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close this bookAppropriate Community Technology - A Training Manual (Peace Corps, 1982, 685 p.)
close this folderPhase V: Solar agricultural dryers
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPhase V Calendar
View the documentSession 1. Introduction to agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 2. Tour of solar dryers
View the documentSession 3. Solar agricultural dryer design procedures and rules of thumb
View the documentSession 4. Two-hour dryer construction
View the documentSession 5. Review of existing solar dryer plans
View the documentSession 6. Smoke testing solar dryers
View the documentSession 7. Introducing new technologies: solar dryers
View the documentSession 8. Design of solar agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 9. Site selection and preparation
View the documentSession 10. Construction of solar agricultural dryers
View the documentSession 11. Issues and methods in development and diffusion of appropriate technology
View the documentSession 12. Natural cooling
View the documentSession 13. Approaches to health systems
View the documentSession 14. Nutritional gardening
View the documentSession 15. Practical drying tips
View the documentSession 16. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
View the documentSession 17. Dryer assessment and modification
View the documentSession 18. Introduction to cost benefit analysis (cba)
View the documentSession 19. Presentation of solar dryers
View the documentSession 20. Introduction to the final phase of the training program

Session 20. Introduction to the final phase of the training program

Total time:

2 hours


* To review and clarify the schedule and goals for Phase VI

* To discuss and clarify guidelines for preparing the final Volunteer in Development assignment

* To discuss and review the final technical skills assessment

* To review guidelines for presenting demonstrations

* To review guidelines for planning the Energy Fair

* To identify and list major tasks involved in preparing for the Energy Fair


* Attachment V-20-A, "The Role of the Appropriate Community Technology Development Facilitator: A Transition to Peace Corps Service"

* Attachment V-20-B, "Skills and Knowledge Assessment Sheet"

* Attachment V-20-C, "Demonstration Guidelines"

* Attachment V-20-D, "Guidelines for Planning the Energy Fair"


Newsprint and felt-tip pens


Step 1. (10 minutes)
Explain the overall goals of the final phase of the training program and review the session objectives.

Trainer Notes

Develop your remarks based on the following general points:

* During this phase, the participants will begin to apply the knowledge, attitudes and skills acquired during the training program in a manner that demonstrates a grasp of the training philosophy and goals.

* The final phase of training serves as an opportunity for the participants to reflect upon their progress and changes and to draw together the major themes of the program in a way that integrates the learning experiences that have occurred in the past weeks. They are urged to contemplate and digest what has been learned and are encouraged to work independently and in small groups. It is intended that the participants will be guided toward the development of individual styles and approaches that will assist them during the transition from training to Peace Corps service and will serve them well during their time overseas.

* Throughout the week, the participants will utilize the cognitive and physical skills they have gained to demonstrate an understanding of potentially appropriate technologies within the context of the social, cultural, economic and health considerations that exist in developing countries.

Step 2 (15 minutes)
Post and review the schedule for Phase VI and explain its major components.

Trainer Notes

The major components of Phase VI can be outlined as follows:

1. A final Volunteer in Development assignment
2. An assessment of technical skills levels
3. The Energy Fair
4. Evaluations of both the Energy Fair and the overall training program
5. A final, written evaluation/recommendation regarding the participant's suitability for continued Peace Corps service (See Phase VI: Session 1)

Write these components on newsprint as you are explaining them.

Step 3. (15 minutes)
Distribute copies of Attachment V-20-A, "The Role of the Appropriate Community Technology Development Facilitator: A Transition to Peace Corps Service." Review it with the group and encourage questions ant comments.

Trainer Notes

In reviewing ant explaining Attachment V-20-A, you should stress the following points:

* The purpose of the assignment is to provide participants, the training staff and the in-country Peace Corps staff with a clear, thoughtful and concise description of the participant's perceptions of the role of an appropriate community technology development facilitator as it pertains to the individual jobs and country of assignment.

* Participants should share their perceptions and ideas with one another as they are completing the assignment.

* The deadline for submitting the final written assignment should be no later than the second day of Phase VI. This will enable the training staff to review them before the final interviews.

Step 4. (10 minutes)
Distribute and review Attachment V-20-B, "Skills and Knowledge Assessment Sheet."

