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close this bookThe Global Greenhouse Regime. Who Pays? (UNU, 1993, 382 p.)
View the documentList of contributors
View the documentPreface
View the documentAcknowledgements
close this folderPart I Measuring responsibility
close this folder1 Introduction
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentThe greenhouse effect
View the documentWhat was decided at Rio?
View the documentProtocol negotiating difficulties
View the documentKey issues for climate change negotiations
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close this folder2 The basics of greenhouse gas indices
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View the documentApples and oranges
View the documentImplications
View the documentConclusion: indices do matter
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close this folder3 Assessing emissions: five approaches compared
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentComprehensiveness compared
View the documentAccuracy by category
View the documentRegional and national emissions by source
View the documentConclusions
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View the documentAppendix A: Estimates of greenhouse gas emissions
View the documentAppendix B: Calculating cumulative and current emissions
close this folder4 Who pays (to solve the problem and how much)?
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIndices of allocation: a brief review
View the documentAccountability
View the documentEquity and efficiency
View the documentConclusion
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close this folderPart II Resource transfers
close this folder5 North-South carbon abatement costs
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentClimate change convention
View the documentMethod overview
View the documentImplications for the South
View the documentNotes and references
close this folder6 North-South transfer
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentObligation to pay indices
View the documentRedistribution of incremental cost
View the documentBenchmarks
View the documentUN scale of payments
View the documentFinancing mechanisms
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes and references
close this folder7 Insuring against sea level rise
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentInsurability of losses
View the documentOil pollution
View the documentNuclear damage
View the documentImplications
View the documentThe insurance scheme proposed by AOSIS
View the documentThe Climate Change Convention
View the documentNotes and references
View the documentAppendix: Scheme proposed by AOSIS for inclusion in the Climate Change Convention
close this folderPart III National greenhouse gas reduction cost curves
close this folder8 Integrating ecology and economy in India
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentEmissions inventory
View the documentEnergy efficiency and fuel substitution
View the documentEmissions and sequestration from forest biomass
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close this folder9 Carbon abatement potential in West Africa
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentLong-term energy and carbon emissions scenarios
View the documentOptions for rational energy use and carbon conservation
View the documentEconomic opportunities for implementation
View the documentPolicy issues for the region
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close this folder10 Abatement of carbon dioxide emissions in Brazil
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View the documentBrazil energy economy
View the documentEnergy subsector analyses
View the documentChanging land-use trends
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close this folder11 Thailand's demand side management initiative: a practical response to global warming
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View the documentIntroduction
View the documentEnd-use energy efficiency policies
View the documentCosts and benefits of the DSM master plan
View the documentCO2 reductions from the DSM Plan
View the documentWhy should other developing countries adopt DSM?
View the documentThe role of the multilateral development banks
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close this folder12 Carbon abatement in Central and Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States
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View the documentEnergy-environment nexus
View the documentScenarios for the future
View the documentCountry results
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close this folder13 Greenhouse gas emission abatement in Australia
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentAbatement of energy sector emissions
View the documentEconomic impact of abatement strategies
View the documentNon-energy emission abatement
View the documentAustralia's international role
View the documentCarbon taxes, externalities and other policy instruments
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close this folderPart IV Conclusion
close this folder14 Constructing a global greenhouse regime
View the document(introduction...)
View the documentConditionality and additionality
View the documentTechnology transfer
View the documentMulti-pronged approach
View the documentImplementation procedures
View the documentRegional building blocks
View the documentNorth-'South' conflicts
View the documentConclusion
View the documentNotes and references
close this folderAppendix: The Climate change convention
View the documentIntroduction
View the documentBackground
View the documentClimate change convention
View the documentArticle 1. Definitions
View the documentArticle 2. Objective
View the documentArticle 3. Principles
View the documentArticle 4 Commitments
View the documentArticle 5. Research and systematic observation
View the documentArticle 6. Education, training and public awareness
View the documentArticle 7. Conference of the Parties
View the documentArticle 8. Secretariat
View the documentArticle 9. Subsidiary body for scientific and technological advice
View the documentArticle 10. Subsidiary Body for implementation
View the documentArticle 11. Financial mechanism
View the documentArticle 12. Communication of information related to implementation
View the documentArticle 13. Resolution of questions regarding implementation
View the documentArticle 14. Settlement of disputes
View the documentArticle 15. Amendments to the Convention
View the documentArticle 16. Adoption and amendment of annexes to the Convention
View the documentArticle 17. Protocols
View the documentArticle 18. Right to vote
View the documentArticle 19. Depositary
View the documentArticle 20. Signature
View the documentArticle 21. Interim arrangements
View the documentArticle 22. Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
View the documentArticle 23. Entry into force
View the documentArticle 24. Reservations
View the documentArticle 25. Withdrawal
View the documentArticle 26. Authentic texts

(introduction...)

Conditionality and additionality
Technology transfer
Multi-pronged approach
Implementation procedures
Regional building blocks
North-'South' conflicts
Conclusion
Notes and references

Peter Hayes

The construction of a resilient, global greenhouse gas regime requires that state elites share a consensus as to common values and norms of behaviour; submit their respective states to observe the rules and procedures of the regime; and participate in the institutional arrangements established under the regime.

The signing of the Climate Change Convention is prima facie evidence that most national leaders agree that the global climate system must be conserved and restored, and that it must be used rationally in ways that are compatible with ecological imperatives. The rest of the interlocking elements of the regime have been left largely unspecified. Some analysts believe that states so hedged their commitments under the Convention that it merely maintains 'polluter sovereignty' and is so vague as to be almost meaningless.

I am less pessimistic, however. I am convinced that a fully fledged regime can be constructed that will achieve the goals of the Climate Change Convention. Achieving this goal will first and foremost mean activating the norms implicit in the Convention as to mutual reciprocity between, and differential responsibilities of, the rich and poor nations. Specifically, the articles on financial assistance and technology transfer (see Chapter 1) must be elaborated in protocols and implemented.

Donors may place conditions on financial transfers to the South to abate greenhouse gases. In this chapter, I outline the contrary positions held by potential parties to a Climate Change Convention on conditionality and additionality of resources for greenhouse projects in developing countries. The biggest likely demand on resources provided by the North to the South will be to fund technology transfer.

The desirability and even the meaning of technology transfer are contentious, however. I outline two important positions that have emerged in debates on this topic before turning to three aspects of multi-pronged technology transfer strategy for greenhouse gas reduction. These are: cost reduction; technical assistance and training; and information dissemination and transnational research collaboration.

For these commitments to be implemented, parties will require confidence that other beneficiaries under the Convention are not cheating. Procedures must be established to monitor and to verify compliance with convention commitments along with mechanisms to resolve disputes and to enforce compliance.

Transferral of financial resources and technologies on a scale envisaged in this study would transform North-South political-economic relations. I conclude by asking whether 'geoecological' issues such as climate change may strengthen the South's bargaining position in its geopolitical and geoeconomic relationships with the North. My answer to this question is only a qualified 'possibly'. Nonetheless a global greenhouse regime may succeed for three reasons:

1 the likelihood of continued technological innovation and associated reduction in the cost of emissions abatement;
2 the contribution of science on comprehension of the greenhouse effect;
3 the influence of social movements on governmental policy.