a videotape recorder or an ordinary tape recorder, objective information can be collected by making a videotape or audiotape of the class. This technique for collecting data has the advantage of allowing the teacher to view, objectively, his/her own performance. It should be stressed, however, that the supervisor should not feel tied to this technology. Many methods exist for collecting valuable and objective information for discussion and improvement. It is up to the supervisor to choose the appropriate means of collecting the desired data.

In choosing the observation technique to be used, the supervisor or observer and teacher should keep the following questions in mind:

1. Will the data collected provide the teacher with helpful information?

2. Are both the technique and data type chosen compatible with the objective of the observation discussed in the pre-observation conference?

3. Can the system be used comfortably by the observer?

The ultimate goal of any supervision program should be to have teachers become self-supervised. For this to occur teachers must be provided with as much concrete, specific, and non-evaluative data as possible so that they are in a position to evaluate their own performance in relation to the predetermined objectives. Teachers are then in a position to determine where changes might take place. All of this must be done with the help of the supervisor, not by the supervisor.


1. Think of a time when you have been observed and given feedback. How did you feel? How were you approached? What did you like/dislike about the way the observation was conducted? Re-examine this experience with respect to the Clinical Supervision Model and consider what your experience would have been like under this model.

2. Consider how you would introduce the concept of clinical supervision to a group that is:

a. Resistant to it (making a slow or partial transition to it).
b. Unsure of it (making a slow or partial transition to it).
c. Interested in it (introducing the complete, perhaps adapted model).

3. Think of ways in which data can be collected to identify each of the observable behaviors listed at the beginning of the Observation subsection.


Anglin, Leo W., Jr., Richard M. Goldman and Joyce S. Anglin. Teaching: What It's All About. New York: Harper and Row, 1982.

Goldhamer, R. Clinical Supervision. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1969.

Wiles, Kimball and John T. Lovell. Supervision for Better Schools. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Pall, Inc., 1975.