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close this bookThe Global Greenhouse Regime. Who Pays? (UNU, 1993, 382 p.)
View the documentList of contributors
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderPart I Measuring responsibility
close this folder1 Introduction
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe greenhouse effect
View the documentWhat was decided at Rio?
View the documentProtocol negotiating difficulties
View the documentKey issues for climate change negotiations
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close this folder2 The basics of greenhouse gas indices
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View the documentApples and oranges
View the documentImplications
View the documentConclusion: indices do matter
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close this folder3 Assessing emissions: five approaches compared
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentComprehensiveness compared
View the documentAccuracy by category
View the documentRegional and national emissions by source
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View the documentAppendix A: Estimates of greenhouse gas emissions
View the documentAppendix B: Calculating cumulative and current emissions
close this folder4 Who pays (to solve the problem and how much)?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIndices of allocation: a brief review
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View the documentEquity and efficiency
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close this folderPart II Resource transfers
close this folder5 North-South carbon abatement costs
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View the documentClimate change convention
View the documentMethod overview
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close this folder6 North-South transfer
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View the documentObligation to pay indices
View the documentRedistribution of incremental cost
View the documentBenchmarks
View the documentUN scale of payments
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close this folder7 Insuring against sea level rise
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View the documentInsurability of losses
View the documentOil pollution
View the documentNuclear damage
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View the documentThe insurance scheme proposed by AOSIS
View the documentThe Climate Change Convention
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View the documentAppendix: Scheme proposed by AOSIS for inclusion in the Climate Change Convention
close this folderPart III National greenhouse gas reduction cost curves
close this folder8 Integrating ecology and economy in India
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentEmissions inventory
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close this folder9 Carbon abatement potential in West Africa
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close this folder10 Abatement of carbon dioxide emissions in Brazil
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close this folder11 Thailand's demand side management initiative: a practical response to global warming
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View the documentEnd-use energy efficiency policies
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close this folder12 Carbon abatement in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
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close this folder13 Greenhouse gas emission abatement in Australia
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View the documentCarbon taxes, externalities and other policy instruments
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close this folderPart IV Conclusion
close this folder14 Constructing a global greenhouse regime
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View the documentConditionality and additionality
View the documentTechnology transfer
View the documentMulti-pronged approach
View the documentImplementation procedures
View the documentRegional building blocks
View the documentNorth-'South' conflicts
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close this folderAppendix: The Climate change convention
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentBackground
View the documentClimate change convention
View the documentArticle 1. Definitions
View the documentArticle 2. Objective
View the documentArticle 3. Principles
View the documentArticle 4 Commitments
View the documentArticle 5. Research and systematic observation
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View the documentArticle 7. Conference of the Parties
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View the documentArticle 9. Subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice
View the documentArticle 10. Subsidiary Body for implementation
View the documentArticle 11. Financial mechanism
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View the documentArticle 13. Resolution of questions regarding implementation
View the documentArticle 14. Settlement of disputes
View the documentArticle 15. Amendments to the Convention
View the documentArticle 16. Adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention
View the documentArticle 17. Protocols
View the documentArticle 18. Right to vote
View the documentArticle 19. Depositary
View the documentArticle 20. Signature
View the documentArticle 21. Interim arrangements
View the documentArticle 22. Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
View the documentArticle 23. Entry into force
View the documentArticle 24. Reservations
View the documentArticle 25. Withdrawal
View the documentArticle 26. Authentic texts

Appendix B: Calculating cumulative and current emissions

This Appendix summarizes the sources and methods used for calculating emissions listed above.

Cumulative CO2, energy

Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion between 1860 and 1986 rely on Marland et al. (1988) for the 1950-1986 period, and Subak and Clark (1990) for emissions between 1860 and 1949. The cumulative estimates do not take into account the proportion of trace gas removed from the atmosphere. Energy consumption data used in Subak and Clark (1990) are based on Mitchell's (1981, 1982, and 1983) International Historical Statistics series. Global emissions factors were derived from Marland et al. (1988) and weighted by carbon density estimates by nation published in the United Nations 1986 Energy Statistics Yearbook (1988). In cases where political borders have changed since 1860, emissions were assigned to countries based on estimated energy use share. For example, fossil fuel consumption in the Indian States was assigned as follows: India, 80 per cent; Pakistan, 15 per cent; and Bangladesh, 5 per cent.

Cumulative CO2, energy and biota

Emissions of CO2 between 1860 and 1986 are based on the fossil fuel data set described above and the Richards et al. (1983) database on CO2 release from forest conversion to agricultural purposes. The Richards et al. data set for the 1860-1978 period is based on historical agricultural censuses and FAO land use surveys completed in 1950. To update the database to 1986, we used the FAO 1986 Production Yearbook (FAO 1987). As forest conversion to non-agricultural uses was not included, this database is not intended to be a comprehensive survey of CO2 emissions from land use changes.

Current CO2, energy

Current CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion are calculated at the Stockholm Environment Institute (don Hippel et al. 1992) based on 1988 energy consumption data published by the OECD/IEA, (1990a, 1990b). Carbon dioxide emissions from oil flaring were taken from the Marland et al (1990) compendium. As in the cumulative CO2 inventories, emissions from renewables, that is, fuelwood, are assumed to be in a steady-state, with no net CO2 emissions.

Partial CH4 and CO2

Methane emissions from coal mining are derived from ICF (1990b) and natural gas transportation and distribution from OECD/IEA, (1990a, 1990b) CO2 release from deforestation is based on land clearing estimates from FAO (1990), Fearnside et al. (1990), FAO (1988b) and Myers (1989), biomass levels by Brown et al. (1989) and carbon soil emission rates by Houghton (1991). Afforestation rates are primarily from ECE/FAO (1985) and FAO (1988b). The landfill CH4 source is based on a methodology outlined by Bingemer and Crutzen (1987) and waste generation, landfilling and waste composition information is compiled from disparate sources.

The current emissions are expressed in CO2 equivalent units, which compare the relative warming contribution of the trace gases. The CO2 equivalents are based on each trace gas Global Warming Potential (GWP), an index that includes the immediate radiative effect of the gases and the potential warming effect over the time the trace gas resides in the atmosphere. The GWP used in this study is calculated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and corresponds to a 100 year time horizon.

Comprehensive emissions

To estimate methane emissions from livestock production, emission factors (Crutzen et al. 1986) were applied to FAO livestock population estimates (1990b), and Casada and Safely's (1990) study of CH4 release from animals wastes was used. Methane emissions from rice cultivation are derived from emission factors (Schuetz et al. 1989) and rice cultivation area (FAO 1990b). Emissions of N2O from fertilizer consumption was calculated using the mid-range of Eichner's (1990) emission factors and data from the FAO Fertilizer Yearbook (1988a). Halocarbon emissions were calculated using ICF's (1990) methodology for converting from UNEP's (1990) production figures to emissions. Release of CO2 from cement manufacturing was derived using emission factors from Marland et al. 1988. Biomass burning estimates were taken from Crutzen and Andreae (1990), and adjusted to avoid double counting with the fuelwood and deforestation emissions.