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close this bookEducational Handbook for Health Personnel (WHO, 1998, 392 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentObjectives of the Handbook
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
View the documentFor whom is this Educational Handbook intended?
View the documentHow to use the Handbook
View the documentIdentification of your needs as an educator
View the documentList of educational objectives
View the documentTheoretical background that will help you reach the educational objectives of the workshop
View the documentRecapitulative table of exercises proposed in the Handbook
close this folderChapter 1: Priority health problems and educational objectives
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe educational planning spiral
View the documentThe road to relevance
View the documentSystem?
View the documentThe actors involved in activities related to health care
View the documentImportance of defining professional tasks
View the documentSelection of training goals1
View the documentExample of services provided by rural health units1
View the documentTypes of educational objectives
View the documentGeneral objectives: professional functions
View the documentProfessional activities and intermediate objectives
View the documentBuilding in relevance
View the documentProfessional tasks and specific educational objectives
View the documentIdentifying the components of a task
View the documentDefinition of specific educational objectives in relation to a task
close this folderChapter 2: Evaluation planning
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhat is evaluation?
View the documentContinuous evaluation formative and certifying evaluation
View the documentAims of student evaluation1
View the documentCommon methodology for student evaluation1
View the documentComparison of advantages and disadvantages of different types of test
View the documentEvaluation in education qualities of a measuring instrument
View the documentEvaluation is a matter for teamwork
close this folderChapter 3: The teaching-learning concept and programme construction
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentPlanning and conducting an educational programme
View the documentThe four c's of curriculum planning
View the documentThe purpose of teaching is to facilitate learning1
View the documentTeaching
View the documentTeaching: a complex but challenging task
View the documentTeaching techniques
View the documentWhy problem-based learning (PBL)?
View the documentThe action and concept tree
View the documentSelf-learning packages
View the documentThe concept of integrated teaching
View the documentThe concept of integrated learning
View the documentPlanning the changes required to bring about programme reform
View the documentFeasibility study for the construction of an educational programme1
View the documentSpecification tables
close this folderChapter 4: Test and measurement techniques
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentWhy evaluate?
View the documentGuidelines for evaluating a health personnel training programme - summary description
View the documentPoints to consider in assessing the extent to which programme changes foster closer relationships between schools for health personnel and the wider society
View the documentGuidelines for evaluating general and intermediate educational objectives
View the documentEvaluation of learning materials
View the documentEvaluation of human resources1
View the documentMonitoring the process of implementation of the programme1
View the documentEvaluation by students of programmes, teaching techniques and teachers1
close this folderEvaluation of students' level of performance
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAssessment of professional skills
View the documentAssessing attitudes by observational rating scale
View the documentLong and short written questions
View the documentThe programmed examination1
View the documentStages of assessment
View the documentTest construction specification table (for intellectual skills)
View the documentRelative and absolute criteria tests
View the documentSteps in item analysis (relative criteria tests)
View the documentChapter 5: How to organize an educational workshop
View the documentChapter 6: Index and glossary
View the documentChapter 7: Bibliography
View the documentBack Cover



Evaluation planning


This second chapter presents basic concepts in the field of educational evaluation. It stresses the very close relationship between evaluation and definition of educational objectives; and the primary role of any evaluation, which is to facilitate decision-making by those responsible for an educational system. It defines the subject, the purpose, the goals and the stages of evaluation and highlights the concepts of validity and relevance.

Those who would like to learn more about these problems should consult the following publications:

Development of educational programmes for the health professions. WHO, 1973 (Public Health Papers No. 52).

Evaluation of school performance, educational documentation and information. Bulletin of the International Bureau of Education, No. 184, third quarter 1972, 84 pages.

After having studied this chapter and the reference documents mentioned you should be able to:

1. Draw a diagram showing the relationship between evaluation and the other parts of the educational process.

2. Define the principal role of evaluation, its purpose and its aims.

3. Describe the difference between formative and certifying evaluation.

4. List the good and bad features of a test.

5. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of tests in current use.

6. Define the following terms: validity, reliability, objectivity, and describe the relationship that exists between them.

7. Choose an appropriate evaluation method (questionnaire, written examination, “objective” test [MCQ or short-answer questions] or essay question, oral examination, direct observation, etc.) for measuring the students' attainment of a specific educational objective. Compare the alternatives in a specification table.

8. Define (in the form of an organizational diagram) the organization of an evaluation system suitable for your establishment, and list the stages involved.


(a) the most important educational decisions you have to take;

(b) the data to be collected to provide a basis for those decisions;

(c) the aims of the system and sub-systems in terms of decisions to be taken and the object of each decision (teachers, students, programmes).

9. Identify obstacles to and strategies for improvement of a system of evaluating students, teachers and programmes.

To change curricula or instructional methods without changing examinations would achieve nothing!

Changing the examination system without changing the curriculum had a much more profound impact upon the nature of learning than changing the curriculum without altering the examination system.

G.E. Miller1


1 International Medical Symposium No. 2. Rome. 23-26 March 1977.