Trainer Notes

Explain that the final assessment of technical skills levels serves:

* To provide a basis for judging the effectiveness of the training program in developing these skills by comparing it with the first assessment sheet prepared during Phase

* To provide participants, the training staff and incountry Peace Corps staff with a current assessment of specific skill levels

Mention that this assessment should be completed and turned in along with the final Volunteer in Development assignment (Role of the Appropriate Community Technology Development Facilitator)

Step 5. (15 minutes)
Present a brief introduction of the purpose and general objectives of the Energy Fair. Encourage comments, questions and discussion.

Trainer Notes

As an aid in developing this introduction, stress the following points:

* Festivals and fairs have always been important to community life. They provide a traditional time for people to gather share experiences, enjoy one another's company and learn about new happenings or innovations. In developing countries, the importance of community gatherings is apparent because festivals often serve as the focus of community activity for days -- or even months.

* The Energy Fair should be a good opportunity for participants to enjoy and learn from one another and from the larger community.

* The Energy Fair will provide participants with an opportunity to creatively demonstrate and use devices built during the training program, while emphasizing appropriate use of facilitation, communication and technical skills.

* The Energy Fair is essentially the participants' opportunity to use the "Skills for the Development Facilitator" as outlined in the manual introduction.

Step 6. (15 minutes)
Distribute and review Attachment V-20-C, "Guidelines for Planning the Energy Fair," and Attachment V-20-D, "Demonstration Guidelines." Encourage questions and discussion.

Step 7. (25 minutes)
Have the participants brainstorm a list of the major tasks involved in carrying out the Energy Fair.

Trainer Notes

Mention such general task areas as: promotion, budget control, scheduling, setting up, music, games, demonstrations, etc.

Step 8. (15 minutes)
Conclude by reviewing the session objectives and encouraging any final questions regarding the activities in Phase VI.

Trainer Notes

The evaluation of the Energy Fair and the overall program evaluation will occur on the final day of training. These activities are designed to require a volunteer facilitator from among the participants. In order to allow for sufficient preparation, select those facilitators at this time.


Present a clear, thoughtful and concise description of your perceptions concerning your role as a Peace Corps Volunteer. Include the following points for consideration:

* Your definition of appropriate community technology.
* Your understanding of the Job or project to which you have been assigned.
* The manner in which you have been prepared by this training program.
* An honest appraisal of your skills in technical, cognitive and social areas.
* The limitations you perceive in your abilities and in the potential job situation.
* The ways in which health and nutrition training may facilitate your role as a PCV and as an appropriate community technology facilitator. technology facilitator.
* Methods you will consider in order to encourage the active participation and inclusion of all community members affected by your project.
* How your job or project may contribute to improving the - quality of life of the people affected.
* Methods you plan to use for effective community involvement in the application of technologies and devices.

The description should be prepared carefully and should reflect your philosophy and current perspective on training and Peace Corps service. A copy of your paper will be given to you to take with you. It will be interesting to review it and compare it with your realities and job situation a year from now. Another copy of your paper will be sent to your in-country Peace Corps Director and will be considered as a component of your final evaluation.


Indicate your level of experience in each of the following areas.




A Lot



Use of power tools

Use of hand tools

Pedal power application

Solar water heater design

Solar water heater construction

Other (explain)

Using recycled materials

First aid or other health-related skills


Cross-cultural training or experience

Working independently

Coordinating the work of others/management

Neighborhood organizing

Coordinating meetings and facilitating


Fund raising

Experience in small business ventures

What are the three most important technical skills you would like to learn?

What are the three most important non-technical skills you would like to learn?


* All participants should participate fully in the preparation and demonstration of devices and be responsible for food, fuel, water supplies and any other necessary materials.

* Throughout the activities of the Fair, there should be an emphasis on the integration of the themes presented during training, including implications for:

1. Health
2. Participation of all community members
3. Concepts of adult learning
4. Global energy and development issues
5. Technical information transfer
6. Appropriate communication and extension skills

* Information should be available to all guests and community members.

* Music, games and food should be an integral part of the Fair.

* A schedule of events should be developed and made available to all participants and guests.

