|Educational Handbook for Health Personnel (WHO, 1998, 392 p.)|
|Objectives of the Handbook|
|For whom is this Educational Handbook intended?|
|How to use the Handbook|
|Identification of your needs as an educator|
|List of educational objectives|
|Theoretical background that will help you reach the educational objectives of the workshop|
|Recapitulative table of exercises proposed in the Handbook|
|Chapter 1: Priority health problems and educational objectives|
|The educational planning spiral|
|The road to relevance|
|The actors involved in activities related to health care|
|Importance of defining professional tasks|
|Selection of training goals1|
|Example of services provided by rural health units1|
|Types of educational objectives|
|General objectives: professional functions|
|Professional activities and intermediate objectives|
|Building in relevance|
|Professional tasks and specific educational objectives|
|Identifying the components of a task|
|Definition of specific educational objectives in relation to a task|
|Chapter 2: Evaluation planning|
|What is evaluation?|
|Continuous evaluation formative and certifying evaluation|
|Aims of student evaluation1|
|Common methodology for student evaluation1|
|Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of different types of test|
|Evaluation in education qualities of a measuring instrument|
|Evaluation is a matter for teamwork|
|Chapter 3: The teaching-learning concept and programme construction|
|Planning and conducting an educational programme|
|The four c's of curriculum planning|
|The purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning1|
|Teaching: a complex but challenging task|
|Why problem-based learning (PBL)?|
|The action and concept tree|
|The concept of integrated teaching|
|The concept of integrated learning|
|Planning the changes required to bring about programme reform|
|Feasibility study for the construction of an educational programme1|
|Chapter 4: Test and measurement techniques|
|Guidelines for evaluating a health personnel training programme - summary description|
|Points to consider in assessing the extent to which programme changes foster closer relationships between schools for health personnel and the wider society|
|Guidelines for evaluating general and intermediate educational objectives|
|Evaluation of learning materials|
|Evaluation of human resources1|
|Monitoring the process of implementation of the programme1|
|Evaluation by students of programmes, teaching techniques and teachers1|
|Evaluation of students' level of performance|
|Assessment of professional skills|
|Assessing attitudes by observational rating scale|
|Long and short written questions|
|The programmed examination1|
|Stages of assessment|
|Test construction specification table (for intellectual skills)|
|Relative and absolute criteria tests|
|Steps in item analysis (relative criteria tests)|
|Chapter 5: How to organize an educational workshop|
|Chapter 6: Index and glossary|
|Chapter 7: Bibliography|
This second chapter presents basic concepts in the field of educational evaluation. It stresses the very close relationship between evaluation and definition of educational objectives; and the primary role of any evaluation, which is to facilitate decision-making by those responsible for an educational system. It defines the subject, the purpose, the goals and the stages of evaluation and highlights the concepts of validity and relevance.
Those who would like to learn more about these problems should consult the following publications:
Development of educational programmes for the health professions. WHO, 1973 (Public Health Papers No. 52).
Evaluation of school performance, educational documentation and information. Bulletin of the International Bureau of Education, No. 184, third quarter 1972, 84 pages.
After having studied this chapter and the reference documents mentioned you should be able to:
1. Draw a diagram showing the relationship between evaluation and the other parts of the educational process.
2. Define the principal role of evaluation, its purpose and its aims.
3. Describe the difference between formative and certifying evaluation.
4. List the good and bad features of a test.
5. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of tests in current use.
6. Define the following terms: validity, reliability, objectivity, and describe the relationship that exists between them.
7. Choose an appropriate evaluation method (questionnaire, written examination, objective test [MCQ or short-answer questions] or essay question, oral examination, direct observation, etc.) for measuring the students' attainment of a specific educational objective. Compare the alternatives in a specification table.
8. Define (in the form of an organizational diagram) the organization of an evaluation system suitable for your establishment, and list the stages involved.
(a) the most important educational decisions you have to take;
(b) the data to be collected to provide a basis for those decisions;
(c) the aims of the system and sub-systems in terms of decisions to be taken and the object of each decision (teachers, students, programmes).
9. Identify obstacles to and strategies for improvement of a system of evaluating students, teachers and programmes.
To change curricula or instructional methods without changing examinations would achieve nothing!
Changing the examination system without changing the curriculum had a much more profound impact upon the nature of learning than changing the curriculum without altering the examination system.
1 International Medical Symposium No. 2. Rome. 23-26 March 1977.