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close this bookGATE - 3/91 - Impact - A Neglected Dimension of AT (GTZ GATE, 1991, 52 p.)
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Unconventional Water Detection

"Unconventional Water Detection-Field Test of the Dowsing Technique in Dry Zones with Cristalline Rock Basement" is the title of a book to be published by GTZ in German language at the end of this year. GATE intends to elaborate an English edition if your demands show an important interest in the dowsing technique. In this case please write to GATE.

The report presents new insight into an unconventional variant of locating water reserves which relies on utilization of water dowsing. It is for good reasons that the effectiveness of this working method is disputed; in the mean time, however, extensive field examinations have shown - in line with reliable historic accounts - that a few, carefully selected dowsers may well be able to detect with surprising accuracy of aim both faults, fissures and fractures in areas with, say, crystalline or limestone bed-rock.

Based on this technique a number of GTZ projects in dry zones could be carried out with unexpectedly high rates of success. In particular, in thinly populated areas it was possible to locate a large number of relatively small underground aquifers and to drill wells right at the places of demand, whereby yields were low but sufficient for hand-pump operation throughout the year. Without excessive efforts conventional techniques would not have allowed to find a sufficient number of the existing, relatively small fracture zones.

The significance of the exploited method was tested under various aspects. On the one hand, project areas with different geological characteristics were chosen, on the other hand the relevant circumstances and project results were carefully examined by geology experts. Up to date, highly critical considerations of all possible objections and ways of counter-argumentation did not yield a conventional explanation for the persistent success of the dowsing technique - an outcome which was corroborated by a number of well designed control experiments and comparative tests. The trend of the reported findings is in accordance with evidence gathered from recent scientific research which has been carried out, for example, by a Swedish geological institution and by a university cooperation in Munich.

Provided that certain conditions are met, collected evidence leads to the conclusion that the dowsing technique is a variant of ground water prospection which should be taken serious. Present experience confirms that the effectiveness to locate subsurface water for certain hydrogeological situations can be raised significantly when conventionally operating teams make additional use of appropriately tested and selected dowsers in order to pinpoint drilling spots. Along these lines a model of integration is discussed and proposed for future use which has already been tentatively tested in some of the presented GTZ projects.

The described and partially remarkable success rates allow to design specific future tests which may contribute to a scientific clarification of the dowsing phenomenon. Simultaneously, useful transfer of practical knowledge in water resources development becomes feasible. Finally, the problem might be of importance to bionics; continued handling of these matters may lead to the development of powerful new or improved technical devices which represent a simulation of the demonstrated performance of dowsers, whatever explanation lies behind. M

Micro Pelton Turbine Project

Under its micro-hydropower project GATE has financed the compilation of a manuscript for a manual on the layout, design, manufacture and installation of very small, locally built Pelton turbine installations. The author of the book is Marcus Eisenring, a well-known small hydropower engineer. SKAT, the Swiss Center for Appropriate Technology, a member of the MiniHydroPowerGroup (MHPG), is responsible for the layout, printing and publication of the book. The book will be available from SKAT and GATE towards the end of 1991.

In a second phase of the project, it is proposed to install three to four pilot plants. SKAT would like to contact organizations, workshops or other institutions or individuals planning to install small Pelton turbine plants. They should produce the equipment themselves and should be prepared to collaborate closely with SKAT on a pilot installation in 1992 or later.

For further information please contact:

Hydropower Section
TigerbergstraBe 2
CH-9000 St. Gallen

For the Price of a Stamp

GATE Question-and-Answer Service

The lack of access to technical information can be one of the main reasons for unsatisfactory development.

GATE'S Question-and-Answer Service offers individuals, groups and institutions technical information and advice free of charge.

Our proposals and ideas should be appropriate for the environment in which they are to be used, so we need precise and detailed information from you about the problem in hand.

Drop us a line - we'll answer!

GATE = German

is financed by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany, which means that for you the service is absolutely free.

Postfach 5180
D- 6236 Eschborn 1

to put your problems to us. . .

Pour le prix d'un timbre

Le Service Questions-Responses du GATE
L' acces insuffisant aux informations techniques constitue souvent le principal obstacle au developpement.

