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close this bookWHO Information Series on School Health - Document 3 - Violence Prevention: An Important Element of a Health-promoting School (UNESCO - WHO, 1999, 61 p.)
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentFOREWORD
close this folder1. INTRODUCTION
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View the documentWhy did WHO prepare this document?
View the documentWho should read this document?
View the documentWhat is meant by ''violence''?
View the documentWhat are the causes of violence?
View the documentWhy focus efforts through schools?
View the documentHow should this document be used?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentRationale: Violence affects the well-being and learning potential of millions of children around the world
View the documentRationale: Violence is a social and economic problem for all nations
View the documentRationale: Violence is learned and therefore capable of being unlearned
View the documentRationale: Schools offer an efficient, practical and timely means to prevent and reduce violence
View the documentRationale: Evaluations of school-based violence prevention efforts show promising results
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close this folderWho is going to make this happen?
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View the documentThe School Health Team
View the documentCommunity Advisors
close this folderWhere should we start?
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderSituation Analysis
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View the documentNeeds assessment
View the documentResource assessment
View the documentData collection
close this folderCommitment needed
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View the documentPolitical acceptability
View the documentCommunity and family commitment
View the documentTeachers and school staff
View the documentYouth involvement
close this folderWhat should we do?
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View the documentGoals
View the documentObjectives
View the documentActivities
close this folderHow will we know how well we are doing?
View the documentEvaluation design and monitoring
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close this folderSchool health education
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View the documentTiming
View the documentTeaching Methods
View the documentYouth involvement
View the documentParent education
close this folderBuilding the capacity of administrators, teachers and other school staff
View the documentPre-service training
View the documentIn-service training
View the documentWhere can you look for good training?
close this folderSchool health services
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View the documentScreening/Diagnosis/Treatment
View the documentTraining for health service providers
View the documentReferral
close this folderA healthy school environment
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View the documentOverall school climate
View the documentSupportive school policies and practices
View the documentHealth promotion for school staff
View the documentPhysical environment
View the documentSafety and security
View the documentYouth development activities
View the documentSchool/community projects and outreach
View the documentCoordinating mutually reinforcing components
close this folder5. EVALUATION
View the document(introduction...)
close this folderTypes of evaluation
View the documentFormative evaluation
View the documentProcess evaluation
View the documentOutcome evaluation
View the documentANNEX 1: Declaration and Integrated Framework of Action on Education for Peace, Human Rights and Democracy
View the documentANNEX 2: Examples of educational interventions for violence prevention
View the documentANNEX 3: Examples of Grade-Specific Objectives for Violence Prevention Skills
View the documentANNEX 4: Resources to help you in your health promotion and violence prevention efforts
View the documentANNEX 5: Recommended UNESCO documents and publications for the promotion of peace and prevention of violence through schools.
View the documentREFERENCES

Why focus efforts through schools?

Violence prevention efforts that address factors at all levels will be the most successful. Schools certainly cannot control many factors that contribute to violence — military spending, arms sales, corrupt members of governments and police forces. However, the education sector can assist the network of institutions working to identify and stop the cycle of violence. Schools can address a broad range of behaviours, skills, communication patterns, attitudes and school policies and conditions that support and perpetuate violence. For example, educational programmes can challenge the cultural norms that support violent behaviour against women or ethnic/religious minorities, and teach alternative attitudes and skills which enhance the "non-violent solution of conflicts, respect for human rights, democracy, intercultural understanding, tolerance and solidarity."(8,9) They can also prevent violence from occurring on school grounds, thus providing a safe place in which students and staff can work and learn.

Specifically, this document suggests ways that schools can:

· Create public policy that promotes health. This document provides information and rationale that can be used to persuade others of the importance of violence prevention and to advocate for increased local, district and national support for violence prevention and health promotion through schools.

· Develop skills. This document identifies the skills that young people need to learn and practise in order to resolve conflict through peaceful, non-violent and socially constructive means, preferably before they face high-risk situations and before many drop out of school.

· Reorient health services. This document describes how schools can enhance access to screening, diagnostic, treatment and counselling services either within the school or through referrals to community services for those suffering physical or psychological trauma from violence.

· Develop supportive environments. This document describes simple, low-cost changes that schools can make to improve their physical and psychosocial environments and create an atmosphere that supports violence prevention.

· Mobilise community action. Recognising the interdependence of school and community, this document identifies ways the school can interact with community members, parents and local services to reinforce violence prevention initiatives, and to support and guide young people in all realms of their lives.

In implementing these suggestions, schools take essential steps toward becoming a Health-Promoting School.