* The role of the training staff will be to provide guidance and advice. The program participants should have the opportunity to be responsible for all aspects of the Fair.

* The first three days of the final phase will be provided for planning and preparation. During this time, final evaluations and interviews will also occur.

* One of the major objectives of the Energy Fair is to provide an opportunity to competently use and demonstrate devices built during the training program while focusing on the use of appropriate facilitation skills and methods of communication.


* From CHP/Guatemala


It is very important that you have clearly in your mind the exact purpose of your demonstration. If your purpose is not clear to you, you will not be able to communicate it clearly to someone else.

The first thing you must consider in giving a demonstration is your audience. The following is a list of questions which should be considered when planning a demonstration.

1. How large is your audience?
2. Is there an optimum size?
3. What is the audience interest?
4. What is the audience age?
5. What is the audience's level of education?
6. How much does the audience know about the subject?

Key points:

7. If the subject of demonstration is new to the audience, can it be related to some experience or subject common to all?

8. Does implementing demonstration techniques involve financial or emotional risk to members of the audience?


Secondly, you should plan the procedure step by step to eliminate confusion, keep things moving smoothly, ensure correct results and, most important of all, know your subject matter.

1. You should limit the scope of the demonstration, so that it covers only one subject, can be covered well and is not so long as to lose the attention of the audience.

2. If the demonstration is part of a series of demonstrations necessary to convey a complete idea, try to include a minimum of material connecting it to succeeding demonstrations.

3. Be sure you have all the materials and implements necessary to do the demonstration. Do not rely on people to bring a necessary implement or material when they come to the demonstration. Have it ready beforehand. .

4. Will the villager have all the tools and materials necessary to implement what you have demonstrated? If not, can you help to obtain them?

5. Be sure you can handle the tools necessary for the demonstration sufficiently well to be credible.

6. How much work is needed to adequately demonstrate the process?

7. Know all technical terms necessary for the demonstration.

8. If the demonstration is new to you, do it by yourself once to be sure of steps, problems, etc.

9. Think about ways to reinforce learning (i.e., will it be necessary to work with each person who attended the demonstration on an individual basis? A repeat demonstration?

10. Think of ways to get people to come (for example, send word with school children, individual home visits, community notice).

11. You may want to keep a list of persons who attended the demonstration to help you remember who will need a follow-up visit and, if you are giving a series of demonstrations, to know who missed which demonstration.

Visual Aids

Visual aids can play an important part in a demonstration. A visual aid need not be a drawing. It can be a model, a finished product, a picture or a photo. Any visual aid used should be an integral part of the demonstration and not something which will be distracting in itself. The following are some questions to be considered when developing visual aids for a demonstration (since the meaning of ''visual aids" may differ from what you intend or to what villagers understand in their culture):

1. Does the demonstration require visual aids?
2. Can something else be used more effectively?
3. Do the aids need to be drawn?
4. Should they be drawn before or during the demonstration?
5. Is the audience acquainted with visual aids?
6. Is it simple enough to be understood?
7. Are you sure your picture conveys the message you intend in a cross-cultural situation?


If the demonstration has been carefully planned, the actual demonstration should go well.

1. Begin with a simple introduction, thanking the people for coming, particularly any community leader(s) present.

2. You may want to start the demonstration by getting the audience into a directed discussion which will lead to the realization of the need for or usefulness of that project, method or process which you are about to demonstrate. Or, if the underlying need or purpose is understood, a simple statement of the object of the demonstration should be given.

3. Explain preliminary layout of materials, tools, etc.

4. Work through steps according to your plan, explaining each step as you go. Thes is particularly important when the steps have a specific order

5. Have visual aids at hand so there will be no interruption while going to get them or taking the audience to a room to use the blackboard.

6. Ask if there are any questions after each step.

7. When you are finished, summarize the procedure.

8. Offer to help those willing to try what you have demonstrated. Set a specific date for individual help if the person shows sufficient interest.

9. Thank the people again for attending the demonstration.

A good demonstration consists of a well-defined purpose and a wetl-thought-out plan, taking into consideration the audience needs, interests, abilities and age. Careful use of visual aids can make the conveying of an idea much easier and clearer and a good plan makes things run more smoothly.