Le Service Questions-Responses du GATE offre a titre gracieux des informations et un service-conseil sur des questions techniques aux personnes privees, a des groupes et a des institutions interesses.

Ecrivez nous, vous repondrons!

GATE = German

est finance par le gouvernement de la Republique federale et peut donc vous offrir ses services gratuitement.

Adresse: GATE

Postfach 5180
6236 Eschborn
Republique federale d'Allemagne

Por el precio de una estampilla!

GATE Servicio de Consulta

La falta de acceso a informaciones de tipo tecnico puede ser una razon primordial de un desarrollo insuficiente.

El Servicio de Consulta de GATE ofrece a particulares, grupos e instituciones informacion y asesoramiento gratuitos en el sector tecnologico.

Dado que nuestras propuestas y sugerencias deben ser compatibles con las condiciones generales del entorno, es imprescindible que nos proporcione datos precisos acerca de su problema.

Escribanos! Nosotros daremos respuesta a su pregunta.

GATE = German

es decir, el Centro Aleman para Tecnologias Apropiades, es financiado por el Gobierno de la Republica Federal de Alemania, por lo cual sus servicios no acarrean costo alguno para los solicitantes.


Postfach 5180
6236 Eschborn
Repuplica Federal Alemania

Institutional Development in Environment (IDE)

From 18 to 20. 3. 91, GATE/GTZ held an international seminar in New Delhi on the topic of Institutional Development in Environment (IDE). Experts were invited from developing countries - decision-makers and practitioners from international governmental and non-governmental institutions - to discuss the topic as seen by the "South". Special emphasis was placed on debating the following questions:

· What are the chief problem areas of and constraints to the development of environmental institutions?

· What can and should donors do to promote IDE in developing countries?

· Which actors are involved in the IDE process?

Conclusions reached by the seminar include the following:

· IDE requires an open attitude and an awareness of the need for comprehensive environmental protection at all levels of society.

· The practical realization of IDE necessitates a change in the existing relationships between donors and recipients. In this context, donors should concentrate primarily on the initiation of the process and on the provision of periodic support to assist the process.

· IDE requires the participation of a number of institutions and actors; the processes of coordination must involve national and local NGOs, private-sector organizations and informal groups.

· IDE is a culture-specific process, for which there are no generally applicable solutions or models.

Proceedings in English will be available from GATE as of October 1991.

German development scene

Development Aid Concerns Society as a Whole

On the occasion of this year's Spring Meeting of the World Bank Development Assistance Committee, Carl-Dieter Spranger, the German Federal Minister for Economic Cooperation, reviewed the first 100 days of his term of office, stating that they had focussed on drawing up the key programmes for development policy for the coming four years. Mr. Spranger stressed the high priority to be given to development policy even in the future. The crux in coming years will be to successfully match tried and tested approaches with the new challenges of development policy, in continuity with the development policy guidelines of the German Federal Government.

He continued: "A country can only achieve growth and prosperity when domestic political, economic and social conditions are appropriate. The greater the progress made by a developing country along the road to a free, market-oriented economic order, to political stability, to democracy and respect for human rights, the greater chance it has to assure socially balanced developments and effective poverty alleviation through its own resources. For if the state suppresses the development of self-initiative, development aid from outside has little chance to impact. We will give priority assistance to those countries striving to create such conditions conducive to development.

Development policy is a policy for peace. Development aid cannot replace political solutions. In the optimal case it can only provide short term relief to the impacts of armed conflicts. From those demanding our solidarity in development cooperation we also expect solidarity in preserving peace. The expediency of developing countries' expenditures on armaments will therefore be taken into account in our decision-making on future cooperation. We are aware that developing countries also have legitimate security interests and close attention must be paid to a country's particular defence policy situation and the region in which it is placed.

Long-term priorities

Global challenges are increasingly profiling German development policy priorities in the long term:

Poverty alleviation

Combatting poverty in developing countries will continue to be a key priority area of German development aid in the coming decade.

