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close this bookAgricultural Extension: Guidelines for Extension Workers in Rural Areas (SKAT, 1994, 298 p.)
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View the document(introduction...)
View the document1 EXTENSION WORKER
View the document2 EXTENSION PLANNING
View the document4 EXTENSION METHODS
View the document6 EXTENSION CONTEXT



Extension workers' advice to extension workers

Aim for credibility and confidence with an open mind

"The adviser does not hold the ultimate key to 'development"'.

"Listen, observe and say little." "Respect the rhythm of the farm families "

Observe carefully and listen patiently!

Get to know the country and its people well!

"First gel to know the conditions thoroughly and only then start elaborating concepts." "Be considerate towards the language and customs of the farmers."

"Learn to see things with their eyes." "The farmer bears the consequences of any change on his farm."

Make the welfare of the farm family your center of interes

Learn from the farmer's example!

"Recognize the reasons for the use of existing techniques." "First find out what the farmer knows better than you."

"Farmers can often explain things to other farmers better than extension workers can." "Help to solve problems without imposing your own opinion."

Recognize the farmers as independent and experienced partners.

Aim for professional competence !!

"Don't give contradictory advice." "The extension worker must be able to combine theory and practice."

"Discuss the innovations with the farmers and adapt them to suit their resources." "Assess with the farmers the overall impact of an innovation."

Adapt innovations to local conditions and assess them within the overall context !!

Plan and assess together with those involved and those affected!

"Stop a while, look back and reassess with your partners the work done." "Listen to the farmers' opinions."

"The counsellor must ask the right questions."

What have we forgotten?

Source: quotations from an enquiry among more than 80 extension workers in projects in Asia, Africa and Latin America, together with their recommendations (LBL, 1987 unpublished).

Extension Worker

The Role of Extension Workers

Note We can not assume that the extension worker, the target population and the employer all see the extension worker's role in the same light.


It is important for an adviser to define clearly his/her role and to match his/her behavior to this definition.

You, too, are an adviser!

Put your passport photograph here

Question List

- What do the farmers expect from an extension worker?
- What role do the employers want the extension workers to have?
- To what extent do these expectations agree with how the extension worker sees his/her role?
- What attitudes and abilities characterize the role of an extension advisor/counsellor?
- For which subjects should women take the role of extension advisor/counsellor?
- What is the extension worker's opinion of the target group?
- How does s/he think s/he can best approach the target group?
- In what role would s/he like the target group to see him/her?
- When and where can extension workers exchange ideas and experience?
- How are the extension workers' suggestions collected and considered?
- How do the extension workers judge their activities

- What duties are the main tasks for extension workers in my institution?
- Whal aspects of extension work do they particularly like?
- Who is responsible for defining the tasks?
- What changes should be made in how tasks are defined?
- Where can women perform extension duties?

- Whose status is higher, the extension worker's or the farmer's?
- What is being done to help the extension worker do his/her work well?
- What further training is necessary to help the extension worker do his/her work better?

Related Keywords

1.4 The Social Environment
2.1 The Planning Team
A Definition of Extension
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
D Functions of Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

103 The situation of the advisers

Volume 2:

161 C4: Illusions of communication




initial basic training

Advanced training:

learning new skills

Refresher courses:

refreshing old skills;

keeping up with new developments


Three to seven days of practical training every three months bring a breath of fresh air into extension work.


Question List

- What do extension workers mean by extension?

- What basic training (technical and methodological) is given to an extension worker?

- In what area (technical topics, methodological) should this training be increased or supplemented?

- In what areas of their work do extension workers themselves see weaknesses? How are these weaknesses revealed and talked about?

- How much do the extension workers want to receive further training? What incentive is there for them to do o?

- Who offers further training? Who could provide it?

- How frequently are courses for extension workers scheduled? Who defines the subjects covered?

- What should be achieved by further training?

- How is it ensured that the subjects covered on the courses meet the participants' expectations?

- How much are the problems of extension work included and discussed during the courses?

- How are the subjects of a course adapted to the particular extension activity?

- Who can participate in training courses?

