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close this bookFOOD CHAIN No. 14 - March 1995 (ITDG, 1995, 16 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentGreetings
View the documentA mouldy old business spawns some money
View the documentTraining for the Tropics
View the documentTomato concentrate - further developments from India
View the documentSafety of street foods in Calcutta
View the documentQuality of honey for export
View the documentImproving standards of hygiene
View the documentBook Lines
View the documentQuality control and quality assurance
View the documentGhee - adding value to milk
View the documentAcknowledgments

Ghee - adding value to milk


Because of the high value added to milk by the production of ghee it was thought to be worth including for those who do not know of its production and properties. Ghee is a clear golden brown oil with a characteristic flavour of milk fat. It has a high demand for domestic use, as an ingredient for local food products (for example baking and confectionery manufacture) and as an export commodity.


The preservation of ghee depends upon the destruction of enzymes and contaminating micro-organisms by heat and its low moisture content which stops the development of the rancidity to which butter is subject under tropical conditions.


As milk is a low acid food that is very susceptible to spoilage and transfer of pathogenic bacteria to consumers, the methods used to handle milk at the dairy play an important role in determining the quality of the final product. The main hygienic requirements are:

Thorough cleaning and sterilizing (with chlorine solution or boiling water) of all equipment and utensils before and after processing (NB aluminium equipment should not be cleaned with chlorine solution).

Strict enforcement of personal hygiene measures.

· Filter milk after milking to remove visible dirt and any 'ropiness'.
· Cool milk immediately to slow down the growth of micro-organisms and enzymatic activity.

The critical quality control points in the: process are temperature control between 36 and 40°C milk before cream separation to optimize the efficiency of the separator, boiling down to the correct end point which can only be achieved through experience and efficient final filtering. Copper and iron vessels should never be used these metals speed up the development of rancidity.


· Cream separator
· Cheesecloth
· Filler
· Thermometer