· This means securing the food basis

· This continues to mean special efforts in promoting private initiative

· An important task of cooperation is therefore to alleviate poverty by helping people to help themselves

· In combatting the causes of poverty, particular attention must be paid to controlling population growth which in many developing countries is a major factor hindering social and economic progress, and also leading to over-exploitation of natural resources.


Alleviating poverty also means: stepping up investments in human resources. Education is the chief capital asset. Basic education for the masses is a decisive precondition for development. High priority must be given to this sector.

Environmental protection

Development policy will form an integral part of international cooperation to overcome global challenges in the nineties - international environmental protection is particularly significant in this context. Worldwide environmental problems will shape international cooperation in the coming years.

Protecting the earth's atmosphere and avoiding climatic damage can only be achieved through world-wide cooperation between industrialized and developing nations. This task presents a special challenge for the financial and technological resources of industrialized nations.

The first all-German development aid budget clearly indicates: unified Germany continues to be a reliable partner for the Third World.

1991 Budget

Despite the strained financial situation, we have raised funding for the Third World again in 1991. The total volume of just under DM 855 billion is an increase of 7.9% compared to 1990's budget - an increase for above the average rate for the overall German Federal budget. Compared to the development aid contributions of the former Federal Republic of Germany and the former German Democratic Republic in 1990, the rate of increase still amounts to 3%.

The budget also proves that our development aid policy is shaped by integration into the international donor community and by global challenges which also require multilateral answers. Over 30 % of funding is for multilateral assistance. The largest items are contributions to the European Development Fund amounting to DM 855 billion, participation in the International Development Organization of the World Bank amounting to almost DM 928 million, over 100 million to the African Development Bank and its Development Fund. And for the first time the development aid budget plan No.23 also contains Germany's contribution to the World Bank's new global environment facility.

Focus on internal conditions

I have already mentioned the importance of internal conditions for effective development aid. The various general work units within the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation (BMZ) have developed indicators on the basis of the findings of a report by the scientific council, designed to assist in integrating the political and sociocultural framework conditions in the given partner country as criteria for planning the scope, form and content of future development cooperation. The indicators are being tested as to their applicability together with the implementing organizations. These approaches have been incorporated into planning for the current year wherever possible.

We must take care not to relieve developing countries' budgets through measures in the welfare sector, for example, whilst at the same time those countries are spending excessive amounts on armaments. Taking account of unjustifiably high expenditures on armaments as a criterion for allocating aid funds is a very important theme in my work. . .


Over the past weeks we have defined the objectives for each of the above key areas - poverty alleviation, promotion of education and conservation of the environment, we have stipulated the steps necessary to achieve these goals and issued directives to initiate the appropriate action.

Poverty alleviation:

· The goals are, for example, to raise the proportion of self-help oriented poverty alleviation measures in bilateral aid and to mobilize the productive forces via private-sector structures.

· Together with non-governmental development organizations - the participation of church organizations was particularly intensive- the Federal Government has drawn up a strategy for alleviating poverty through help towards self help and started its implementation.

· The goal is to reduce the imbalance between the demographic figures and the resource base. We want to strengthen our assistance to Third World countries in designing, financing and applying effective population strategies and programmes. We have therefore drawn up a concept to promote population policies and family planning programmes.

· In order to implement this concept it has been decided to strive for a 100% increase in funding allocations for bilateral cooperation in this area.


· The goal is to raise educational assistance as a whole and particularly contributions in the field of basic education.

· In particularly disadvantaged countries such as in the Sahel, for example, where the State is becoming increasingly unable to guarantee basic education for the population, development aid will continue to also assist basic education via financial cooperation in the long term, although still for a defined period.

· Basic training and upgrading will continue to be major elements of German development aid. Vocational training focussing on the dual system will be maintained and developed as the key approach in this sector. We are also examining the potential for training and consultancy services to support people working in the informal sector.

· Funding allocations for vocational training and upgrading measures have been raised from DM 134 to 195 million in 1991 - also due to the assumption of training and upgrading obligations already entered into by the former GDR. We intend to maintain this allocation for the coming years.

The environmental sector:

· The aims are, for example, to continue developing the tropical forest programme of the Federal Government and intensify cooperation with German environmental associations. The large percentage of environmental projects - making up 20 % of bilateral Technical Cooperation projects in 1990 planning - will be consolidated.