- What resources are available to the extension worker to train him/herself by independent study? What incentives are there for him/her to do so?

- What are the constraints (time, family, finance) to prevent an extension worker attending further training courses?

- Who could fiance the training and to what extent?

Related Keywords

2.6 Staff Management
6.5 Research
6.7 Agricultural Training

Pointers to the GTZ · Manual

Volume 1:

219 Appraisal of advisers
223 Basic and advanced training

Volume 2:

323 E14: Circulars for advisers



· Intrinsic motivation = willingness and enthusiasm stimulated by commitment success and recognition (i.e. from the job itself)

· Extrinsic motivation = willingness stimulated by artificial incentives (i.e. bonuses, privileges)


Intrinsic motivation must be the basic, driving force.


Question List

- Why did the extension worker choose to work in extension?

- What motivates an extension worker?

- What is the aim of the extension activities?

- Who drew up the extension worker's job description? How was the extension worker involved in preparing the job description?

- What are the extension workers' favorite tasks?

- How is the extension work evaluated and how is good performance rewarded?

- What indicates that extension workers are motivated to do their work?

- Where and when does competition arise among extension workers? How is this shown?

- What incentives promote a team spirit among the extension workers?

- What are the chances of promotion for an extension worker?

- What incentives does an extension worker receive (accommodation, vehicle, fuel, daily allowances, bonuses, excursions)?

- How does good performance in extension affect an extension worker's salary?

- What effect do material incentives have on the extension worker's performance?

- In what way do incentives improve motivation?

- What does the target group think about this?

- How are these incentives decided on? Who pays for these incentives?

- What can the target group contribute to motivate the extension workers?

- What, if any, are the circumstances that hinder motivation?

- How can these obstacles be removed?

- Personally: How do I as an extension worker reply to these questions?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
1.4 The Social Environment
2.1 The Planning Team
5 7 Transport
5.8 Infrastructure
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
D Functions of Extension

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:
218 Living and working conditions

Volume 2:
209 D5: The role of stimulation

Social Environment of the Extension Worker

Notes The extension worker is only one of many people whom the farmer meets; beside him/her (or in front of him/her) stand a whole series of other contacts (traders, traditional and governmental authorities... )

· There are counsellors at all levels from the field extension worker to the adviser at the ministry. Each of them has his/her own social environment.


Question List

- From what social class does the extension worker come?

- What helps to introduce the extension worker into the target group?

- What traditional social conventions must be observed while visiting (modes of formal greeting, courtesy gestures, gifts)?

- What does the foreign extension worker need to do regarding traditional and national hierarchies?

- What does the local extension worker need to do regarding traditional and national hierarchies?

- How much freedom does the local extension worker have to take decisions and express his/her own opinion?

- How long does an extension worker stay at his/her post and who decides to send him/her elsewhere?

- What does the target group expect from the local/foreign extension worker?

- What does the population say about the privileges and bonuses of the extension worker?

- What influence does the extension worker's "image" (jeep, lifestyle, barefoot counsellor) have on his/her activity?

- What is needed before farmers will recognize other farmers as advisers?

- Who selects the farmer extension workers? How are they selected (with which criteria)?

- Who decides about their employment and duties?

- How can the other farmers say what they want the duties of the farmer extension workers to be?

- How can the target population be involved in preparing the job description for the extension worker?

- What is the most appropriate form of employment for the farmer extension worker (e.g. as a civil servant, a local council employee, a project employee)?

- What co-ordination problems arise between the various contracts and employers?

- How many specialized advisers are needed? How many can a target group or a village community tolerate?

Related Keywords

1.1 The Role of Extension Workers
2.6 Staff Management
6.1 Agricultural Policy
6.6 Other Extension Services
C Value Concepts - Value Systems
D Functions of Extension
E Animation/Organization Development

Pointers to the GTZ - Manual

Volume 1:

57 Framework model of extension
103 The situation of the advisers
191 Density of advisers

Volume 2:

161 C4: Illusions of communication
181 C6: Contact farmers
205 D4: Committees as intermediaries