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close this bookEnvironmental Handbook Volume II: Agriculture, Mining/Energy, Trade/Industry (GTZ, 1995, 736 p.)
close this folderAgriculture
close this folder29. Forestry
View the document1. Scope
View the document2. Environmental impacts and protective measures
View the document3. Notes on the analysis and evaluation of environmental impacts
View the document4. Interaction with other sectors
View the document5. Summary assessment of environmental relevance
View the document6. References
View the documentAnnex: Glossary of selected terms

Annex: Glossary of selected terms

Basal area: Total of the trunk cross-sections of all trees in a stand exceeding a minimum diameter, given in square metres per hectare and serving as a measure of the stand density.

Biocybernetics: Subdiscipline of cybernetics (from the Greek "kybernetes", meaning "helmsman"), which describes the control and automatic regulation of interlinked, closed-loop processes with minimum energy input in biological systems

Biomass utilisation: In forestry, limited to timber utilisation in the form of full trees, i.e. stem timber including bark, leaves and branches, or whole trees, i.e. full trees plus root wood.

Biotope: The habitat occupied by an organism or community (biocoenosis) within an ecosystem, determined by physical and chemical factors

Compartment: Permanent physical unit of forest division, serving simultaneously as a unit for planning, execution and monitoring of measures.

Cost-effectiveness analysis: Comparison of operational alternatives in which the inputs are of a monetary nature but the outputs cannot be measured in monetary terms.

Ecosystem: A unit within the natural environment, consisting of a community and its habitat (biotope) and characterised by balanced cycling systems, i.e. dynamic steady states.

Management goal: Production goal for forestry operations setting out the range and order of precedence of all requirements on the part of the forest owner and/or the general public, both material (timber, non-timber products) and intangible (soil and water conservation, nature conservation, recreation). Distinctions are made between product goals, security goals and monetary goals, with times being set for their achievement.

Management goal type: Management goal for a stand or compartment.

Savannah: Form of vegetation found in the semi-humid tropics, generally between the inner humid tropics and the latitudes marking the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, consisting of grassland with scattered trees and shrubs.

Silviculture: Science of forestry production concerned with systematic creation and tending of forests so as to ensure that society's material and intangible needs can be permanently satisfied

Site: Complex of location-related - i.e. natural, economic and social - factors influencing forestry operations.

Stand: Group of trees which exhibit similar features, occupy an unbroken minimum area and all require similar silvicultural treatment.

Welfare function: Also referred to as the indirect effects or non-wood beneficial effects of a forestry operation, i.e. "production" of goods with economic relevance such as water, soil conservation and recreation.