· We will continue to provide soIidarity and support to developing countries in their efforts to ensure environmentally sound development.

· Environmental impact assessments continue to be a major decision-making basis for all projects -even in other sectors.

· In addition to bilateral and multilateral measures to protect and conserve tropical rain forests we will intensify efforts to upgrade environmental authorities in developing countries and to assist in drawing up and applying national independent environmental policies."

The BMZ Minister Mr. Spranger's speech stressed that development aid is not just an issue for the state but also for the community as a whole. He mentioned in this context the, as he put it, exemplary commitment by the churches, non-governmental organizations and political foundations.

International development scene

Family Planning Targets Critical for Development and Survival
The cost of meeting international targets in fertility and family planning will double in the next ten years - but the costs of missing them will be far higher, says this year's State of World Population Report from UNFPA/United Nations Population Fund.

"Reaching the targets will be critical for development - and even human survival - in the next century", says the Report.

The target is to increase the number of couples in developing countries using modern, voluntary family planning methods from 381 million in 1990 to 567 million by the end of the century, a net increase of about 50 per cent. The actual number of men and women choosing to plan their families for the first time or moving from one method of contraception to another will be about 2 billion.

Reaching the target will raise the proportion using modern contraceptive methods from 51 per cent to 59 per cent of married women of reproductive age in developing countries. The Report describes this as a "realistic" and "modest" target, but with "profound implications for programmes and policies". It was first adopted in 1989 by the International Forum on Population in the 21st Century, and is reflected in the International Development Strategy for the fourth United Nations Development Decade.

Providing these services will increase the cost of population programmes from $4.5 billion (thousand million) in 1990 to $9 billion annually by the year 2000. The bulk of resources for population programmes are found by developing countries themselves. Total development assistance for population is about $675 million. The Report envisages that international assistance will rise to $4.5 billion (including $ 1 billion from UNFPA) with $3.5 billion from governments in developing countries and $1 billion from users.

Reaching more people: Television gives opportunities to give family planning message in an entertaining way. Many countries have devised soap-operas, minidramas, jingles and slogans to reach increasing numbers of people the world over.
Illustration: Clive Offley. UNFPA State of World Population Report 1991.

The targets are based on the United Nations "medium" or "most likely" projection for future population growth. Keeping on this track implies that world population will rise from 5.4 billion in mid-1991 to 6.4 billion in 2001 and 8.5 billion in 2025. This last figure has just been revised upwards by 38 million, "a small but significant increase," according to the Report.

Projections for the more distant future may have to be revised drastically. Expectations that population would stabilize at about 10.2 billion in about 2075 are being questioned; some analysts suggest that 10 billion may be reached by 2050, and that population growth will continue for a century after that, leveling off at about 11.6 billion. Such possibilities "underscore the need for action," says the Report.

"The urgency of meeting the targets is further underscored by the extent of urban growth; the extent of environmental damage; the impending food crisis in many developing countries, the extent of infant and maternal mortality; the number of girls out of school; the continuing low status of women; and the mounting pressures of migration within and between countries," says the Report.

Signs of hope

There are signs of hope, according to the Report. "Compared with any previous generation women are saying that they want fewer children; although actual fertility is much higher than 'wanted' fertility in many countries, it is now falling in all regions of the developing world. In some countries it has fallen very rapidly. The voluntary use of contraception in developing countries has grown from 10 per cent of couples in the 1960s to 51 per cent today."

The Report points out the importance of strong programmes: "The experience of the last 20 years shows that strong, well-managed family planning programmes are highly effective. By purely voluntary means, they have achieved smaller family size, healthier mothers and children and more balanced rates of population growth in developing countries in many different parts of the world and in a wide variety of social and economic settings."

But, the Report warns, "Family planning is far more than merely contraception. It is part of an environment in which everyone has opportunities and choices. Building these opportunities begins at birth, and depends among other things on the position of girls and women in their societies. Higher status for women brings more ability to choose; where the choice is available, women will take advantage of it.

Better family planning programmes are not the responsibility of one group of countries or individuals, the Report concludes. "As an essential part of the mechanism of development, responsibility for family planning belongs to everyone. The future depends on it."

UN Information Service

For companies seeking partners in developing countries, TIPS (Technological Information Pilot System) is the vehicle to assist them. An information service of the United Nations Development Programme designed to expand technology and trade transactions of developing countries, TIPS offer daily bulletins in different sectors, and a query service to match supply and demand.

The sectors covered are agro-industries, biotechnology, building materials, business opportunities, chemicals, electronics, energy, fisheries, food processing, machinery, mining, packaging, pharmaceuticals and textiles.

TIPS maintains a database containing more than 35 000 records of South offers and requests. Its national offices, which are in daily contact with companies, are based in countries that represent more than two-thirds of the population of developing countries. Thus, TIPS open a window to a very large market.

Firms wishing to have their requirements registered in its database and featured in the bulletins can get in touch with the nearest TIPS office or

Via Panispera 203
Rome 00184, Italy
Phone: 482-6967
Fax: 4828838

CTA and Documentary Microcomputing

As part of its mission to train the agricultural information services of the ACP states, CTA organizes introductory courses in documentary microcomputing.

These courses consist of two stages: first, an introduction to the basics of microcomputing, and second, practice in the use of agricultural databases. Between the two stages each participant works individually on a project relevant to his or her particular needs, using the skills and knowledge acquired in stage one.

The main aim of these courses is to give agricultural information and documentation staff a basic knowledge of documentary computing, sufficient for them to master the essentials of computerized documentation, so that they can use, and add to, agricultural databases.

The first-level courses were held last year in Bordeaux (France) with the help of the Ecole Internationale for the French-speakers and at Lilongwe, Malawi, for the English-speakers in conjunction with SACCAR and the University of Botswana. The second level courses will be held during the second half of 1991 in Senegal and Botswana.


Congress on Medicinal Plants

A congress on medicinal plants is to be held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, from 4 to 6 October 1991. It is being organized by CETAAR (Center for the Study of Appropriate Technology of Argentina).
CETAAR has been working on the recovery of popular knowledge of medicinal plants since 1985, in order to promote their correct use and application in primary health care.

For further information please contact

Casilla de Correa 80
1727 - Marcos Paz
Buenos Aires

Training Course on Energy Management

From 7 October to 8 November 1991 the University of Twente and the International Institute for Management (both in The Netherlands) will be holding a joint training course on energy management. The course has been run every year since 1987.

The five-week course, which is designed primarily for managers of small and medium-scale industries (SMI), will cover the following main areas:

· analysis of the role of energy in production processes in relation to economic viability and environmental effects;

· availability and acquisition of energy, and the modes of energy supply;

· analysis of choice of fuels, conversion equipment and machinery;

· formulation of policy options and strategies for energy in SMI.

For further information please contact:

Course Administrator
Mrs. Ir. G. L. Stassen-te Velde
Technology and Development Group
University of Twente
P.O. Box 217
NL-7500 AE Enschede
The Netherlands

Third International Seminar on Management of Information Related to Water and the Environment

This seminar will be held at the Royal Museum for Central Africa in Trevuren, near Brussels, Belgium, on 14 and 15 November 1991.

It is being organized within the framework of the UNESCO International Hydrological Programme (UNESCO-IMP) in collaboration with the Belgian National Committee for the International Hydrological Programme (BNCIHP).

For further information please contact

Secretariat Seminar
W.W. de Mes
Rapporteur, UNESCO-IMP
Loevestein 27
NL-2403 JC Alphen a/d Rijn
The Netherlands
Tel. office: (+ 31) 2510-95415
Tel. home: (+ 31) 1720-45223
Fax: (+ 31) 1720-74935

"Bibliographic Information on Development"

The Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex (UK) will be holding another seminar on "Bibliographic Information on Development" from 24 August to 11/12 September 1992.

Further information on this IDS course is available from:

The Chairman, Teaching Area, Institute of Development Studies at the University of Sussex Falmer, Brighton BN1 9RE
Tel.: (+ 44) 273 606261
Fax: (+ 44) 273 678420
Telex: 877997 IDSBTN G